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Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 19783728     EISSN : 24429740     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) (e-ISSN:2442-9740; p-ISSN:1978-3728) is published by the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga. Its diciplinary focus is dental science and dental hygiene. The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) is published in English on a quarterly basis with each 50-60 page edition containing between nine and eleven scientific articles on research, study literature and case studies. Contributors to the Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) included: dental researchers, dental practitioners, lecturers, and students drawn from Indonesia and a wide range of other countries.
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Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)" : 11 Documents clear
Uji toksisitas ekstrak bawang putih (Allium Sativum) terhadap kultur sel fibroblast (Garlic (Allium Sativum) extract toxicity test on fibroblast cell culture) Emilda, Yulie; Budipramana, Els; Kuntari, Satiti
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p215-219

Abstract

Background: Previous studies have found antimicrobial effect of garlic (allium sativum). Garlic has potential as sterilization material for root canal treatment. Nevertheless, such material has to be non toxic and has to have adequate biocompatibility. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the toxicity of garlic (allium sativum) on fibroblast cell culture. Method: Toxicity test was conducted using 50%, 75%, 100% of garlic extract, and Chlorphenol Kamfer Menthol (ChKM) as control. BHK-21 cell-culture was put into microplate 96 wells with 2x105 densities and incubated in a 37oC. The garlic extracts in various concentration and ChKM were then placed into the wells. MTT assay test was then use to analyze toxicity, a 50% percentage of living culture-cell was set as a parameter whether the extract is toxic or not. Results: The results showed that in 50%, 75%, and 100% garlic concentration indicates a non toxic characteristic on fibroblast cell culture. The non toxic property was consistent in 72, 96, and 120 hours of observation point. Conclusion: The study revealed that garlic on consentration of 50,%, 75%, 100% did not show toxic effect on fibroblast culture cell, but it needs further research for preparing it as an alternative medicament of root canal treatment.Latar belakang: Penelitian sebelumnya telah menemukan efek antimikroba bawang putih (allium sativum). Bawang putih memiliki potensi sebagai bahan sterilisasi pada perawatan saluran akar. Namun bahan tersebut harus tidak toksik dan memiliki biokompatibilitas yang memadai. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji toksisitas bawang putih (allium sativum) terhadap kultur sel fibroblast. Metode: Uji toksisitas dilakukan dengan menggunakan konsentrasi 50%, 75%, 100% dari ekstrak bawang putih, dan Chlorphenol Kamfer Menthol (ChKM) sebagai kontrol. BHK-21 kultur sel dimasukkan ke dalam microplate 96 sumuran dengan kepadatan 2x105 dan diinkubasi di suhu 37°C. Ekstrak bawang putih dalam berbagai konsentrasi dan ChKM kemudian ditempatkan pada sumur dipersiapkan sebelumnya. MTT assay test kemudian digunakan untuk menganalisis toksisitas, persentase 50% dari kultur sel hidup digunakan sebagai parameter apakah ekstrak beracun atau tidak. Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan pada konsentrasi bawang putih 50%, 75%, 100% menunjukkan karakteristik non toksis terhadap kultur sel fibroblast. Kondisi non toksik konsisten di 72, 96, dan 120 jam pengamatan. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bawang putih dengan konsentrasi 50,%, 75%, 100% tidak bersifat toksik terhadap kultur sel fibroblast, namun masih diperlukan pengujian lebih lanjut untuk dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif bahan sterilisasi saluran akar.
Microleakage of conventional, resin-modified, and nano-ionomer glass ionomer cement as primary teeth filling material Madyarani, Dita; Nuraini, Prawati; Irmawati, Irmawati
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p194-197

