ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia
Published by Universitas Hasanuddin
ISSN : 25279313     EISSN : 25489747
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia (Etnosia) diterbitkan 2 kali setahun (Juni & Desember) dengan tujuan untuk mengembangkan ilmu antropologi sosial dan budaya di Indonesia. Redaksi mengandung para penulis untuk mengirimkan artikel yang termasuk dalam kriteria hasil penelitian etnografi pada kelimpok tertentu, hasil peneltiian terapan di bidang antropologi, teori/metodologi dalam ilmu antropologi atau ilmu-ilmu sosial lainnya, dan tinjuan buku terhadap buku teks antropologi atau ilmu sosial lainnya. Jurnal ini menggunakan system peer review dalam pemilihan naskah yang akan diterbitkan. Kriteria dari artikel yang dikirimkan mencakup jenis artikel berikut ini: Artikel ini menyajikan hasil penelitian etnografis / kualitatif dalam topik tertentu dan terkait dengan kelompok etnis / sosial di Indonesia; Artikel ini adalah diskusi yang terinci mengenai penelitian terapan dan kolaboratif dengan keterlibatan kuat antara penulis dan subjek kolaborator dalam menerapkan program intervensi atau inisiatif pembangunan lainnya yang menekankan pada isu-isu sosial, politik, dan budaya; Sebuah tulisan teoretis yang menguraikan teori sosial dan budaya yang terkait dengan wacana teoretis antropologi, terutama antropologi Indonesia; Terakhir, artikel tersebut merupakan tinjauan kritis terhadap referensi antropologi dan buku etnografi lainnya yang harus diterbitkan setidaknya dalam 3 tahun terakhir.
Articles 39 Documents
Kembalinya Barata Kulisusu: Kebangkitan Identitas Kelompok Bangsawan Kulisusu Dalam Proses Pemekaran Kabupaten Buton Utara

Nurlin, Nurlin

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol. 1 No.1 Juni 2016
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Abstract

AbstractThe expansion of a new autonomous region (DOB) not only provides an arena for reproductivepower of local elites, such as politicians, senior bureaucrats and businessmen, but also providesan access for the adatleaders to reaffirm the symbol of power attached to their heritablenobility. This article aims to explain the process of reproductive powers of Kulisusu aristocraticin the expansion process of North Buton regency. The reproduction of identity and power ofKalisusu royalty in the expansion process of North Buton begun since adat leaders got involvedin the expansion of political activities in order to legitimize the emergence of North Butonidentity. To legitimize North Buton identity, adat leaders are supported by the claims that theyhave genealogical relationship with their ancestors, the founders of Kalisusu royal nobility. Theinvolvement of adat leaders is, in fact, not on their own initiative, but by the expansion agents.However, the involvment of adat leaders have precisely giventhem a space for reproductivepower in a new autonomous regions, North Buton. It shows how the reproduction of identity isclosely associated with theirfuture interests. The study also found that the return of the rule ofKulisusu aristocratic into a new contestation isaimed to find the foundation of original Kalisusuadat.Keywords: identity reproduction, power, barata, contestation, autonomous.

Dari Masa Lalu ke Masa Kini: Memori Kolektif, Konstruksi Negara dan Normalisasi Anti-Komunis

Munsi, Hardiyanti

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol. 1 No.1 Juni 2016
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Abstract

AbstractThis article is focused on how the incident of G30S/PKI has left atrauma to the state and how the state deals with it in the era afterwards. It show that such incident is constructed by the state that PKI is the enemy of the state and threathens the sovereignity of the state ideology, and this is embedded to shape a collective memory. This has been used to construct and to normalize the anti-communist movement in Indonesia through various strategies by, for example, the establishment of Monumen Pancasila Sakti, the suppression of communist movement, the military recruitment, and a variety of doctrines in the military education. These aim to construct a united understanding about the incident of G30S/PKI and to normalize the anti-communist discourse in Indonesia. Keywords: Collective memory, PKI, G30S/PKI, TNI, state, construction, anti-communist,normalization

Relasi Agama, Magi Dan Sains Dalam Pentas Politik: Studi Kasus Bunda - Sang Penasehat Spiritual

Hadisaputra, Hadisaputra -

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol. 1 No.1 Juni 2016
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Abstract

AbstractModern political institutions that glorifies scientific approaches still open a space formetaphysical ones. In a political competition, science institutionalize itself through politicalsurvey and consultant, and metaphysical aspect ispersonified by spiritual counselors.Thisarticle focuses on the practices of a political spiritual councelor in South Sulawesi, namedBunda. Thesuccessful of Bunda in her practice as a spiritual counselor in the modern eracannot be separated from her ability to to integrate between religion, magi and science. Thisis performed by combining between the aspects of religion and magi, such as zikir ritual (zikirmappateppe’, zikir hajat, and zikir ‘sapu mata’), animal sacrificing, and employing MajelisZikir and orphasn for the zikir; and science aspect can be seen from the zikir package withmeasurable operational costs which can be varied depending on the social status of thecandidate and the number of votes needed.The costs of zikir package vary, and each has itsown consequencewhich is informed to candidate in advance.Key Words: spiritual councelor, candidate, zikir, magi, science, vote, religion.

