Science and Technology Indonesia
Published by ARTS Publishing
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An international Peer-review journal in the field of science and technology published by The Indonesian Science and Technology Society. Science and Technology Indonesia is a member of Crossref with DOI prefix number: 10.26554/sti. Science and Technology Indonesia publishes quarterly (January, April, July, October). Science and Technology Indonesia is an international scholarly journal on the field of science and technology aimed to publish a high-quality scientific paper including original research papers, reviews, short communication, and technical notes. This journal welcomes the submission of articles that covers a typical subject of natural science and technology such as: > Chemistry > Biology > Physics > Marine Science > Pharmacy > Chemical Engineering > Environmental Science and Engineering > Computational Engineering > Biotechnology Journal Commencement: October 2016
Articles
62
Articles
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Dried Oscillatoria Splendida in Aqueous Solution

Mohadi, Risfidian, Setiawan, Doni, Zulkifli, Hilda

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

Kinetic and thermodynamic adsorption study of Cr(VI) ion in aqueous solutions by dried Oscillatoria Splendida biomass was investigated in the batch system. The Oscillatoria Splendida was isolated and cultured from algae swamp ecosystem in South Sumatera. The adsorption properties of Cr(VI) onto dried Oscillatoria Splendida biomass was studied by the influences of contact time, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration and temperature of reaction. The experimental results were the rate of adsorption followed the second-order kinetic model with the rate of reaction k2 is 0.00181 mg g-1 min-1 and the adsorption thermodynamic agree to the Langmuir’s model with amount of  Cr(VI) removed from aqueous solution increased with increasing  Cr(VI) concentration with the higher adsorption energy was 8.46 kJ/mol at 50 °C.

Adsorption of Copper from aqueous solution by chitosan using molecular imprinting technology

Azizkhani, Sepehr, Mahmoudi, Ebrahim, Emami, Arefeh, Hussain, Siti Aslina, Mohammad, Abdul Wahab

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

In nature chitosan is a plentiful polymer with high heavy metal ion uptake capacity due to chitosan’s functional groups that chelate with the positive surfaces of heavy metal ions. In this study, epichlorohydrin was used as a crosslink to prepare the copper-imprinted chitosan as a pattern to enable the selectivity property and increase adsorption capacity. The effects of the cross-linker, PH, initial concentration and time were examined in this study to identify the optimum amount of each to remove copper metal ions from waste water by imprinted chitosan. This composite was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) test to determine the existence of copper ions in chitosan crosslinked with epichlorohydrin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests were also done to compare the surfaces of crosslinked chitosan and the removal of copper by imprinted chitosan. PH adsorption was tested from 3 to 7 and the initial concentration and time investigated were between 10 and 100 mg/l and 0 and 120 minutes respectively. The maximum capacity to adsorb was found to be at PH 7, initial concentration of 100mg/l at 90 minutes with 0.1 gr chitosan. Ultimately, the maximum adsorbent amount achieved for effective Cu(II) removal was 74.37 mg/g.

A Adsorbent of Chitosan Linked by Methylene Bridge and Schiff Base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl Ether –vanillin : Synthesis, Characterization and Its Application After Reacted by Zn(II) Ion as Antibacterial Agent

Fatoni, Ahmad, Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati, Hermansyah, Hermansyah, Lesbani, Aldes

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

The synthesis chitosan linked by methylene bridge-Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin (modified chitosan adsorbent) has been studied. The aims of this research were modification of chitosan with Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin and formaldehyde and its application as antibacterial agent after used as an adsorbent of Zn(II) ion. Characterization of modified chitosan adsorbent was conducted using FTIR spectroscopy. Process of adsorption were conducted at  0.15 g of modified chitosan adsorbent reacted by concentration of Zn(II) ion solution (pH 6, 150 mg/L, 50 mL), contact time at 150 min. and  at room temperature (280C). Modified chitosan adsorbent after reacted by Zn(II) ion solution as antibacterial agent with paper disk method. The result showed that chitosan can be modified with Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin and formaldehyde to form chitosan linked methylene bridge and Schiff base of 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-vanillin. Antibacterial of chitosan and modified chitosan adsorbent were higher than modified chitosan adsorbent after reacted by Zn(II) ion. Keywords : modified chitosan, antibacterial agent

On the Infinitely Divisible of Meixner Distribution

Devianto, Dodi, Herli, Jayanti, Maiyastri, Maiyastri, Safitri, Rahma Diana

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

The log-returns of most financial data show a significant leptokurtosis. For the better fit we showed a special levy process which is called the Meixner process. The Meixner distribution belongs to the class of infinitely divisible distribution chracterized by using characteristic function and it was proposed as a model for represented efficiently of the log-returns of financial data. The perfect fit of underlying Meixner distribution performing by using goodness of fit test.

