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INDONESIA
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal
ISSN : -     EISSN : -     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health, Science,
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 239 Documents
Diagnostic Test Equivalent Hemoglobin Reticulocyte in Iron Deficiency Anemia Sanyoto, Arundina; Suega, Ketut; Adnyana, Losen; Bakta, I Made
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 9, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (907.05 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v9i3.267

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is easy, but also can be complicated in condition with inflammation. A new modality for diagnostic which isn’t influenced with inflammation is needed. The aim of this study is to find the cut-off point and evaluate the accuracy of reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret-He) to diagnose IDA using ferritin as the gold standard.METHODS: This study was an observational study with cross-sectional analytical design continued with the diagnostic test conducted in anemic individuals with age 18 years old or above.RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients (41 men and 46 women) were included in this study with mean of hemoglobin 7.42 g/dL, serum iron 42.71 mg/dL, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 242.82 mg/dL, ferritin 799 ug/L and Ret-He 23.63 pg. Ret-He with cut-off value 25 pg showed a sensitivity 97.2% (95% CI 83.79-99.85%), specificity 66.67% (95% CI 51.97-78.85%), positive predictive value 67.30% (95% CI 52.77-79.28%) and negative predictive value 97.14% (95% CI 83.38-99.85%).CONCLUSION: Ret-He showed the best sensitivity for detection of IDA and was suggested as the screening test for IDA.KEYWORDS: IDA, Ret-He, diagnostic test
In Vitro Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extract from the Leaf and Fruit of Psidium guajava L. Simamora, Adelina; Paramita, Lusia; Azreen, Nur; Santoso, Adit Widodo; Timotius, Kris Herawan
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 10, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1190.098 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v10i2.402

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The leaf and fruit of Psidium guajava L. are potential for neutraceutical beverage especially for antidiabetic drink. The aims of this study were to determine the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of leaf (LE) and fruit (FE) from P. guajava.METHODS: Both extracts were investigated for their inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Their antioxidant activities were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, reducing power and phosphomolybdate methods.RESULTS: The IC50 of LE, FEandacarbose as a positive control were 5.67, 428.00 and 823.99 μg/mL, respectively. The enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that LE inhibited α-glucosidase in a competitive inhibition type, similar to that of acarbose. Both extracts showed antioxidant activities, with LE showed stronger activities than FE in all methods. In DPPH method, IC50 of LE and FE were 74.77 and 843.84 μg/mL respectively, compared to 53.24 and 21.36 μg/mL for reference antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA), respectively. In ferrous ion chelating activity, the IC50 were 147.07 and 2105.05 μg/mL for LE and FE, whereas ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a control sample was 66.50 μg/mL. In reducing power and phosphomolybdate methods, at different concentrations, the activities of LE, FE, and standard compounds showed the following order: AA > BHT > LE > FE.CONCLUSION: LE from P. guajava exhibited excellent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. In addition, LE had better antioxidant acivities than FE. This study can recommend the aqueous extract from P. guajava as a promising candidate for neutraceutical drink for prediabetic and diabetic patients.KEYWORDS: antioxidant, aqueous extract, α-glucosidase inhibition, guava, Psidium guajava L.
Antioxidant Activity of Phyllanthus niruri Extract, Rutin and Quercetin Rusmana, Djaja; Wahyudianingsih, Roro; Elisabeth, Mariska; Balqis, Balqis; Maesaroh, Maesaroh; Widowati, Wahyu
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (919.226 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v9i2.281