Budaya Bertoilet: Duduk atau Jongkok?

Martosenjoyo, Triyatni

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol. 1 No.1 Juni 2016
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Abstract

AbstractPublic toilet is one of the important parts of the building that many aspects of design have to be  taken into account to build. Many public  toilets are built just by looking at the outer performance without considering whether or not the target user will fit with the design. This article deals with this. It examines how toilet is perceived by the users, what type of toilet is preferred and why, and how they utilize public toilet. The interaction between western and eastern culture in the toiletdesign has resulted in cultural shock and stuttering technology among the toilet users in regard to the use of toilet because the influx of western culture is not balance with the introduction of the new culture. Whether one chooses squatting or sitting toilet, it is not only related to universal issues about modernity, luxury, cleanliness, and health. Toilet is not solely function as a disposal waste container, but it is also a place for one to seclude him/herself from others, to relax and to create new ideas. Toilet is a symbol to show ones’ identity. But how one use the toilet is closely associated with one’s perception about toilet, gender, health, cleanliness, Islamic ethics, and body proportion. Key words: toilet, sitting toilet, squatting toilet, modernity.

‘Sekolah Lapang Petani’: Membangun Komitmen, Disiplin dan Kretivitas Petani Melalui SLP-PHT

Lampe, Munsi

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol. 1 No.1 Juni 2016
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Abstract

AbstractAlthough the Green Revolution in Indonesia has shown an increase in theagriculturalproduction, a rapid marginalisation process among the farmers has taken place simultaneously.This article aims to identify the role of Sekolah Lapang Petani (Farmer Field School), which isone of the programs conducted byPengelolaan Hama Terpadu (Integrated Pest Management,IPM). This program is conducted by the government in response to the negative impacts of theGreen Revolution that is consideredto be responsible in deteriorating the local knowledge andthe local wisdom techniques, the power of creative-innovation and the freedom of the farmers.This study was conducted in two different sites in South Sulawesi, namely: Manjalling Village(Gowa) and Soreang Village (Maros). Our informants are those who joined SLP-PHT programin the two locations. They consistof 17 farmers; 5 of them are from Manjalling, while rests arefrom Soreang. We triangulate, in-depth interview, observation, life history, and focus groupdiscussion (FGD) as our data collection methods.The results showed that the implementation of SLP-PHT program in Manjallingand Soreanghas played an important role in the application process of the local knowledge and the farmers’creative-innovative development in agricultural, such as productive, righteousness, adaptive,and environmentally friendly.Keywords: farmer field school, creativity, innovative, plant fertilizer and medicine.

‘Feels (Not) Like At Home’: Perlakuan di Lapas, Interaksi Sosial dan Harapan Pengguna Narkoba Mantan Narapidana

Riskiyani, Shanti

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol. 1 No.1 Juni 2016
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Abstract

AbstractThe estimation of HIV prevalence among prisoners is 24 times higher than that of the generalpopulation in Indonesia. This high HIV prevalence in a number of prison in Indonesia is caused bythe many drug users who become prisoners (Kemenhukham2010). The existence of HarmReductionprogram in Indonesia plays a significant role in the success of the reduction in the risk ofHIV transmission through injecting among drug users. This article is focused on thesocialinteraction experienced by drug users when they are sentenced and after serving a sentence.Despite the fact that Ditjenpas declares that prisoners are entitled to obtain appropriate treatment,most drug users, particularly injecting drug users, feel that they are treated differently from otherprisoners as well as warden due to their drug users status, especially when they access healthservices. Thus, they end up learning helplessly because of their prisoner status. Drug users preferto be isolated from other non-drug user prisoners since the interaction with the latter has giventhem a chance ‘to learn’ about other kinds of criminals. Interaction among drug users themselvesis relatively fine, and they share ‘sense of togetherness’ and ‘sense of belongingness’ led to theirsecurity in the prison. But this is not the case between drug users and non-drug use prisoners. Thelatter tends to stigmatize. Family support when they are sentenced and after serving a sentence ishighly expected because family plays a significant role to help them dealing with their addictionandthe effort to get out from drug use vicious circle, particularly for their healthcare. Manysupport by their family, others are neglected. But, family can also be the one who supports theirdrug using habit in the secure atmosphere (named home) to secure family shame. When theyrelease from prison, many expect to be accepted as other members of the society and are includedin surrounding social activities. Others prefer to be socially neglected because they perceive thatothers concern potentially lead to social stigmaKeywords: drugs, ex-convict, social interaction, HIV, prisoners.

