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Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 19783728     EISSN : 24429740     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) (e-ISSN:2442-9740; p-ISSN:1978-3728) is published by the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga. Its diciplinary focus is dental science and dental hygiene. The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) is published in English on a quarterly basis with each 50-60 page edition containing between nine and eleven scientific articles on research, study literature and case studies. Contributors to the Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) included: dental researchers, dental practitioners, lecturers, and students drawn from Indonesia and a wide range of other countries.
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Search results for , issue " Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)" : 11 Documents clear
Changes in setting time of alginate impression material with different water temperature Indrani, Decky J.; Matram, Niti
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p5-8

Abstract

Background: Previous studies showed that setting process of alginates can be influenced by temperature. Purpose: To determine the changes in setting time due to differences in water temperature and to determine the correlation between water temperature and the setting time. Methods: Seven groups of dough alginate were prepared by mixing alginate powder and water, each using a temperature between 13° C–28° C with a interval of 2.5° C. A sample mold (Θ = 30 mm, t = 16 mm) was placed on a flat plate and filled with doug alginate. Immediately the flat end of a polished acrylic rod was placed in contact with the surface of dough alginate. Setting time of alginat was measured from the starting of the mix to the time when the alginate does not adhere to the end of the rod. Setting time alginate data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, LSD and Pearson. Results: Setting time of alginate with water temperature between 13° C–28° C were 87 to 119.4 seconds and were significantly different (p < 0.01). The setting time between group were also significantly different (p<0.01). There was an inverse correlation between water temperature and the setting time (r = -0.968). Conclusion: Water temperature between 13° C–28°C with a difference of 2.5° C produced significant differences in alginate setting time; the lower the water temperature being used the longer the setting time was produced.Latar belakang: Penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa proses pengerasan alginat dapat dipengaruhi oleh suhu. Tujuan: Mengetahui perubahan waktu pengerasan alginat akibat perbedaan suhu air serta mengetahui hubungan antara suhu air dan waktu pengerasan. Metode: Tujuh kelompok adonan alginat yang dipersiapkan dengan mencampur bubuk alginat dan air, masingmasing menggunakan suhu antara 13°C–28° C dengan interval 2,5° C. Pengukuran waktu pengerasan alginat dilakukan sesuai dengan spesifikasi ADA no.18. Sebuah cetakan sampel terbuat dari pralon berbentuk cincin (Θ = 30 mm, t = 16 mm) ditempatkan di atas plat datar dan dipenuhi dengan adonan alginat. Pengukuran waktu pengerasan dilakukan segera dengan menyentuhkan ujung datar batang akrilik yang telah dipoles di permukaan adonan alginat. Waktu pengerasn alginat diukur dari awal pencampuran bubuk alginat dan air sampai dengan waktu awal ketika alginat tidak melekat di ujung batang. Data waktu pengerasan yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji statistik One-way Anova, LSD dan Pearson. Hasil: Suhu air antara 13° C–28° C telah menghasilkan waktu-waktu pengerasan alginat 87 detik hingga 119,4 detik yang berbeda signifikan (p < 0,01). Waktu pengerasan antar grup juga menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan (p<0,01). Antara suhu air dan waktu pengerasan alginat terdapat hubungan terbalik (r=-0,968). Kesimpulan. Suhu air antara 13°C–28°C dengan interval 2,5° C menghasilkan perbedaan waktu pengerasan alginat; makin rendah suhu air yang digunakan untuk mencampur makin panjang waktu pengerasan alginat.
The inhibition of malignant epithelial cells in mucosal injury in the oral cavity of strains by pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum linn) through Bcl-2 expression Hernawati, Sri
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p35-38