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Normal metabolism of oxygen and exogenous factors constantly generate free radicals which could be harmful to the human body. Human need antioxidants to provide protection against free radicals, thus plants are a good source of natural antioxidants. Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) has been known to possess several medicinal properties and contain numerous active phytochemical. In this research, we conducted phytochemical screening and antioxidant assay of P. niruri extract along with the compounds rutin and quercetin, which are flavonoids possessing medicinal properties. This study was conducted to determine P. niruri, rutin and quercetin as antioxidant.METHODS: In this study, qualitative phytochemical screening was performed to detect phenol, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, steroid/triterpenoid, terpenoid and alkaloid in P. niruri extract. Antioxidant analysis of P. niruri, rutin and quercetin was conducted using total measured phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.RESULTS:  The study revealed that P. niruri extract contained saponin, phenol, flavonoid and tannin based on phytochemical screening. In DPPH and ABTS assays quercetin possessed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.55 and 1.17 μg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, P. niruri extract showed the highest FRAP activity which was 373.95 μM Fe(II)/μg extract. Rutin possessed the lowest antioxidant activity in all antioxidant assays.CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that P. niruri extract and quercetin have great potential as a natural antioxidant source.KEYWORDS: asntioxidant, phytochemical, Phyllanthus niruri, quercetin, rutin, free radical
Could Complete Blood Count Parameters and Non-fasting Cholesterol Profile Describe Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease? Kadariswantiningsih, Ika Nindya; Thaha, Mochammad; Nugroho, Cahyo Wibisono; Hamidah, Berliana; Rasyid, Haerani; Hakim, Zaky El; Suryansyah, Maulana Muhtadin; Alsagaff, Mohammad Yusuf; Santoso, Djoko; Empitu, Maulana Antiyan; Suzuki, Yusuke
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 10, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (821.638 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v10i3.451

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Establishment of inexpensive clinical laboratory tests to evaluate inflammation and oxidative stress is urgently needed in the limited resources settings. This study aims to investigate the potential of complete blood count (CBC) parameters and non-fasting cholesterol profile parameters to describe inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.METHODS: Measurement of CBC, non-fasting cholesterol profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were performed in 71 CKD patients grouped into hemodialysis (HD) and non-hemodialysis (non-HD). Correlation analysis were performed to assess the potential of CBC and cholesterol profile to describe the level of hs-CRP and MDA.RESULTS: In the HD group, total cholesterol was moderately associated with hs-CRP while total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio, monocyte/HDL-C ratio, monocyte/LDL-C ratio, neutrophil/HDL-C ratio, neutrophil/LDL-C ratio, platelet/HDL-C ratio and platelet/LDL-C ratio were strongly associated with hs-CRP. In the non-HD group,only neutrophil/total cholesterol ratio and platelet/total cholesterol ratio that were associated with hs-CRP. Total cholesterol, monocyte/LDL-C ratio, neutrophil/LDL-C ratio and platelet/LDL-C ratio were moderately associated with MDA while total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio, monocyte/HDL-C ratio, neutrophil/HDL-C ratio and platelet/HDL-C ratio were strongly associated respectively with MDA in HD group. In the non-HD group, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio, neutrophil/HDL-C ratio and platelet/HDL-C ratio were moderately associated with MDA in non-HD group while monocyte/HDL-C ratio was weakly associated with MDA.CONCLUSION: Some CBC parameters and non-fasting cholesterol profile such as cholesterol/HDL-C, monocyte/HDL-C, neutrophil/HDL-C and platelet/HDL-C ratio showed a potential to describe the inflammation and stress oxidative markers, given some strong associations with the level of hs-CRP and MDA. Further study is needed to assess whether this parameter represent long-term prognostic value among CKD patients.KEYWORDS: inflammation, oxidative stress, CRP, MDA, TAC, 8-OHdG, CBC, cholesterol
The Correlation of Serum Total Testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Free Androgen Index with Athens Insomnia Scale Score in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Bayuaji, Hartanto; Nataprawira, Heda Melinda Nazaruddin; Sastramihardja, Herri Suhari
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 10, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (714.259 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v10i1.324