Mana’ dan Éanan: Tongkonan, Harta Tongkonan, Harta Warisan, dan Kontribusi Ritual di Masyarakat Toraja

Idrus, Nurul Ilmi

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol.1 No.2 Desember 2016
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Abstract

Toraja shares traditions with other ethnic groups in South Sulawesi, but Toraja has its own uniqueness, primarily related to tongkonan, which is not only  as physical manifestation—House (banua) and its ‘content’ (harta tongkonan), but it is also a venue for family gathering of the tongkonan members, a house-society and a source of property. This article is focused on inheritance system among Torajanese, it examines how individual property is inherited as well as how communal property is managed and benefitted by its members. Property, for Torajanese, compose of individual property (éanan) and communal property (mana’ tongkonan) which refers to property own by members of tongkonan from one pa’rapuang—ramage traced a first ancestor who founded a Tongkonan House. While individual property can be inherited to children, communal property cannot, it can only be maintained, managed, and benefitted from among members of tongkonan, though in practice there are some violation of such norms, and any violation is always associated with their ancestor. Since tongkonan is a source of property, this may also become a source of conflict among members of tongkonan, especially for prosperous tongkonan and in terms of who is eligible to manage tongkonan and its property (to ma’kampai tongkonan). A Torajanese may become a member of more than one tongkonan because of bilateral kinship system. But, since contribution towards tongkonan (maintenance and rituals) is costly and time-consuming, one should decide in which tongkonan he/she becomes the ‘core’ or the ‘common’ member. Despite the fact that the philosophy of inheritance sharing of individual property is mabbagé rata, various grounds may be taken into account which makes a difference between siblings in a nuclear family. I argue in this article that both the right to éanan and mana’ tongkonan are related to one’s contribution in different respect.

Review Buku: ‘Membaca’ dan ‘Dibaca’ Secara Polyglot: Gender, Seksualitas dan Perkawinan di Masyarakat Bugis

Rahman, Alwi -

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol.1 No.2 Desember 2016
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Abstract