Abstract

Background: Glass ionomer cements are one of many dental materials that widely used in pediatric dentistry due to their advantage of fluoride release and chemical bond to tooth structure. Adherence of the filling material to the cavity walls is one of the most important characteristic that need to be examined its effect on microleakage. Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the microleakage of nano-ionomer glass ionomer cement compared with the conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Methods: Standard class V cavities sized 3 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm were made on a total of 21 extracted maxillary primary canine teeth and restored with the conventional, resin-modified, dan nano-ionomer glass ionomer cements. All the teeth were immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye for 4 hours. The depth of dye penetration was assessed using digital microscope after sectioning the teeth labio-palatally. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: All type of glass ionomer material showed microleakage. Conventional glass ionomer cement demonstrated the least microleakage with mean score 1.29. the resin-modified glass ionomer cements (mean score 1.57) and nano-ionomer glass ionomer cement (mean score 2.57). Conclusion: The conventional glassionomer, resin modified glassionomer, and nano-ionomer glassionomer showed micro leakage as filling material in primary teeth cavity. The micro leakage among three types was not significant difference. All three material were comparable in performance and can be used for filling material but still needs a coating material to fill the microleakage.Latar belakang: Semen ionomer kaca adalah salah satu dari banyak bahan gigi yang banyak digunakan dalam praktek kedokteran gigi anak karena bahan tersebut merilis fluoride dan berikatan kimia dengan struktur gigi. Perlekatan bahan tumpatan pada dinding kavitas adalah salah satu karakteristik paling penting yang perlu diteliti efeknya terhadap kebocoran mikro. Tujuan: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk meneliti kebocoran mikro nano-ionomer glass ionomer dibandingkan dengan glass ionomer konvensional dan resin-modified. Metode: Standard kelas V kavitas berukuran 3 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm dibuat pada total 21 gigi kaninus sulung rahang atas hasil pencabutan dan ditumpat dengan glass ionomer tipe konvensional, resin-modified, dan nano-ionomer. Kemudian semua gigi direndam dalam 2% metilen biru selama 4 jam. Setelah gigi dibelah labio-palatal kedalaman penetrasi pewarna dinilai menggunakan mikroskop digital. Hasil dianalisis secara statistik menggunakan uji Kruskal-Wallis. Hasil: Semua jenis bahan glass ionomer menunjukkan kebocoran mikro. Glass ionomer tipe konvensional menunjukkan kebocoran mikro terendah dengan rata-rata skor 1,29; glass ionomer tipe resin-modified (rata-rata 1,57) dan glass ionomer tipe nano-ionomer (rata-rata skor 2.57). Hasil uji statistik menunjukkan kebocoran pada tepi ketiga bahan tersebut tidak berbeda secara signifikan. Simpulan: Bahan tumpatan glass ionomer tipe konvensional, resin-modified, dan nano-ionomer, ketiganya menunjukkan kebocoran tepi tumpatan yang tidak berbeda signifikan. Ketiga bahan yang sebanding dalam performance dan dapat digunakan untuk bahan tumpatan tapi masih membutuhkan bahan pelapis untuk mengisi kebocoran mikro yang terjadi.
Hubungan tweed triangle dan posisi bibir terhadap garis estetik (Relationship between tweed triangle and the lips position to esthetic line) Oktaviona, Intan; Ardani, I.G.A. Wahju; Sjafei, Achmad
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p220-225

