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Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry or known as PJD, is an English-language scientific periodicals published by the Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran thrice a year on every March, July and November. The submission process of manuscript is open throughout the year. All submitted manuscripts will go through the double-blind peer review and editorial review before being granted with acceptance for publication. Designed as a medium of information and scientific knowledge, Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry publishes numerous research articles, in the area of Oral Biology, Dental Material Science and Technology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pedodontics, Dental Public Health and Community Dentistry, Conservative Dentistry, Periodontics, Prosthodontics, Orthodontics, Oral Medicine, Dental Radiology, as well as with their development through interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach. Initially published as Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry (PJD) magazine ISSN 1979-0201(print) on 2007 in form of printed issues. In 2017, the magazine had its online published version under the same with ISSN 2549-6212 (online) in accordance with the policy of LIPI. Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry has been using Open Journal System requiring all writers to register in advance before they are allowed to upload the manuscript they write online. Afterwards, the editors, peer reviewers, and writers can monitor the manuscript processing. Several other changes are informed in the Journal History.
Articles
290
Articles
Antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale roscoe extract as a potential root canal irrigation solution against Enterococcus faecalis

Azhar, Rodiyah, Julianti, Elin, Natasasmita, Setiawan, Dharsono, Hendra Dian Adhita

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: This study was aimed to determine and formulate antibacterial activity of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (Z. officinale) extract against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as a potential irrigating solution which is easily available and cost-effective. Methods:  Extract of Z. officinale Roscoe was yielded through soxhlet technique. Samples divided into two groups, i.e., the extract of Z. officinale Roscoe and chlorhexidine 2% as a control. The antimicrobial activity was observed using the diffuse agar method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by serial microdilution method, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by cultured samples in blood agar. Data were analysed using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe has antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis with the MBC of 15.625 mg/mL. (p<0,05). Conclusion: Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe have shown antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and can be further developed as a potential root canal irrigation solution.

The effect of musa acuminata stem in increasing macrophage and neovascular cells of healing process

Apriasari, Maharani Laillyza, Puspitasari, Dewi, Rahayu, Retno Pudji, Ernawati, Diah Savitri

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: Musa acuminata stem has both of imunostimulatory and imunosuppressant effects that are influenced by their concentrations. The study aimed to analyze the effect of Mauli banana stem extract (EMBS) to increase the number of macrophage and neovascular cells in traumatic ulcer healing. Methods: Rattus norvegicus of male Wistar strain  were used  as model of traumatic ulcer. The left buccal mucous was biopsied, then used the histopathology method to find the number of macrophage and neovascular cells. Results: EMBS gel was effected when administered at a concentration of 37.5% because it significantly increased the number of macrophage and neovascular cells in traumatic ulcer healing on the 3rd day to 5th days. Conclusion:  It can be concluded that EMBS within concentration of 37.5% can accelerate ulcer healing through the increasing  number of macrophage and neovascular cells.

Optimized steps in determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) standards on diagnostic of lipid peroxidation

Fauziah, Prima Nanda, Maskoen, Ani Melani, Yuliati, Tri, Widiarsih, Erlina

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: Lipid peroxidation, one of the known indices of oxidative stress, is documented in various diseases. Secondary oxidation products such as malondialdehyde (MDA) is commonly measured to observe lipid peroxidation. In this study, a spectrophotometric method was evaluated to measure thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with high sensitivity. This study was aimed to optimisation standard of MDA using tetraethoxypropane (TEP) 97% (FW=220.3). Methods: The method is based upon the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. MDA is a known biomarker of oxidative status in a biological system. This research consists of two phases: first, making a stock of TEP, and the second phase was testing the concentration of TEP for finding the standard curve of MDA before used in diagnostic of lipid peroxidation. Results: Result showed the concentration 1,875-60 uM of TEP could form a precise standard curve. Conclusion: This concentration of TEP can be used as a reference as the standard of control in diagnostic of lipid peroxidation using TBARS method.