Abstract

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is a malignant neoplasms derived from epithelia. The malignant neoplasms are cells that have changed their structure and function, and their number becomes increasing abnormally, invasive, and metastatic. Carcinoma can be caused by the resistance of malignant cell apoptosis. Bcl-2 is a proto-oncogene of Bcl family that inhibits the process of cell apoptosis and suppresses Bax protein (pro-apoptotic). The management efforts of cancer diseases, however, still have many obstacles. Thus, the researcher was triggered to explore more herbal plants, namely pomegranate. Pomegranate as a medicinal plant is accessible and cheap. Ellagic acid (EA) is a single active compound derived from whole pomegranate fruit extract (PGL), which has anti-cancer activity as in vitro, but EA is low concentration in plasma, low water solubility, and insoluble in intestinal. These facts prompted the researcher to compare between pomegranate extract, which consists of several active compounds, and that, which only consists of ellagic acid. Thus, this research is expected to know how some active compounds can work synergistically in the PGL, so the effect can be more potent. Purpose: The purpose of this research, therefore, was to compare EA with PGL in reducing the expression of Bcl-2. Methods: This laboratory experimental research was used 32 male mice (Balb/c) in the age of 5 months. They were randomly divided into 4 groups: 2 control groups (K0: which was not exposed with benzopirene and also untreated and K1: which was exposed with benzopirene and also untreated), 2 treatment groups (P1: which was exposed with benzopirene and also treated with EA and P2: which was exposed with benzopirene and also treated with the PGL). Next, an examination was conducted by using immunohistochemical techniques. results: The results then showed that the provision of the PGL could decrease the expression of Bcl-2 significantly higher than that of EA in the malignant epithelial cells of the oral mucosa of those mice. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the provision of the PGL can kill malignant cells in the oral cavity of mice by increasing apoptosis through decreasing Bcl-2 expression that was higher than the provision of EA.latar belakang: Karsinoma sel skuamosa rongga mulut adalah istilah yang digunakan menyebut neoplasma ganas berasal dari epitel. Neoplasma ganas adalah sel yang telah berubah struktur dan fungsi, sehingga mengalami peningkatan jumlah secara abnormal,invasif dan metastasis. Terjadinya karsinoma salah satu disebabkan oleh karena hambatan apoptosis terhadap sel ganas. Bcl-2 adalah protoonkogen keluarga Bcl yang berperan menghambat proses apoptosis sel dan bekerja menekan protein Bax (pro apoptosis). Berbagai upaya penatalaksanaan penyakit kanker masih banyak menemui kendala,sehingga peneliti menggali tanaman obat yaitu buah delima. Buah delima sebagai tanaman obat, mudah didapat dan harganya murah. Ellagic acid (EA) senyawa tunggal bahan aktif dari ekstrak buah delima yang memiliki aktivitas sebagai anti kanker secara in-vitro tetapi EA aktivitas dan konsentrasinya dalam plasma rendah, kelarutan dalam air rendah, metabolisme (EA) tidak larut dalam intestinal. Fakta ini mendorong peneliti untuk membandingkan dengan whole ekstrak delima (PGL) yang terdiri dari beberapa senyawa bahan aktif, tidak hanya ellagic acid, memungkinkan beberapa senyawa bahan aktif pada PGL bisa bekerja sinergis, sehingga efeknya lebih poten. tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini membandingkan antara EA, dengan whole ekstrak buah delima (PGL) dalam menurunkan ekspresi Bcl-2. Metode: Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimental laboratories, 32 ekor mencit (Balb/c), jantan, umur 5 bulan dibagi secara random menjadi 4 kelompok, 2 kelompok kontrol (K0: tidak dipapar benzopirene dan tidak diberi perlakuan, K1: dipapar benzopirene dan tidak diberi perlakuan), 2 kelompok perlakuan (P1: dipapar benzopirene dan diberi EA, P2: dipapar benzopirene dan diberi PGL). Pemeriksaan dengan menggunakan teknik imunohistokimia. hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian PGL dapat menurunkan ekspresi Bcl-2 lebih tinggi dibandingkan EA pada sel epitel ganas mukosa rongga mulut mencit. Kesimpulan: Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian PGL dapat membunuh sel ganas pada rongga mulut mencit dengan jalan meningkatkan apoptosis melalui penurunan ekspresi Bcl-2 lebih tinggi dibandingkan pemberian EA.
Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract Sudiono, Janti; Sandra, Ferry; Halim, Nadya Saputri; Kadrianto, Timotius Andi; Melinia, Melinia
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p9-13