Abstract

Background: The aimed of almost all of patient came for orthodontics treatment, were to recover face esthetic or their profile. The facial profile not only determined by the hard tissue, but will also be influenced by the soft tissue such as nose, lip, and chin. Tweed has done face analysis with cephalometric by using three angles which are FMA, FMIA, and IMPA. There are many facial profile analysis that usually use in lateral cephalometric one of them is Ricketts analysis that draw the line from pogonion to the tip of nose. The biggest tribe in Indonesia is Javanese, the Javanese have a specific characteristic. Javanese people do not have a long nose and the chin not really uppermost, thick lip, convex profile and female’s profile more convex than male. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the relation between Tweed triangle, upper lip and lower lip to esthetic line according to Ricketts. Methods: The facial profile pictures of subjects which were taken base on sample criteria changed into silhouette black and white. The photo selected by orthodontist and lay persons. Then the lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken and measured the angle of Tweed triangle and the lip position to esthetic line. Results: The FMA were 28.830, FMIA were 56.740 and IMPA were 94.430. The upper lip distance among males were closer to the esthetic line than female. The lower lip of males located in front of esthetic line and female lower lip located rare of esthetic line. Conclusion: There was corelation between FMA and FMIA with lower lip. There was no corelation between IMPA towards upper lip and also lower lip.Latar belakang: Tujuan dari hampir seluruh pasien yang datang untuk perawatan ortodonti adalah untuk memperbaiki estetis wajah atau profilnya. Profil fasial tidak hanya ditentukan oleh jaringan keras, akan tetapi juga akan sangat dipengaruhi oleh jaringan lunak hidung, bibir, dan dagu. Tweed melakukan analisis wajah pada sefalometri menggunakan 3 sudut dalam segitiga yaitu FMA, FMIA, dan IMPA. Beberapa analisis profil facial yang sering digunakan pada sefalometri lateral antara lain analisis Ricketts yang merupakan garis yang ditarik dari pogonion ke ujung hidung. Suku terbesar di Indonesia adalah suku Jawa, suku Jawa memiliki ciri ragawi tertentu antara lain: hidung orang Jawa tidak terlalu mancung dan dagu tidak begitu menonjol, bibir tebal, proporsi jaringan lunak yang cembung dan perempuan lebih cembung daripada laki–laki. Tujuan: Meneliti hubungan antara tweed triangle terhadap posisi bibir atas dan bibir bawah terhadap garis estetik. Metode: Foto profil wajah berdasarkan kriteria sampel, yang dibuat siluet hitam putih, dan selanjutnya dipilih oleh dokter gigi spesialis ortodonti dan orang awam. Selanjutnya sampel terpilih akan difoto sefalometri lateral dan akan dihitung besarnya sudut Tweed triangle dan posisi bibir terhadap garis estetik. Hasil: Besarnya nilai FMA 28.830, FMIA 56.740, dan IMPA 94.430. Jarak bibir atas laki-laki lebih mendekati garis estetik dibandingkan dengan perempuan, sedangkan bibir bawah laki – laki terletak di depan garis estetik dan bibir bawah perempuan mendekati garis estetik. Simpulan: Terdapat hubungan antara FMA dan FMIA terhadap bibir bawah. Tidak terdapat hubungan antara IMPA terhadap bibir atas maupun bibir bawah.
Daya antibakteri penambahan Propolis pada zinc oxide eugenol dan zinc oxide terhadap kuman campur gigi molar sulung non vital (The antibacterial effect of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide on polybacteria of necrotic primary molar) Ameliana, Yemy; Herawati, Herawati; Pradopo, Seno
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p198-201