Hardness evaluation of dental composites fabricated from the uniform size and well-distributed zirconia-alumina-silica fillers with sol-gel technique

Hakim, Muhammad Lukman Nur, Hasratiningsih, Zulia, Djustiana, Nina, Sunendar, Bambang, Faza, Yanwar

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: Several factor limits of services of dental composite have triggered further improvement. ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 system as filler of dental composite had been developed with sol-gel technique. Ultrasonic homogeniser were reported to change the particle size ditribution or shape. Unifom size and distribution of particle is believed to help define the behavior of hardness properties. Methods: The study was an laboratory experimental design. Filler ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 system were developed via sol-gel methods. Post calcination process, filler were immerse in ethanol and applied with ultrasonic homogeniser, with various amplitude i.e 50 rpm, 60 rpm and 80 rpm then named sample A, B, and C. XRD, SEM anda PSA were used to characterize of filler system. Subsequent filler were used to fabricate dental composite then evaluate the hardness value using micro-hardness tester. One–way ANOVA was used to analysis the statistical result of hardness value. Results: XRD pattern of three sample were similar in which tetragonal zirconia was prominent (57-61 %) followed by monoclinic zirconia (24-25%) and amorphous (15-17 %). While, SEM and PSA characterization showed amplitude 50 rpm (sample A) produce more uniform size and well-distributed particle filler than the others. In contrary, sample B and C showed higher peak in PSA results. It means there was dominating of filler with particular size.  However, the hardness value did not show significant differences between those filler (p>0,05). Conclusion: Dental composite that contain of different uniformity and distribution of filler ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 system has no significantly differences of hardness value.

Bacterial inhibition test of methanolic extracts of strawberry (Fragraia x ananassa Duchesne), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and radish (Raphanus sativus L.), towards Streptococcus Sanguis ATCC 10556

Anggraini, Fitri, Satari, Mieke Hemiawati, Mariam, Marry Siti

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: Caries are initiated by the plaque formation on the tooth surface, due to the interaction between food debris and bacteria in the mouth. The pioneer bacterium of plaque formation is Streptococcus sanguis. The  Strawberry fruit, lime fruit, and radish root are part of the plant that contains antibacterial substances. Flavonoid, tannin, saponin, alkaloid, polyphenol, terpenoid and quinon as antibacterial substances. This study aimed to evaluate strawberry fruit, lime fruit, and radish root methanol extract can inhibit Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556. Therefore, strawberry, lime, and radish can be made into mouthwash, bubble gum, or toothpaste to prevent plaque formation. Methods: This study used a Kirby-Bauer diffusion test as the inhibition test. Results: The result of this study that the biggest inhibition zone was lime methanol extract 20,000 ppm, and the smallest one was radish methanol extract 5,000 ppm.  Conclusion: Strawberry fruit, lime fruit peel, and radish root methanol extract and their combination had the effect of inhibiting bacterial growth synergistically against Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556.

Relationship between quality and utilisation of oral health service in Community Health Centers of Padang City

Darma, Azri, Oenzil, Fadil, Hidayati, Hidayati

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: Increasing incidence of oral diseases have not been balanced by the utilisation of oral health care units available, especially at the level of basic services such as Community Health Centers (Puskemas).  This study was aimed to determine the relationship between the quality and the utilisation of health services in Community Health Centers of Padang City. Methods: This study was a survey research with cross-sectional design, Samples have been taken using a random  sampling with total samples of 131 respondents, and statistical analysis used was the chi square test. The independent variable was the service  quality in terms of the patients satisfactionory dimensions, while the dependent variable was utilisation of the oral health services with categories of community health centers that were averagely visited < 9 times daily and ≥ 9 times daily. Results: There was a significant  relationship (p-value < 0.05) between several satisfaction dimensions variables (a wide parking area; hygienic park; assessment of dental health that always performed by the dentists; a friendly services by the counter clerks; and the dentists willingness to listen to the patients complaints), and the utilisation of the oral health service in Community Health Centers of Padang City. Conclusion: Most patients are satisfied with the quality of oral health service in Community Health Centers of Padang City. The visitation and utilisation rate of the patients, however, are not affected significantly by most of their satisfactory dimensions, except for five dimensions which were, wide parking area, garbage-free parking area, assessment of dental health that always performed by the dentists, a friendly services by the counter clerks, and the dentists willingness to listen to the patients complaints.

