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The Indonesian Biomedical Journal
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169
Articles
Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase Activity by Ethanolic Extract of Piperomia pellucida L., Acacypha indica L. and Momordica charantia L.

Parawansah, Parawansah, Nuralifah, Nuralifah, Alam, Gemini, Natzir, Rosdiana

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Uric acid is a final result of purine catabolism, the enzymatic reactions in the body cells from amino acids or ribonucleotide dinucleotide. Peperomia pellucida L. (P. pellucida), Acalypha indica L. (A. indica) and Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia) are plants which have efficacy to reduce levels of uric acid excess. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of ethanol extract of P. pellucida, A. indica and M. charantia in preventing the formation of uric acid excess by inhibiting the action of the enzyme xanthine oxidase and comparing the inhibition activity of xanthine oxidase on treatments.METHODS: The study design is experimental and conducted using the enzyme xanthine oxidase, xanthine (substrate), pH 7.5 phosphate buffer, samples (P. pellucida, A. indica and M. charantia ethanol extracts) and HCL as reaction breaker. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase was determined enzymatically and unreacted xanthine was measured by UV spectrophotometer at 290 nm. The data were expressed as percent inhibition and the inhibitory concentration (IC)50 were determined using linear regresion of inhibition activity vs. concentration.RESULTS: The IC50 of P. pellucida, A. indica and M. charantia ethanol extracts in inhibiting xanthine oxidase were 19.5 ppm, 77.6 ppm and 17.8 ppm, respectively. IC50 of allopurinol was 1.99 μg/ml, and negative control (combination of enzyme and substrate) has absorbance value of 0.75026.CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of M. charantia showed the most potent inhibition toward xanthine oxidase compared to the other two extracts.KEYWORDS: xanthine oxidase, Peperomia pellucida L., Acalypha indica L., Momordica charantia L.

The Correlation between Glycemic Characteristic and Erythrocyte Indices in Obesity

Lindarto, Dharma, Syafril, Santi, Gatot, Dairion

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood glucose level is a major factor in development of diabetic complications due to unfavorable hyperglycemic induced biochemical as well as hematological indices changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate thecorrelation between glycemic characteristic and erythrocyte indices in obese subjects with different glycemic status.METHODS: Cross cross-sectional study was designed, and 80 obese subjects were enrolled. The correlations between glycemic characteristic (fasting plasma glucose(FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) and erythrocyte indices (Hb, red blood count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)) were evaluated.RESULTS: Of 80 obese subjects with different glycemic status, there were 48 patients with only obesity (HbA1c <5.7%), 19 patients with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%) and 13 patients with diabetes (HbA1c >6.4%). Glycemic characteristic and profile lipid (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG)) were differ significantly in the different HbA1c level. Erythrocyte indices were not differ significantly in the different HbA1c level. Partial Spearmans correlation analysis showed that only MCV was significantly correlated with glycemic characteristic of FPG, PPG, HbA1c and HOMA-IR (r=-0.36, p=0.001; r=-0.29, p=0.007; r=-0.27, p=0.014 and r=-0.236, p=0.035; respectively).CONCLUSION: MCV was significantly correlated with glycemic characteristic (FPG, PPG, HbA1C and HOMAIR). Further investigations are recommended.KEYWORDS: MCV, glycemic-characteristic, HbA1c, erythrocyte indices

Measurement of Motor Evoked Potential in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Based on Latency, Amplitude, Central Motoric Conduction Time and Resting Motor Threshold

Ratmono, Tugas, Wijaya, Andi, Kaelan, Cahyono, Islam, Andi Asadul, Sandra, Ferry

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: After stroke, there are dynamic changes of motor evoked potential (MEP), including latency, amplitude, central motoric conduction time (CMCT) and resting motor threshold (RMT) in cerebral. However, latency, CMCT, amplitude and RMT have not been clearly shown in acute ischemic stroke patients with motoric function impairment based on Modified Motoric Research Council Scale (MRCs).METHODS: Patients with motoric function impairment after acute ischemic stroke were recruited, scored based on MRCs and grouped. Latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT (% intensity) was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT of subjects based on affected hemisphere (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH); stroke onset; and motoric severity; were analyzed and compared statistically.RESULTS: Thirty-seven subjects with complete assessments were selected. Results of MEP size measurement between AH and UH showed that latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT of AH and UH were significantly different (p<0.05). In accordance to AH and UH results, latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT of mild, moderate and severe groups based on motoric severity, showed that latency and CMCT were prolonged, RMT was increased, while amplitude was decreased along with severity increment. The amplitude and RMT among the groups were significantly different with p=0.034 and p=0.029, respectively.CONCLUSION: MEP size measurement including latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT have significant different in AH and UH. In addition, amplitude and RMT were significantly different in MRCs groups, therefore the MEP size measurement could be suggested as prognostic tool.KEYWORDS: MEP, latency, amplitude, CMCT, RMT