Abstract

Background: Materials commonly used for root canal filling of primary teeth is zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol has some disadvantages that can irritate the periapical tissues, has the risk of disturbing the growth and development of permanent tooth buds, and has a narrow antibacterial spectrum. Studies showed that propolis at concentration of 20 % has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of root canal pastes with the additional of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol (ZOEP) and to zinc oxide (ZOP). Methods: Polybacteria cultures collected from root canals of necrotic primary molar from 5 children patients who received root canal treatment. The bacteria were grown in BHI Broth, and inoculated into Muller Hinton Agar media. The agar plates was divided into 3 areas, and one well was made at each area. The first well filled with ZOE as a control, second well filled with ZOEP and the third well filled with ZOP, then incubated for 24 hour at 370 C. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameters of inhibition zones of polybacteria growth. The data were statistically analyzed by independent T-test. Results: The pasta mixture of zinc oxide propolis had the strongest antibacterial activity against polybacteria of necrotic primary molar, followed by zinc oxide eugenol propolis paste, and zinc oxide eugenol paste. There were significant differences of inhibition zones between ZOE, ZOEP and ZOP (p<0,05). Conclusion: The study suggested that the additional of propolis to zinc oxide paste could increase the antimicrobial effect against root canal polybacteria of necrotic primary molar.Latar belakang: Bahan yang sering digunakan untuk pengisian saluran akar gigi sulung adalah zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol memiliki beberapa kekurangan yaitu dapat mengiritasi jaringan periapikal, beresiko mengganggu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan benih gigi permanen pengganti, serta memiliki spektrum antibakteri yang sempit. Penelitian menunjukkan propolis dengan konsentrasi 20% memiliki daya antibakteri terhadap bakteri staphylococcus aureus Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti efek aktivitas antimikroba pasta saluran akar dengan penambahan propolis pada zinc oxide eugenol (ZOEP) dan pada zinc oxide (ZOP) Metode: Kultur bakteri campur diperoleh dari saluran akar gigi molar sulung 5 pasien anak yang sedang dirawat saluran akar. Bakteri ditumbuhkan dalam BHI Broth dan diinokulasi ke Muller Hinton Agar media. Plate agar dibagi menjadi 3 bagian, dan setiap bagian dibuat satu sumuran. Sumuran pertama diisi dengan ZOE sebagai kontrol, sumuran kedua diisi dengan ZOEP dan sumuran ketiga diisi dengan ZOP, kemudian diinkubasi selama 24 jam, pada 37°C. Daya antimikroba ditentukan dengan mengukur diameter zona hambatan pertumbuhan bakteri campur. Data dianalisis statistik dengan t-test independent. Hasil: Pasta campuran zinc oxide propolis memiliki daya antibakteri terhadap kuman campur gigi molar sulung non vital paling kuat, diikuti pasta zinc oxide eugenol propolis, dan pasta zinc oxide eugenol. Terdapat perbedaan zona hambat yang signifikan diantara ZOE, ZOEP dan ZOP (p<0.05). Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tambahan propolis pada pasta zinc oxide dapat meningkatkan efek antimikroba terhadap polybacteria saluran akar dari molar sulung yang nekrotik.
The differences of orthodontic tooth movement on menstrual and ovulation cycle Susilo, Sonya Grecila; Amtha, Rahmi; Roeslan, Boedi Oetomo; Kusnoto, Joko
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p177-180

Abstract

Background: Estrogens are sex hormon that play an important role in bone metabolism, including in bone remodeling during orthodontic treatment. Women has a monthly cycle which is affected by fluctuations of estrogen that is menstruation and ovulation. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the differences of orthodontic tooth movement during menstrual an ovulation cycle. Methods: Five women were given ± 100 g orthodontic force using fixed orthodontic appliance with straight wire technique at the time of menstruation and ovulation with an interval of 1.5 months. Orthodontic tooth movement and levels of estrogen were measured during menstruation and ovulation. Results: Statistical results showed a significant differences between estrogen levels and orthodontic tooth movement (p < 0.05). When estrogen levels decline as in menstruation, tooth movement as results of orthodontic force would increase, whereas when estrogen levels increase as the time of ovulation, tooth movement would decrease. Conclusion: The estrogen level in menstruation and ovulation cycle may affect the tooth movement on ortodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Estrogen merupakan hormon seks yang mempunyai peran penting dalam metabolisme tulang termasuk dalam remodeling tulang selama perawatan ortodonti. Wanita memiliki siklus bulanan yang dipengaruhi oleh fluktuasi estrogen yaitu menstruasi dan ovulasi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pergerakan gigi akibat gaya ortodonti pada siklus menstruasi dan ovulasi. Metode: Lima orang wanita diberikan gaya ortodonti ±100 gr menggunakan alat orthodontik cekat dengan teknik straight wire pada saat menstruasi dan ovulasi dengan selang waktu 1,5 bulan. Selain itu subyek juga diukur kadar estrogennya saat menstruasi dan ovulasi. Hasil: Hasil statistik menunjukan kadar estrogen berbanding terbalik dengan pergerakan gigi ortodonti (p < 0,05). Saat kadar estrogen menurun seperti pada menstruasi, maka pergerakan gigi akan meningkat, sedangkan pada saat kadar estrogen meningkat seperti saat ovulasi, maka pergerakan gigi akan menurun. Simpulan: Kadar estrogen pada siklus menstruasi dan ovulasi dapat mempengaruhi pergerakan gigi pada perawatan ortodonti.
Usia saat inisial akuisisi Streptococcus mutans dan jumlah erupsi gigi sulung pada anak (Initial acquisition age of Mutans Streptococci and number of erupted primary teeth in children) Adinda, Citra; Tedjosasongko, Udijanto; Wibowo, Teguh Budi
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p202-205