Seksualitas dan praktik perkawinan etnik Bugis, oleh penulisnya, dimulai oleh percakapan ringkas tentang cara mendudukkan kebudayaan. Meski sebagai gambit tulisan, percakapan ringkas ini menemukan kebenaran pendakuan Amos Bronson Alcott Ralph bahwa ‘conversation is feminine’. Bukan karena buku ini memang tentang seksualitas perempuan, tetapi melalui gambit ini literasi perempuan Bugis dimulai. Percakapan pendek-pendek—yang diperlakukan sebagai ragam kutipan—dapat temukan di sepanjang buku ini. Percakapan seperti ini akan menciptakan siklus dalam diri pembaca: menyimak, bernalar, dan mengikuti argumen penulisnya.Literasi terhadap seksualitas dan perkawinan perempuan Bugis, sejauh ini, tak banyak ditulis secara akademis. Kalau pun ada, biasanya penulisnya ‘datang dari luar’. Penulis seperti ini tak lebih dari ‘pembaca kebudayaan’. Padahal, literasi terhadap perempuan sejatinya diartikan sebagai ‘aksi kebudayaan’ untuk ‘membaca-dan-dibaca’.Seksualitas dan perkawinan Bugis boleh ‘dibaca’ secara akademis, tetapi pada saat bersamaan, di karya akademis sebagaimana ditulis oleh Nurul Ilmi Idrus, perempuan tak kehilangan kesempatan  ‘membaca’ dirinya sendiri. Aksi ‘dibaca’ dan ‘membaca’ pun terjadi dan dapat ditemukan di sepanjang buku ini.Relasi gender di buku ini bukan tentang ‘debat keras’ yang dibangun melalui argumentasi mazhab-mazhab feminisme terhadap nilai-nilai patriarki di masyarakat Bugis. Bukan juga deskripsi ‘budaya seks kampung’ yang serba dipersalahkan dan digiring ke posisi primitif. Nurul Ilmi Idrus menyusun deskripsi dan mengurut segenap argumen pada setiap tema yang dibahasnya dengan menjaga ‘kesepadanan’. ‘Kesepadanan’ dijaga dan terjaga melalui ‘conversation based writing’ yang berbentuk naratif, sembari menyediakan rujukan dari para akademikus dan budayawan. Dengan kualitas naratif dan dengan gaya ungkap percakapan, pembaca dihadirkan ke pengalaman paling empiris dalam kebudayaannya. Gaya ungkap ini menolong pembacanya untuk mencerna eksposisi konflik yang dikemukakan oleh Nurul Ilmi Idrus beserta segenap resolusinya.Etnografi seksualitas dan praktik perkawinan Bugis ini membuka seluk beluk labirin budaya seks masyarakat Bugis. Labirin ini tak lain adalah ruang relasi dan ruang interaksi seksualitas di sekitar perkawinan—lengkap dengan dinamika yang menyertainya—antara perempuan dan lelaki Bugis. Labirin ini terbuka melalui ungkapan-ungkapan paling intim, atau ekspresi keberatan dari perempuan terhadap lelaki, atau pernyataan normatif dari lelaki Bugis atas konflik di sekitar kehidupan perkawinan dan seksualitas. Studi etnografi perkawinan dan seksualitas masyarakat Bugis telah membuka ‘lorong dan kamar’ paling berliku dan paling jauh dalam budaya perkawinan dan seksualitas yang tak mudah terlihat. Ragam kesaksian perempuan dan lelaki—yang ditulis dalam berbagai kutipan—terhadap seluk-beluk dan dinamika perkawinan dan seksualitas adalah temuan paling empirik dan paling kaya.Perangkat-perangkat idiomatik dalam buku ini adalah kekayaan. Oleh karena studi ini memang berdiri di atas cakrawala etnografi, ragam idiom Bugis yang berkaitan dengan perkawinan dan seksualitas diperkenalkan. Meskipun diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris, beberapa idiom akan mengajak pembaca untuk berhati-hati mengenali konsep di belakang idiom.  Pembaca yang berkapasitas polyglot—menguasai bahasa Inggris, Indonesia, dan Bugis sekaligus—tak akan mengalami kesulitan memasuki dan mengikuti alur karya akademis ini. Gaya ungkap polyglot yang diikuti dengan ragam idiom Bugis yang terkait dengan kehidupan perkawinan dan seksualitas sejatinya didudukkan sebagai konsekuensi akademis dari cakrawala disiplin etnografi.Pada akhirnya, buku Gender Relations in an Indonesian Society: Bugis Practices of Sexuality and Marriage sejatinya didudukkan sebagai karya akademis yang telah membuka secara terang benderang labirin budaya perkawinan dan seksualitas Bugis. Dari buku ini, pembaca dapat mengenali cara perempuan dan lelaki Bugis ‘membaca’ kebudayaannya sendiri, ketimbang buku lain yang memposisikan perkawinan dan seksualitas Bugis sebagai kebudayaan yang hanya ‘dibaca’ dari luar. Buku yang terdiri atas delapan chapter dan dilengkapi dengan dokumen appendix dan glossary ini mengeksplorasi cara Bugis ‘membaca’ kebudayaannya sendiri.

Menulis Kajian Literatur

Marzali, Amri -

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol.1 No.2 Desember 2016
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Abstract

This article is part of lecture notes presented in the course of Qualitative Research Method, at The Graduate School of Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA, 2016-2017 academic year. It is  written for students who precariously need a guidance to write a literature review for his or her scientific works (skripsi, tesis, and disertasi). Most parts of the paper comes from translation,  editing, and digesting of three resource books. This article will be divided into the following sections: What literature review is, aims of literature review, functions of literature review, ways of  using literature review, types of literature review, resources for writing literature review, procedures of writing of literature review, literature mapping for the research framework, writing an abstract, and writing a summary.

‘Bisnis Oriflame, Bisnis Konsultan Itu Sendiri’: Budaya Organisasi Multilevel Marketing untuk Mewujudkan Mimpi

Kamawo, Deby Susan

ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia Vol.1 No.2 Desember 2016
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Abstract

Multilevel marketing (MLM) is one of the marketing strategy which combines between distribution channel and direct selling to the consumers. One of the most popular MLM companies in Indonesia registered in the Indonesian Direct Sale Association (Assosiasi Penjualaan Langsung Indonesia, APLI) is PT. Orindo Alam Ayu, known as Oriflame, and is focused on beauty products. This article deals with Oriflame’s organisational culture by examining the organisational values and norms to achieve the company’s vision and mission, and how the norms are practiced. The study indicates that in internalizing the values (togetherness, spirit, and passion) and norms of Oriflame (operational principles, conducting a four-in-one events—Welcome Party, Step-One, Step-Two and Meet-Up Team, and success plan through TRB), from which Oriflame consultants learn how ‘to achieve their dream’ (mewujudkan mimpi). In such business, every consultant (upline as well as downline) is a working partner and they workin a complementary system, so that a consultant’s success is the success of others in the network. It is argued in this article that Oriflame is ‘an achievement dream business’ that is developed on the basis of its values and norms. How much income and in what level of success plan are intended to achieve depend on the consultant itself because Oriflame business is ‘the business of the consultant herself/himself’.

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