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common reproductive endocrinologic disorder in woman, was considered to be related to sleep disturbance. This study is aimed to analyze the correlation between excess androgen markers and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) in PCOS.METHODS: This observational, cross-sectional study of PCOS was conducted to 31 subjects to evaluate the correlation between serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and free androgen index with the incidence of sleep disturbance using AIS. Sleep disturbance was present if the score ≥6. The correlation between excess androgen markers and sleep disturbance was analyzed using Pearson’s coefficient of correlation or Spearman’s rho test. Correlation coefficient more than 0.5 with p<0.05 was considered significant.RESULTS: Out of 31 PCOS subjects aged 20-40 years, 39% subjects had AIS score ≥6. Mean serum testosterone in AIS score >6 group was higher than AIS score <6 group but not statistically significant (46.68 vs. 28.49 ng/mL, p>0.05). No significant correlation was found between serum total testosterone, SHBG and free androgen index with AIS score. After adjusting for AIS score, there was the moderate positive correlation between serum total testosterone level although not statistically significant (r=0.54, p=0.07).CONCLUSION: The serum total testosterone level might influence the occurrence of sleep disturbance in PCOS.KEYWORDS: PCOS, androgen excess, testosterone, sleep disturbance, Athens Insomnia Scale
Prospect of Natural Killer Cells in Cancer Imunotherapy Meiliana, Anna; Dewi, Nurrani Mustika; Wijaya, Andi
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 10, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (613.004 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v10i3.532

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Current understanding in molecular character of natural killer (NK) cell, its function and mechanisms, send people the ideas to develop a NK cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies against human cancer.CONTENT: Before being regards as a cell-based cellular therapy, NK cell have to be clinical proven. Early studies with NK cells infusions for acute myeloid leukemia and lung cancer showed a promising result. NK cells need simplified methods for enriching and expanding, in addition to its transfection with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). NK-92 arise as an assuring effector cells to augment monoclonal and bispecific antibody therapy. Thus, NK cells show a potential opportunity for cell engineering, outstep the era of T cells.SUMMARY: It is believed that NK cells bring a bright hope for future cancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination as a harmonious therapy.KEYWORDS: NK cells, NK-92 cells, immunotherapy, CAR
Cytotoxicity of Alpinia galanga Rhizome Crude Extract on NIH-3T3 Cells Sandra, Ferry; Sudiono, Janti; Trisfilha, Pretty; Pratiwi, Deviyanti
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 9, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1721.604 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v9i1.212

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga) was reported as a potential medicinal source due to its wide effect. A. galanga rhizome crude extract (ARCE) was reported to have high cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but low in normal cells. However half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ARCE is not clearly known yet. Hence, current study was conducted to investigate the IC50 of ARCE in normal standard fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 cells.METHODS: Rhizomes of A. galanga were collected, peeled, dried, milled and weighed. Extraction was performed using maceration method, then filtered and evaporated. ARCE with various concentrations were applied in NIH-3T3 cells for 24 or 48 hours. Cells were documented and counted with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.RESULTS: Five hundreds grams of simplicia were macerated with ethanol and evaporated, 1 mg/mL crude extract with total volume of 114 mL was obtained. By addition of ARCE in NIH-3T3 cell culture, number of NIH-3T3 cells were shown less when treated with higher concentration of ARCE. Cell numbers of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50% ARCE treatment for 24 hours are 11,531, 11,352, 10,920, 10,365, 9,471, 8,360, respectively, meanwhile for 48 hours are 13,219, 12,686, 12,278, 11,390, 10,279, 8,390, respectively.CONCLUSION: IC50 of ARCE in 24 hours treatment was 620.5 mg/mL, while in 48 hours treatment was 666.6 mg/mL. Hence, ARCE is suggested to have low cytotoxic effect in NIH-3T3 cells.KEYWORDS: Alpinia galanga, ginger, extract, cytotoxic, MTT, NIH-3T3 
Caffeic Acid Inhibits RANKL and TNF-α-induced Phosphorylation of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in RAW-D Cells Sandra, Ferry; Ketherin, Ketherin
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 10, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1022.098 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v10i2.437