Abstract

Background: Mutan Streptococci (MS) are considered as major bacteria in human dental caries. Previous experiments reported that MS needs permanent surface to make stable colonization in human oral mouth. Transmission of MS occured directly or indirectly by salivary contact. The younger the child acquired MS the higher dental caries risk of the child. Purpose: The purposes of this study was to determine the age and number of primary teeth erupted during MS initial acquisition in children. Methods: The subjects were 30 infants aged 5 months old of Simomulyo region, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Monthly plaque samples were taken using sterile cotton bud and oral examination were done to check number of primary teeth for 6 months period. The MS isolate were isolated using BHI broth and TYC respectively. The MS identification was done by gram staining and colony morphology. Number of erupted primary teeth was determined by counting the erupted teeth in each month. Results: As the result 83% children acquired MS and 17% children remain free from MS. The mean age of initial acquisition was 7,76±0,96 months and the average number of erupted teeth was two teeth. Conclusion: The study revealed that the mean age of MS initial acquisition in children was 7,76±0,96 month and the colonization of MS was found in children with average 2 primary teeth erupted.Latar belakang: Streptococcus Mutans (SM) merupakan bakteri utama penyebab karies gigi. Percobaan sebelumnya melaporkan bahwa SM membutuhkan permukaan permanen untuk membuat kolonisasi stabil di rongga mulut. Penularan SM terjadi secara langsung atau tidak langsung melalui kontak saliva. Semakin muda anak mengakuisisi SM semakin tinggi resiko terjadinya karies pada anak tersebut. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti umur dan jumlah rata-rata gigi erupsi pada masa inisial akuisisi SM pada anak Metode: Subyek penelitian ini adalah 30 bayi berusia 5 bulan di wilayah Simomulyo, Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Sampel plak diambil setiap bulan dengan cotton bud steril. Dilakukan pula pemeriksaan rongga mulut untuk memeriksa jumlah gigi sulung yang erupsi selama 6 periode 6 bulan. SM diisolasi menggunakan BHI broth dan TYC. Identifikasi SM dilakukan dengan pewarnaan gram dan pemeriksaan morfologi koloni. Jumlah gigi erupsi ditentukan dari penghitungan jumlah gigi sulung yang erupsi setiap bulannya. Hasil: Delapan puluh tiga persen anak-anak positif didapatkan SM dan 17% anak-anak tetap bebas dari SM. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa SM rata-rata usia awal akuisisi anak adalah 7,76 ± 0,96 bulan dan jumlah rata-rata gigi erupsi adalah 2 gigi. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa usia rata-rata inisial akuisisi SM pada anak-anak adalah 7,76±0,96 bulan dan kolonisasi SM ditemukan pada anak-anak dengan rata-rata 2 gigi sulung telah erupsi.
Penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa, sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans (in vitro) (The Additional xylitol in glucose and sucrose on growth of Mutans Streptococci (in vitro)) Susilowati, Susilowati; Tedjosasongko, Udijanto; Suhariadji, FX
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p181-185