Abstract

Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE) at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT) method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546) than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619). One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05) while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79%) and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100%) applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect of EFLAE on NIH 3T3 cells was detected. Conclusion: EFLAE could inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner, starting from 78%. There was no evidence of EFLAE’s cytotoxic effect on fibroblast.Latar belakang: Erythrina fusca telah digunakan secara empiris sebagai tanaman obat tradisional untuk khasiat antibakteri dan antiradang. Penyakit periodontal merupakan salah satu penyakit infeksi mulut terbanyak dengan mikroorganisme sebagai faktor kontributor utama. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) merupakan salah satu bakteri patogen utama yang ditemukan pada penyakit periodontal. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengamati efek bakterisid terhadap P. gingivalis dan efek sitotoksik terhadap sel fibroblast dari beberapa konsentrasi ekstrak akuades daun Erythrina fusca (EFLAE). Metode: P. gingivalis murni dikultur pada medium Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) selama 24 jam dengan atau tanpa pemberian beberapa konsentrasi EFLAE. Perhitungan dan analisis statistik terhadap bakteri yang masih hidup dilakukan dengan metode zona hambat untuk mengevaluasi efek bakterisid EFLAE dibandingkan dengan chlorhexidine sebagai kontrol positif. Untuk mengevaluasi efek sitotoksik, digunakan kultur sel NIH 3T3 pada medium Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) yang berisi fetal bovine serum (FBS) 10% dan penicillin-streptomycin 1%, pH 7.2, dalam CO2 5%, dan diinkubasi pada suhu 37° C. Sel diberi perlakuan dengan atau tanpa beberapa konsentrasi EFLAE selama 48 jam, kemudian sel yang masih hidup dihitung menggunakan metode 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT). Hasil: EFLAE mempunyai efek bakterisid terhadap P. gingivalis mengikuti kenaikan konsentrasinya dimulai dari 78%. Pada konsentrasi 90%, EFLAE menunjukkan efek bakterisid lebih kuat (35.004 ± 1.546) dibandingkan dengan chlorhexidine (32.313 ± 1.619) sebagai kontrol positif ANOVA-1 jalan menunjukkan perbedaan efek bakterisid yang bermakna di antara beberapa konsentrasi EFLAE dan chlorhexidine (p<0.05) sedangkan uji Tuckey HSD menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna hanya ditemukan antara konsentrasi EFLAE yang lebih rendah (78%, 79%) dengan chlorhexidine. Efek sitotoksik terhadap sel NIH 3T3 tidak terdeteksi pada pemberian konsentrasi tertinggi EFLAE (100%) yang telah diaplikasikan pada uji bakterisid. Kesimpulan: EFLAE dapat menghambat pertumbuhan P. gingivalis sesuai dengan konsentrasinya dimulai dari 78%. Tidak ada efek sitotoksik EFLAE terhadap sel fibroblast.
Shear strength of orthodontic bracket bonding with GIC bonding agent after the application of CPP-ACPF paste Budipramana, Melisa; Hamid, Thalca; Goenharto, Sianiwati
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p39-44