Setting time evaluation of injectable carbonate apatite cement using various sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC) concentration

Cahyanto, Arief, Permatasari, Indah, Febrida, Renny

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: The injectable calcium phosphate cement has the advantage to be used in the bone defect with the limited access which supports a minimally invasive surgical technique. These Injectability properties of calcium phosphate cement can be modified by adding a sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC). The aim of this present study is to investigate the setting time of injectable bone cement based on CO3Ap using various Na CMC concentration. Methods: Vaterite (a polymorph of CaCO3) and Dicalcium Phosphate Anhydrous (DCPA) as powder phase mixed with 0.2 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution containing 1% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and various concentration of Na CMC as followed 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%, respectively. Each concentration groups was consisting of 5 samples from total 20 samples. Powder and liquid phase was mixed with a spatula at a liquid to powder (L/P) ratio of 0.4. The setting time of CO3Ap cement was evaluated according to the modification method standardized by ISO 1566 for dental zinc phosphate cement using a custom fabricated Vicat needle apparatus. The cement was maintained at 37ºC and 100% relative humidity as a standard requirement. Results: The mean value of setting time cement was as followed 0.5% Na CMC 35:06 minutes, 1% Na CMC 38:48 minutes, 1.5% Na CMC 40:06 minutes, and 2% Na CMC 41:30 minutes. The result is statistically significant (p<0.05) with the group of 0.5% Na CMC compared to others group. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of Na CMC could prolong the setting time of CO3Ap cement.

Penetration capability of three different light curing units to composite-resin as measured by radiometer

Hartman, Henri

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: Composite-resin is widely used as a restorative material in dental practice on a daily basis when it comes to an aesthetic consideration. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the light penetration capabilities of three light curing units (LCU) through layers of composite resin using a radiometer.  Method: Composites resin discs (2mm thick with 8 mm diameter) were cured out of seven different shades. Each specimen were used as a barrier, and a light source from three different LCUS was then applied through it. The radiometer was used to record the intensities of each LCU. Result: LED.C (Woodpecker™) has the lowest penetration capabilities to pass through the barrier compared to all LCU. The output intensity (mW/cm2) of all LCU has decreased gradually. ANOVA test showed that there was the significant result (p<0.01) for each specimen. Conclusion: The differences composite-resin shade could decrease the penetration capability of LCU.

Correlation between mandibular length and third molar maturation based on their radiography appearances

Pramatika, Berty, Azhari, Azhari, Epsilawati, Lusi

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: Growth and development is a dynamic process that is influenced by many factors, this is why children of the same age do not have the same growth rate, therefore growth can not  be evaluated only by chronological age, but also by maturation skeletal and dental. Previous research has shown a strong relationship between mandibular length and Cervical Vertebral Maturation (CVM). The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between mandibular length and mandibular third molar maturation using panoramic radiograph. Methods: This research is an observational analytic cross sectional study. Total 412 panoramic radiographs of 207 male and 205 female aged 9-25 years were evaluated. The mandibular length measured from the point of condylion (Co) to menton (Me). M3 maturation of the mandible was evaluated by Demirjian methods. Results: Spearman non-parametric correlation was used for analysis. A strong correlation was found between mandibular length and third molar development (in males: r=0.705 on the right side and are=0.729 on the left side; in females: are=0.755 on the right side and are=0.707 on the left side) Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between mandibular length and mandibular third molar maturation in both male and female.

Relationship between the clinical assessment of maxillary and mandibular complete denture stability and denture-bearing area towards the patient’s satisfaction level

Ritonga, Putri Welda Utami, Prabakaran, Luveena Loshini

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

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Abstract

Introduction: The dentist’s evaluation of complete denture often differs from the patient’s evaluation. Dentists are more prioritising the clinical aspects of the dentures, such as vertical dimension, aesthetical, stability, and denture-bearing area, while patients are more prioritising their satisfaction based on aspects such as aesthetical, mastication, comfort, and phonetic ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the stability of maxillary and mandibular denture-bearing area towards the complete denture patient’s satisfaction level. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling as the sampling method. The sample of this study was as much as 30 complete denture patient. The patients were interviewed using a questionnaire in each of the patient’s house, to obtain a more honest patient’s satisfaction assessment on the dentures, without being affected by any clinical environment and assessment. The interview was conducted before the clinical evaluation was performed. The statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher’s test. The stability of the denture-bearing area was evaluated clinically. Mastication ability and patient’s comfort were evaluated using a questionnaire. Result: A significant relationship was found between the stability of maxillary denture-bearing area towards mastication (p = 0.012), and the stability of mandibular denture-bearing area towards mastication (p = 0.029); while no significant relationship was found between the stability of maxillary denture-bearing area towards the patient’s comfort (p = 0,051), and the stability of mandibular denture-bearing area towards the patient’s comfort (p = 0,547). Conclusion: There was a relationship between the  stability of maxillary and mandibular denture-bearing area towards the patient’s masticatory satisfaction level. However, the relationship between the  stability of maxillary and mandibular denture-bearing area towards the patient’s comfort was not found.