Antibacterial Activity of Eel (Anguilla spp.) Mucus against Salmonella typhi

Nurtamin, Tomy, Nurman, Resty Yulianita, Hafizah, Indria

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever has become one global health problem. Typhoid fever is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella typhi. Eel (Anguilla spp.) is a fish which lives in the sea or in freshwater. Several previous studies have found that Anguilla spp. mucus has the ability as antibacterial against Gram-positive and negative. Although the antibacterial activity of Anguilla spp. against various pathogens had been reported, very little is known about its activity against Salmonella typhi. The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial activity of Anguilla spp. mucus against Salmonella typhi bacteria.METHODS: Present study was an experimental in vitro test. Antibacterial activity assays were carried out by the disc diffusion method. Antibacterial activity was determined by the clear zone formed around the paper disc and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by observing the lowest concentration which could inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi.RESULTS: Result of the present study showed that the Anguilla spp. mucus has inhibitory effects against Salmonella typhi. Minimum inhibitory concentration fromthe Anguilla spp. mucus was 12.5%.CONCLUSION: Anguilla spp. mucus has antibacterial activity against the Salmonella typhi bacteria.KEYWORDS: eel fish mucus, Anguilla spp., antibacterial activity, Salmonella typhi

PPAR-gamma Signaling in Metabolic Homeostasis

Triana, Rina, Dewi, Nurrani Mustika, Darmayanti, Siska, Herawati, Eka, Novalentina, Maria, Semadhi, Made Putra, Rahman, Miftakh Nur

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, or also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3 (NR1C3), is a PPAR which serves as master regulator of adipocytes differentiation, and plays an important role in lipid metabolism or adipogenesis. Recent study showed that PPAR-γ is expressed in most tissue and also has critical impact in many metabolic homeostasis disorders.CONTENT: Dysregulation of PPAR-γ is correlated to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, acute kidney injury, autoimmune disease, gastrointestinal disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Abundant number of new emerging compounds, with in vitro and in vivo effectiveness as natural and synthetic agonists of PPARs, are investigated, developed and used as the treatment of metabolic disorders of glucose and/or lipid and other diseases.SUMMARY: Based on all studies explanation, targeting PPAR-γ is proven to be a good therapeutic method for reducing negative effect of several metabolic homeostasis disorder. Now, many natural and synthetic agonists of PPARs are used as the treatment of metabolic disorders of glucose and/or lipid or another metabolic homeostasis disorder. Such agonists have different properties andspecificities for individual PPARs receptors, different absorption and distribution, and distinctive gene expression profiles, which ultimately lead to different clinicaloutcomes.KEYWORDS: PPAR-γ, dysregulation, agonist, adipogenesis, metabolic disorder, homeostasis

The Comparative and Usefulness of Platelet Distribution Width in Acute Coronary Syndrome

Mappangara, Idar, Mappahya, Ali Aspar, Witjaksono, Sheila

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is important for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Abnormal platelet parameters, mainly platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are thought to be among these risk factors because platelet activation plays a pivotal role in ACS. PDW is a more specific marker of platelet activation, since it does not increase during simple platelet swelling. In this study, the comparison of risk factors along with the PDW between Non ST-Elevation ACS (NSTEACS) and ST-Elevation ACS (STEACS) were investigated.METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, patients with ACS that admitted at dr.Wahidin Sudirohusodo General Hospital Makassar since December 2014 to March 2015 who undergo coronary angiography were enrolled. All data variables were taken according to the medical record. PDW was taken on first blood examination at hospital admission. Data was significant if p-value <0.05 and wasprocessed with SPSS version 16.RESULTS: A total of 63 patients were enrolled. There were significantly higher PDW (p=0.047) in STEACS group (13.7±2.0 fL) than in NSTEACS group (12.6±2.3 fL). There were a significant positive correlation between PDW value and SYNTAX scores (Pearson, r=0.552, p=0.000). Cardiovascular risk factors such as history of ACS before (p=0.049 & OR=10.216) and dyslipidemia (p=0.049 & OR=3.915) along with PDW (p=0.003 & OR=1.733) were significant predictor of the incidence of multivessel disease in patient with ACS.CONCLUSION: An increased PDW may predicting more severe disease in ACS based on incidence of STEACS and multivessel disease more often and higher SYNTAX score.KEYWORDS: platelet distribution width, PDW, acute coronary syndrome, ACS, multivessel disease, SYNTAX

Personalized Medicine: The Future of Health Care

Meiliana, Anna, Dewi, Nurrani Mustika, Wijaya, Andi

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Most medical treatments have been designed for the “average patients”. As a result of this “one-size-fits-all-approach”, treatments can be very successful for some patients but not for others. The issue is shifting by the new innovation approach in diseases treatment and prevention, precision medicine, which takes into account individual differences in people’s genes, environments, and lifestyles. This review was aimed to describe a new approach of healthcare performance strategy based on individual genetic variants.CONTENT: Researchers have discovered hundreds of genes that harbor variations contributing to human illness, identified genetic variability in patients’ responses to different of treatments, and from there begun to target the genes as molecular causes of diseases. In addition, scientists are developing and using diagnostic tests based on genetics or other molecular mechanisms to better predict patients’ responses to targeted therapy.SUMMARY: Personalized medicine seeks to use advances in knowledge about genetic factors and biological mechanisms of disease coupled with unique considerations of an individual’s patient care needs to make health care more safe and effective. As a result of these contributions to improvement in the quality of care, personalized medicine represents a key strategy of healthcare reform.KEYWORDS: precision medicine, genomic, proteomic,Metabolomic