The Characteristic Function Property of Mixture Negative Binomial-Exponential Distribution

Devianto, Dodi, Sarah, Sarah, Kumala, Siska Dwi, Maiyastri, Maiyastri

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

This paper introduces a new distribution by mixing the negative binomial distribution and exponential distribution namely negative binomial-exponential (NB-E) distribution. In is given the probability distribution function of NB-E distribution and its characteristic function by using Fourier-Stieltjes transform. In addition we present the some properties of characteristic function from NB-E distribution.

Fabrication of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) by Using Emulsion Method as an Alternative Material For Vehicle Bumper Protector

Wardhani, Puteri Kusuma, Padmi T, Nur, Nasir, Subriyer, Wardhani, Puteri Kusuma

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

Research on Fabrication of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) by Using Emulsion Method as an Alternative Material For Vehicle Bumper Protector aims to produce of the thermoplastic elastomers by emulsion method with variation of composition ratio of polypropylene grafting and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA)(mL) : latex (mL) : glycerin, to have strong tensile strength results according to British Plastic Federation standard 0.5 – 2.4 (N/mm2) standard for bumper material elongation maximum of 22.62%. Emulsion method was used as sample preparation which is grafting polypropylene (PP) with Maleate Anhydride (MA) then continued with PP-g-MA Emulsion Making and Natural Rubber Latex Density. The observation technique of the test is done by FTIR PP-g-MA analysis, stability test, TPE visual analysis, TPE surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) tool and TPE tensile strength test. The results of FTIR analysis is that the samples closest to the carbonyl value of C = O with the highest absorption were without glycerine samples 1703.48 cm-1 with the absorption of 94.84% and carbonyl C-O 1219 cm-1 with the absorption of 95.19%. The stability testing of density values reaches the standard of the Plastic Federation of 0.91 - 1.30 g/mL, for samples having the highest and stable density values up to the seventh day of observation is a sample of PP-g-MA: Latex (75:25) which is 1.059 g/mL. In the SEM test on the PP-g-MA sample: Latex (75:25) with a average diameter pores size of 1.408 μm and the smallest diameter pore size of 0.728 μm. The highest value of tensile strength occurred in the sample with the comparison of PP-g-MA: Latex (75:25) 1,175 N/mm2 and a maximum elongation of 22.62%.

Potential of Anabaena Azollae Extract as Antimicrobial Agent For Paddy Crop Disease

Gofar, Nuni, Diana, Andi, Setianingsih, Eka

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

The research objective was to test antimicrobial activity from compound produced by A. azollae which symbiosis with Azolla sp. toward microbial test of X. oryzae and Pyricularia oryzae as cause of disease on paddy crop. Sampling of Azolla which symbiosis with A. azollae was done in Azolla cultivation pond at Faculty of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University. The available Azolla was consisted of two types, i.e. Azolla pinnata and Azolla mycrophiylla. The extraction of A. azollae from Azolla leaves was done by method of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) using ethyl ester solvent and maseration method using methanol solvent. Test media for bacteria and fungus respectively are Mueller Hilton Agar (MHA) and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The diameter of produced clear zone is an indication of extract’s inhibitory power toward bacteria or fungus. The different of inhibitory zone diameter is compared by using t-test. Analysis of active compounds on Anabaena azollae extract was done by using HPLC. Ethyl acetate or methanol extract of A. azollae which symbiosis with A. pinnata or A. microphylla was capable to inhibit the growth of X. oryzae bacterium and P. oryzae fungus. The dominant compounds containing within extract with probability more than 60% and area of more than 10% are consisted of phytol, hexadecanoate acid and 2-(tert-butyl)-4,6-dimethyl phenol.