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Caffeic acid inhibits osteoclastogenesis by downregulating expression of Cathepsin K and Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFATc)1, as well as inhibiting activity of Nuclear Factor kB (NFkB). Meanwhile TNF Receptor-associated Factor (TRAF)6 was not influenced by caffeic acid. In order to investigate further caffeic acid's mechanism in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, regulation of caffeic acid on p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) was investigated.METHODS: RAW-D cells were pretreated with/without caffeic acid and treated with/without 20 ng/mL RANKL and 1 ng/mL TNFα for 0.2, 1, 6, and 12 hour. Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed. Then, western blot analysis was performed to detect p38 MAPK and phosphorylated-p38 MAPK. Resulted protein bands were quantified and statistically analyzed.RESULTS: Under induction of 20 ng/mL RANKL and 1 ng/mL TNF-α, RAW-D cells were successfully differentiated into TRAP+ osteoclast-like polynuclear cells. Under treatment of 20 ng/mL of RANKL and 1 ng/mL of TNF-a for 0.2 or 1 hour, significant (p=0,000, T test) increment of phosphorylated p38 MAPK was observed as compared with control. Pretreatment of 10 μg/mL caffeic acid significantly (p=0.000, T test) suppressed the 20 ng/mL of RANKL and 1 ng/mL of TNF-a-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK.CONCLUSION: RANKL and TNF-a are potent osteoclastogenesis inductors in RAW-D cells, meanwhile caffeic acid could inhibit the RANKL and TNFa-induced osteoclastogenesis through p38 MAPK.KEYWORDS: caffeic acid, osteoclastogenesis, RANKL, TNF-a, p38, MAPK, RAW-D cells
Early Screening of Hemoglobinopathy in Indonesia Using Erythrocyte Indices Surjawan, Yenny; Tan, Hwee Lian; Setiabudy, Rahajuningsih Dharma; Rositawati, Wiwik
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (904.345 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v9i2.313

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The mutation spectrums of hemoglobinopathy are different among populations that yield a different result of erythrocyte indices. Calculation of erythrocyte indices with some formula has been reported to differentiate between hemoglobinopathy and non-hemoglobinopathy, but its cut-off should be recalculated specific for each population to gain a better sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to evaluate red blood cell count (RBC), Mentzer index, red cell distribution width (RDW), RDW index (RDWI), Shine and Lal index (S&L) and Green and King index (G&K) to screen hemoglobinopathy in Indonesia.METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on 202 subjects. The diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy was determined based on the results of complete blood count (CBC) data, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Hemoglobin H (HbH) inclusion body. The ferritin concentration was checked to determine the status of iron. The erythrocytes indices were analyzed and calculated to predict hemoglobinopathy. RESULTS: A total 202 subjects who met the criteria were involved in this study. Fifty percent showed pure hemoglobinopathy and 4% showed a combination of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy. The hemoglobin concentration and RBC were significantly higher, and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and RDW were significantly lower in hemoglobinopathy compared to iron deficiency. The difference was not significant if the hemoglobinopathy was combined with iron deficiency. By this study's cut-off, the G&K and RDWI showed the highest accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.CONCLUSION: The new cut-off of erythrocyte index and its calculation to screen hemoglobinopathy in Indonesia showed a higher sensitivity and specificity, especially for G&K and RDWI with cut-off 73 and 228, respectively. The presence of iron deficiency in hemoglobinopathy could decrease the sensitivity.KEYWORDS: hemoglobinopathy, RBC, Mentzer index, RDW, RDWI, S&L, G&K
UV-Visible Spectrophotometric as a Prospective Tool in Neonatal Sepsis Suhartono, Eko; Yunanto, Ari; Hartoyo, Edi; Kania, Nia; Utama, Adelia Anggraini; Sari, Ratih Kumala; Putri, Niarsari Anugrahing; Thalib, Iskandar
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 10, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (605.27 KB) | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v10i1.360

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to employ the UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry techniques to detect the changes in the blood of neonatal sepsis (NS) subject for a deeper understanding in the pathomechanism of NS.METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017 in the Neonatology Division, Department of Pediatric, Ulin General Hospital/Faculty of Medicine, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Blood specimens were taken from newborns, of which 15 each of newborns at risk of sepsis and without risk of sepsis. Data were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test.RESULTS: The result of this study suggested that there is a significant difference in the average of absorbance ratio parameter using UV-Vis spectrophotometric methods on the case group compared to the control group. Also, there is a significant difference between advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and thiocyanate (SCN) level in newborn at risk of sepsis.CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated there were significant differences between the average of absorbance ratio parameter for protein and oxy-hemoglobin region using UV-Vis spectrophotometric methods in healthy subjects and newborn at risk of sepsis.KEYWORDS: spectrophotometric, neonatal sepsis, oxidative stress

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