Abstract

Background: Xylitol is a sugar alcohol group consisting of five-carbon chain and the sugar substitutes are recommended to prevent caries. Dietary sugars known as a good substrate for the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Two types of sugar, xylitol and dietary sugars have different effects on the growth of S.mutans. Purpose: The objective of this study were to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of xylitol on the growth of S.mutans and to determine the addition of xylitol in glucose and sucrose in the growth of S. mutans in vitro. Methods: The samples were divided into 3 groups: xylitol group, xylitol and sucrose combination group, and xylitol and glucose combination group . In all groups were tested against S.mutans growth in various concentrations. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration against S.mutans xylitol was equal to 0.625%. The addition of xylitol in sucrose the inhibition of S.mutans growth occurred at concentrations of 0.625 % and 2.5%. The addition of xylitol in glucose inhibited the growth of S.mutans at all concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that the combination of xylitol with dietary sugars could inhibit the growth of S.mutans.Latar belakang: Xylitol adalah golongan gula alkohol yang terdiri dari lima rantai karbon dan merupakan sugar substitutes yang dianjurkan untuk mencegah terjadinya karies. Dietary sugars diketahui sebagai substrat yang baik untuk pertumbuhan bakteri rongga mulut salah satunya Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Dua jenis gula yaitu xylitol dan dietary sugars memiliki pengaruh yang berbeda pada pertumbuhan S. mutans. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah meneliti konsentrasi hambat minimal (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration/ MIC) xylitol terhadap pertumbuhan S mutans dan meneliti pengaruh penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa dan dalam sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan S. mutans secara in vitro. Metode: Sampel dibagi dalam 3 kelompok: kelompok xylitol, kelompok kombinasi xylitol dan sukrosa, dan kelompok kombinasi xylitol dan glukosa. Pada ketiga kelompok tersebut dilakukan pengujian terhadap pertumbuhan S.mutans dalam berbagai konsentrasi. Hasil: Konsentrasi hambat minimum xylitol terhadap S. mutans adalah sebesar 0,625%. Pada penambahan xylitol dalam sukrosa terjadi penghambatan S. mutans pada konsentrasi 0,625% dan 2,5%. Pada penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa terjadi penghambatan S. mutans pada semua konsentrasi. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dengan glukosa dan dengan sukrosa dapat menghambat pertumbuhan S.mutans.
Kekerasan mikro enamel gigi permanen muda setelah aplikasi bahan pemutih gigi dan pasta remineralisasi (Enamel micro hardness of young permanent tooth after bleaching and remineralization paste application) Liwang, Budianto; Irmawati, Irmawati; Budipramana, Els
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p206-210