Abstract

Background: White spot lesion is a major problem during fixed orthodontic treatment. This problem can be solved by minimizing white spot lesion before the treatment and using a fluoride-releasing bonding agent. The application of casein phosphopeptidesamorphous calcium phospate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) paste as remineralization agent before treatment and GIC as orthodontic bonding agent is expected to overcome this problem as well as to strengthen GIC bonding. Purpose: To measure the shear strength of fix orthodontic appliance using GIC bonding with CPP-ACPF application prior treatment. Methods: In this study, 50 extracted premolars were randomly divided into 2 groups: group 1 as treatment group and group II as control group that was not given CPPACPF pretreatment. After having been cut and put into acrylic device, the samples in group I were given pretreatment with CPP-ACPF paste on enamel surface for 2 minutes twice a day as instructed in product label for 14 days. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with GIC bonding agent on all samples in both groups as instructed in product label. Then, the shear strength was measured by Autograph Shimatzu with crosshead speed 0.5 mm/minute. The data was analyzed with Independent t-test. Results: The mean shear bond strength in treatment group was 19.22 ± 4.04 MPa and in control group was 12.97 ± 3.97 MPa. Independent t-test analysis showed that there was a significant difference between treatment and control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: CPP-ACPF pretreatment could increase GIC orthodontic bonding shear strength.Latar belakang: Lesi putih karies merupakan masalah utama selama perawatan dengan peranti cekat ortodonti. Hal ini dapat diatasi dengan cara mengurangi lesi putih sebelum perawatan dengan menggunakan bahan bonding yang mengandung fluorida. Aplikasi pasta casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phospate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) sebagai bahan remineralisasi sebelum perawatan dan bahan bonding GIC diharapkan dapat mengatasi masalah ini sekaligus menambah kekuatan cekat bahan bonding GIC. Tujuan: Mengukur kekuatan geser piranti cekat ortodonti menggunakan bonding GIC dengan aplikasi pasta CPP-ACPF. Metode: 50 gigi premolar dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok, yaitu kelompok I sebagai kelompok perlakuan dan kelompok II sebagai kelompok kontrol. Setelah gigi dipotong dan ditanam dalam tabung akrilik, diaplikasikan pasta CPP-ACPF pada permukaan enamel sampel pada kelompok I selama 2 menit 2 kali sehari selama 14 hari. Aplikasi pasta CPP-ACPF tidak dilakukan pada kelompok kontrol. Kemudian breket ortodonti direkatkan dengan bahan bonding GIC pada semua sampel di kelompok I dan kelompok II. Kekuatan geser diukur dengan menggunakan alat Autograph Shimatzu dengan kecepatan cross head 0.5 mm/menit. Data dianalisis dengan statistik independent t-test. Hasil: Rerata kekuatan geser pada kelompok perlakuan 19,22 ± 4,04 MPa dan pada kelompok kontrol 12,97 ± 3,97 MPa. Analisis Independent t-test menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol (p<0.05). Kesimpulan: Kekuatan geser antara piranti cekat ortodonti dengan bahan bonding GIC meningkat setelah aplikasi pasta CPP-ACPF.
The role of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in teeth periapical lesions immunopathogenesis caused by Enterococcus faecalis Yuanita, Tamara; Mooduto, Latief; Kuntaman, Kuntaman
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p14-17