On the Influence of Enso And IOD on Rainfall Variability Over The Musi Basin, South Sumatra

Mardiansyah, Wijaya, Setiabudidaya, Dedi, Khakim, M. Yusup Nur, Yustian, Indra, Dahlan, Zulkifli, Iskandar, Iskhaq

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

The southern Sumatera region experiences one rainy season and one dry season in a year associated with seasonal change in monsoonal winds. The peak of rainy season is occurring in November-December-January during the northwest monsoon season, while the dry season comes in June-July-August during the southeast monsoon season. This study is designed to evaluate possible influence of the coupled ocean-atmospheric modes in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, namely the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on the rainfall variability over the catchment area of the Music Basin, South Sumatera. The ENSO and IOD occurrences were reflected by the variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean, respectively. During El Niño and/or positive IOD episode, negative SST anomalies cover the eastern tropical Indian Ocean and western tropical Pacific including the Indonesian seas, leading to suppress convective activities that result in reduce precipitation over the maritime continent. The situation is reversed during La Niña and/or negative IOD event. The results revealed that the high topography area (e.g. Bukit Barisan) was shown to be instrumental to the pattern of rainfall variability. During the 2010 negative IOD co-occurring with La Niña event, the rainfall was significantly increase over the region. This excess rainfall was associated with warm SST anomaly over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean and the Indonesian seas. On the other hand, extreme drought event tends to occur during the 2015 positive IOD simultaneously with the occurrence of the El Niño events Investigation on the SST patterns revealed that cold SST anomalies covered the Indonesian seas during the peak phase of the 2015 positive IOD and El Niño event.

Adsorption of Cobalt (II) on Layered Double Hydroxides (Mg/Al and Ca/Al) In Aqueous Medium : Kinetic and Thermodynamic Aspect

Palapa, Neza Rahayu, Taher, Tarmizi, Said, Muhammad, Mohadi, Risfidian, Lesbani, Aldes

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

Layered double hydroxides Mg/Al and Ca/Al has been synthesized by co-precipitation method with molar ratio M2+:M3+ (3:1) at pH 10. The synthesized materials were characterized by XRD and FTIR. The materials were used as adsorbent for the removal Cobalt (II) in aqueous solution. The adsorption experiments were studied through some variables adsorption such as variation of contact time, variation of temperature and variation of initial concentration. Kinetic parameters was obtained from variation of contact time. Data was analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models in linear analyses. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process more fitted by pseudo-second-order than pseudo-first-order based on coefficient correlation. Isotherm parameters was calculated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic.

Characterization and Optimization of Capryol-90, Polysorbate-80, And Peg-400 Proportion in Mefenamic Acid Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) With Simplex-Lattice-Design

Mardiyanto, Mardiyanto, Fithri, Najma Annuria, Tandry, Martina

Science and Technology Indonesia Vol 3 No 4 (2018): October
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Abstract

Mefenamic acid as pain relief drug belongs to the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II which is practically insoluble in water causing extremely low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract. The self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) is a new innovation pharmaceutical dosage form that has effectively known to increase solubilization of hydrophobic drug in polar solvent. In this study the capryol-90 was selected as oil phase in SNEDDS as it showed maximal solubility of mefenamic acid (20 mg/mL). Combination of polysorbate-80 and PEG-400 as a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipient were used as surfactant and co-surfactant in SNEDDS due to its high HLB property that can increase mefenamic acid solubility in water. The ternary phase diagram of capryol-90, polysorbate-80, and PEG-400 was constructed in advance to obtain the component concentration of spontaneous nanoemulsion region. Model simplex-lattice-design cooperated in Design-Expert®10 was used to define SNEDDS mefenamic acid formula. Optimized mefenamic acid SNEDDS formula consisted of 20% capryol-90, 31.62% polysorbate-80, and 48.38% PEG-400. Characterization study of Optimized mefenamic acid SNEDDS formula showed improvement of drug content (102.820 ± 4.950)%, emulsification time (421.015 ± 1.290) second, and viscosity (0.927 ± 0.017) mm2/s 30oC. One way ANOVA statistical analysis result of optimal formula SNEDDS (105.210 ± 4.425)% of drug content, commercial generic caplet (0.917 ± 0.094)%, and mefenamic acid powder capsule (10.446 ± 0,333)% gave significant value (sig*) below than 0.05. Optimal formula proved that SNEDDS can significantly increase mefenamic acid dissolution of pH 7.4 (ileum fluid). The optimal formula of mefenamic acid SNEDDS successfully formed an uniformity droplet size (PDI 0.18) with mean size 241.9 nm and  the surface charge has a value of -16.5 mV respectively.