Abstract

Background: Studies showed that bleaching agent had demineralization effect to enamel, and encourage use of remineralization paste after bleaching treatment especially in young permanent tooth which in post-eruptive enamel maturation. Purpose: The study ere aimed to determine the bleaching agent effect on enamel surface micro hardness, and to determine the effect of remineralization paste application on enamel surface micro hardness of young permanent tooth after bleaching treatment. Methods: Fourteen young permanent teeth were placed in a block of resin with a window on the buccal surface enamel. The initial enamel surface hardness was measured using Microvickers Hardness Tester. Then the application of hydrogen peroxide bleaching materials 30% was done three times for 15 minutes and followed by surface hardness of enamel measurement. Samples were divided into 2 groups; the first group was applied paste of Hydroxy apatite + NaF 1450ppm , and the second group was applied paste of CPP–ACP + NaF 900ppm. Each paste was applied for 30 minutes for 7 days, then the enamel surface hardness of samples were measured. Results: The enamel surface micro hardness decreased after bleaching from 333.09 ± 10.49 VHN to 299.15±5.70 VHN. Micro hardness after application of Hidroxy apatite + NaF 1450ppm was 316.61±5.87 VHN and after application of CPP-ACP + NaF 900ppm was 319.94±3.25 VHN, however the micro hardness still lower than initial micro hardness. Conclusion: Tooth bleaching agent caused a decrease of enamel surface micro hardness in young permanent tooth. The use of remineralization paste enabled to increase the enamel surface micro hardness young permanent tooth.Latar belakang: Penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa produk pemutih gigi memiliki efek demineralisasi enamel gigi, dan mendorong penggunaan pasta remineralisasi setelah pemutihan gigi terutama di gigi muda permanen yang enamelnya masih dalam proses maturasi pasca-erupsi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti kekerasan mikro permukaan email gigi permanen muda, dan efek aplikasi pasta remineralisasi setelah pemutihan gigi. Metode: Empat belas gigi permanen muda ditempatkan dalam blok resin dengan jendela pada enamel permukaan bukal dan dilakukan pengukuran kekerasan permukaan enamel sampel awal dengan menggunakan alat Microvickers Hardness Tester. Kemudian dilakukan aplikasi bahan bleaching hidrogen peroxide 30% sebanyak 3 kali masing-masing selama 15 menit. Setelah aplikasi bahan bleaching, kekerasan permukaan enamel sampel diukur kembali. Sampel dibagi 2 kelompok; kelompok pertama diaplikasi pasta remineralisasi Hidroksi apatit + NaF 1450ppm, dan kelompok kedua diaplikasi pasta CPP-ACP + NaF 900ppm. Masing-masing pasta tersebut diaplikasikan selama 30 menit 7 hari berturut-turut. Setelah aplikasi pasta remineralisasi, sampel diukur kembali kekerasan permukaan enamelnya. Hasil: Kekerasan mikro permukaan enamel menurun setelah aplikasi pemutih gigi, dari 333.09 ± 10.49 VHN ke 299,15 ± 5.70 VHN. Kekerasan mikro setelah aplikasi Hidroxy apatit + NaF "> 1450ppm adalah 316,61 ± 5.87 VHN dan setelah aplikasi CPP-ACP + NaF 900ppm adalah 319,94 ± 3,25 VHN, namun kekerasan mikro setelah aplikasi pasta remineralisasi masih lebih rendah dari kekerasan mikro awal. Simpulan: Bahan pemutih gigi menurunkan kekerasan mikro permukaan enamel gigi permanen muda secara signifikan. Aplikasi pasta remineralisasi dapat meningkatkan kembali kekerasan mikro permukaan enamel gigi permanen muda.
Prevalensi early childhood caries dan severe early childhood caries pada anak prasekolah di Gunung Anyar Surabaya (The prevalences of early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries in preschool children at Gunung Anyar Surabaya) Sutjipto, Rahel Wahjuni; Herawati, Herawati; Kuntari, Satiti
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p186-189

Abstract

Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious health problem especially in young children. Frequent night time bottle feeding with milk and prolong breast-feeding are reported to be the possible cause. Purpose: The purpose of study was to determine the prevalence of ECC and severe early childhood caries (SECC) in children at Preschool Gunung Anyar district Surabaya. Methods: The subjects were 65 children consist of children aged 6 months (5 children), 1 year (8 children), 2 years (24 children), and 3 years (28 children). All tooth surface is evaluated. If there was one or more DMFs, it was indicated as ECC, whereas if there was one or more DMFs on smooth surfaces, then indicated as SECC. Results: No caries has found in 6 months and 1 year old children. The higher prevalence of ECC and SECC is in 3 years old children. The most caries was found on mesial maxillary central incisors. Conclusion: This study shows that the prevalence of ECC in group of children aged 6 months - 3 years at Gunung Anyar Surabaya was 30.8 % , while the prevalence was 29.2 % SECC .Latar belakang: Karies anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang serius terutama di kalangan anak-anak. Sering mengkonsumsi susu melalui botol pada malam hari dan pemberian ASI yang berkepanjangan dilaporkan sebagai faktor penyebab. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti prevalensi ECC dan SECC pada kelompok anak di PAUD Gunung Anyar Surabaya. Metode: Subyek penelitian ini adalah 65 anak yang terdiri dari anak usia 6 bulan (5 anak), 1 tahun (8 anak), 2 tahun (24 anak), dan 3 tahun (28 anak). Semua permukaan gigi dievaluasi. Apabila terdapat 1 atau lebih dmfs, maka diindikasikan sebagai ECC, sedangkan apabila terdapat 1 atau lebih dmfs pada permukaan gigi yang halus, maka diindikasikan sebagai SECC. Hasil: Tidak ditemukan karies pada kelompok anak usia 6 bulan hingga 1 tahun. Prevalensi tinggi ECC dan SECC ditemukan pada kelompok anak usia 3 tahun. Area gigi yang paling sering terkena karies adalah bagian mesial geligi insisif sentral rahang atas. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa prevalensi ECC pada kelompok anak usia 6 bulan-3 tahun dikawasan Gunung Anyar Surabaya adalah 30,8%, sedangkan prevalensi SECC adalah 29,2%.
Daya antibakteri obat kumur chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, fluoride suplementasi zinc terhadap, Streptococcus mutans dan Porphyromonas gingivalis (Antibacterial effect of mouth washes containing chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, fluoride plus zinc on Strep Sinaredi, Betadion Rizki; Pradopo, Seno; Wibowo, Teguh Budi
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 4 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i4.p211-214