The Association of Plasma Fractalkine and Inflammation After Ischemic Stroke

Herminawati, Lucia, Wijaya, Andi, Arief, Mansyur

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inflammation affects the brain after stroke with main functions to rapidly eliminate the source of the disturbance, remove damaged tissue and then restore tissue homeostasis. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a sensitive marker of inflammation and tissue injury in the arterial wall, while fractalkine is a distinct chemokine that promotes inflammatory signaling after neuronal death on ischemic stroke. We aim to investigate the association of fractalkine with hsCRP as a marker of inflammation in ischemic stroke patients.METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Soon after patients with ischemic stroke admitted to hospital, plasma fractalkine and hsCRP concentrations were assesed. Subjects had to be at least 30 years old and maximum 30 days of stroke onset. High inflammation was defined as hsCRP value >3 mg/L.RESULTS: High fractalkine levels were found on 24 ischemic stroke patients (49%) and mean of fractalkine 0.719 ng/mL on patients with stroke onset <7 days was higher than patients with stroke onset 7-30 days. Low fractalkine levels (<0.527 ng/mL) were found on ischemic stroke patients with onset 7-30 days accompanied by high inflammation (hsCRP >3 mg/L), but no significant correlation between fractalkine and hsCRP (p=0.613).CONCLUSION: High inflammation and low plasma fractalkine profile was found after 7 days of onset in ischemic stroke patients. No significant correlation between fractalkine and hsCRP in ischemic stroke patients.KEYWORDS: CRP, fractalkine, inflammation, ischemic stroke

Comparison of The Means of Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Region (mAgNOR) Pre- and Post-Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients at Wahidin Sudirohusodo General Hospital Makassar

Kuhuwael, Freddy George, Perkasa, Muhammad Fadjar, Miskad, Upik Anderiani, Punagi, Abdul Qadar, Said, Fatmawati Arsyad

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is malignant tumor growing in nasopharynx with a predilection in fossa Rossenmuller and nasopharyngeal roof. This research aimed to prove whether the means of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (mAgNOR) can predict the success of treatment in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.METHODS: We used diagnostic test method with longitudinal design and purposive sampling technique. Endoscopic biopsy examination was performed on 15 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients before and after therapy, 13 patients underwent chemotherapy and other two underwent chemoradiotherapy. Tumor tissues were stained and AgNOR was calculated.RESULTS: Based on the tumor stage, sample characteristic showed 3 patients (20%) were in stage II, 3 patients (20%) in stage III, and 9 patients (60%) in stage IV, with pre- and post-therapy mAgNOR were 1.610±0.988 and 1.000±0.000, respectively in stage II, 1.100±0.092 and 1.000±0.000, respectively in stage III, 1.226±0.265 and 1.107±0.164, respectively in stage IV patients. Based on histopathology type, 4 patients (26.7%) had non keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with pre- and post-therapy mAgNOR were 1.117±0.134 and 1.060±0.120, respectively, while 11 patients (73.3%) had undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pre- and post-therapy mAgNOR were 1.335±0.528 and 1.065±0.146, respectively. Overall the pre-therapy were significantly higher than post-therapy mAgNOR. In subgroups there are significant differences in stage IV and type 3.CONCLUSION: The values of AgNOR were decreased in all NPC stages and significantly decreased in undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. AgNOR can be used to predict the successfulness of therapy in NPC.KEYWORDS: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, therapy, proliferation, mAgNOR

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Levels in Ischemic Stroke Subject

Hidayat, Andri, Arief, Mansyur, Wijaya, Andi

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) present during early neuronal development and play important roles in the process of neurorepairing includes angiogenesis, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity after ischemic stroke. In this study, we observed VEGF and BDNF levels of subjects with ischemic stroke in different onset time.METHODS: A cross sectional study was designed. Study subjects were 51 ischemic stroke subjects, aged 30-80 years old, recruited from Gatot Subroto Army Central Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Ischemic stroke was diagnosed by neurologist, based on clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) result. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on onset time of stroke: <7 days (group A), 7-30 days (group B) and >30 days (Group C). VEGF and BDNF levels from serum were measured using lumine Magpix. The data was analyzed for comparison and correlation.RESULTS: VEGF and BDNF levels of group B and C were significantly different with p=0.034 and p=0.007, respectively. Group B had the highest VEGF levels, whereas Group C had the highest BDNF level. VEGF and BDNF levels in each group were not significantly correlated.CONCLUSION: Each stage of time after ischemic stroke has different recovery activities like angiogenesis, neurogenesis and plasticity. Angiogenesis process was optimum in 7-30 days after onset. in more than 30 days onset, Low VEGF with high BDNF have important role in a long period of time after the onset of stroke in the regeneration and repair, such as maintaining neuronal survival and plasticity.KEYWORDS: ischemic stroke, VEGF, BDNF