Abstract

Background: Dental Caries and periodontal disease prevalence in Indonesian children are still high. Some efforts can be done to overcome the problem; one of them is the use of mouthwash to decrease pathogen microorganisms. The mouthwashes that commercially available in market are chlorhexidine, povidone Iodine and Fluoride with Zinc supplementation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the anti bacterial effect of the mouthwashes chlorhexidine, povidone iodine and fluoride with zinc supplementation against mix bacteria that found in the plaque, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methods: The antibacterial effect was measured using disk diffusion test. The bacteria samples (plaque polybacteria, S.mutans and P. gingivalis) were inoculated and spread in the petridish containing MHA. Paper discs containing the mouthwashes were placed in the petridish and incubated for 24 hours at 37oC (anaerobe for P. gingivalis, aerobe for S. mutans and polybacteria). The diameter of inhibition zone surrounding the paper discs were measured and compared between each active ingredient contained in mouthwash. Results: Chlorhexidine had the strongest antibacterial effect than povidone iodine and fluoride. Chlorhexidine was more effective to inhibited the growth of S. mutans than to polybacteria or P.Gingivalis, while Povidone iodine and fluoride were more effective to inhibited the growth of polybacteria. Conclusion: The mouthwash chlorhexidine was more effective to inhibit the growth of plaque polybacteria, Streptoccous mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis compared with povidone iodine and fluoride with zinc supplementation.Latar belakang: Prevalensi karies gigi dan penyakit periodontal masih tinggi pada anak Indonesia. Usaha mengatasi hal tersebut antara lain melalui melalui penggunaan obat kumur untuk mengurangi jumlah kuman pathogen. Kandungan obat kumur yang beredar di pasar diantaranya adalah chlorhexidine, povidone iodine dan fluoride dengan suplementasi zinc. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek antibakteri dari obat kumur berbahan aktif chlorhexidine, povidone iodine dan fluoride dengan suplementasi zinc terhadap bakteri campur plak, S. mutans dan P. gingivalis. Metode: Pengukuran efek antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode disk diffusion. Bakteri sampel (bakteri campur plak, Streptococcus mutans dan Porphyromonas gingivalis) ditanam secara merata pada cawan petri dengan medium MHA. Cakram kertas yang mengandung obat kumur diletakkan di tengah cawan petri dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam pada suhu 37o C (anaerob untuk P. gingivalis, aerob untuk S.mutans dan bakteri campur). Diameter zona hambat bakteri yang mengelilingi cakram kertas diukur dan dibandingkan antara masing-masing bahan aktif yang terkandung dalam obat kumur. Hasil: Chlorhexidine mempunyai efek antibakteri paling kuat dibanding povidone iodine dan fluoride. Chlorhexidine lebih ampuh menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri S.mutans dibanding terhadap bakteri P.gingivalis dan bakteri campur dalam plak, sedang Povidone iodine dan fluoride lebih efektif menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri campur. Simpulan: Obat kumur chlorhexidine lebih efektif dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri campur dari plak, Streptococcus mutans dan Porphyromonas gingivalis dibanding povidone iodine dan fluoride dengan suplementasi zinc.

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