Abstract

Background: Periapical lesions, are characterized by an immune response to the invading bacteria consequences periapical bone destruction. In root canal treatment failure was found Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as most species. iNOS found an important role in protection against infection, plays vital roles in fighting pathogens and contributing to disease pathology. Purpose: This study was to observed the role of iNOS in teeth periapical lessions immunopathogenesis caused by E. faecalis. Methods: The randomized post-only control group design used in this study, This study used 24 Wistar rats, were divided into three groups (each group consisted of 8 rats), as negative controls group is a normal teeth, in the positive controls group was made by drilling the upper right first molar to penetrate the dental pulp and was induced with 10µl BHI-b then filled with Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and the treatment group, after drilling the teeth, then inoculated with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 106 CFU into 10µl BHI-b then filled with GIC to prevent contamination. It takes 21 days to get periapical lesions and rat were sacrificed, and then the expression of iNOS was measured. Results: Statistical analysis using ANOVA found a significant differenced between control and treatment groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study concluded that iNOS role in teeth periapical lesions immunopathogenesis caused by E. faecalis.Latar belakang: Lesi periapikal merupakan hasil suatu respon imun untuk melawan invasi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi tulang periapikal. Pada perawatan saluran akar yang mengalami kegagalan ditemukan Enterococcus faecalis sebagai spesies terbanyak. iNOS berperan penting untuk proteksi terhadap bakteri, mempunyai peran yang vital untuk melawan patogen dan berkonstribusi secara patologik untuk menyebabkan suatu penyakit. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengobservasi peran iNOS secara imunohistokimia pada lesi periapikal tikus Wistar. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan disain randomized post-only control group, digunakan 24 ekor tikus Wistar yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok yang masing-masing terdiri dari 8 ekor tikus, sebagai kelompok kontrol negatif adalah gigi normal, pada kelompok kontrol positif dilakukan pengeboran pada gigi molar pertama rahang atas sampai menembus pulpa kemudian diinduksi 10µl BHI-b kemudian ditumpat (Glass Ionomer Cement) GIC dan pada kelompok perlakuan, setelah dilakukan pengeboran dilakukan induksi E. faecalis ATCC 29212 sebanyak 106 CFU ke dalam 10 µl BHI-b kemudian ditumpat GIC untuk mencegah kontaminasi. Diperlukan waktu 21 hari untuk mendapatkan lesi periapikal pasca perlakuan kemudian tikus dikorbankan lalu dihitung sel-sel yang mengekspresikan iNOS. Hasil: Analisis menggunakan ANAVA membuktikan bahwa ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakuan (p<0,05). Kesimpulan: iNOS berperan pada imunopatogenesis lesi periapikal gigi akibat E. faecalis.
Hemolysin activities as virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from saliva and periapical abscess (gene detection by PCR) N.P.A, Dewa Ayu; Dewiyani, Sari; Ashari, Dessy Sulistya
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p45-49

Abstract

Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a normal flora of the oral cavity, commonly detected in saliva and persistence in endodontic infections. These bacteria have diverse survival and virulence factors. Hemolysin is one of the factor and still had unclear role as a virulence factor of the Enterococcus faecalis to survive in the root canal. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to analyze the presence and activity of hemolysin gene and its activity as a virulence factor isolated from saliva and root canals with periapical abscess. Yet by understanding one of the phenotypes characters which is hemolysin, it is expected a successful endodontic treatment can be provided with the persistent of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Methods: Method of the research starting with the identification of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria in isolated saliva and periapical abscess was done in the first part of the study. Then the phenotypes character of Enterococcus faecalis such as gene detection and expression of hemolysin in blood agar cultures of the 60 colonies samples were performed in the later part. Results: Not all of the colonies cultured were identified as Enterococcus faecalis. All positive detection on hemolysin gene showed hemolysin expresion in both isolated samples. However, there were samples with hemolysin expression eventough no hemolysin gene detected. Hemolysin expression detection in saliva was higher due to different activation phase of hemolysin in saliva. The study with just one primer could lead to the possibility of undetected hemolysin gene, eventough there were samples that did not have hemolysin gene. The proportion of hemolysin expression in root canals were less than saliva, this could be influenced by environmental factors. However, Hemolysin was considered as important virulence factor, particularly for disease therapy. Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was hemolysin gene discovered in clinical isolated saliva and root canals samples as virulence factor of the Enterococcus faecalis, and hemolysin expression occured from both sources.Latar belakang: Bakteri Enterococcus faecalis adalah flora normal rongga mulut dan merupakan mikroorganisme yang umum dideteksi dalam saliva dan infeksi endodontik persistensi. Bakteri ini memiliki berbagai faktor survival dan virulensi. Hemolysin adalah salah satunya tetapi masih merupakan faktor virulensi yang belum terlalu jelas mekanismenya. Tujuan: Tujuan riset ini adalah untuk menganalisis keberadaan gen hemolysin dan aktifitas hemolysin Enterococcus faecalis sebagai faktor virulen yang diisolasi dari saliva dan saluran akar gigi dengan abses periapikal. Mengetahui salah satu karakter fenotip Enterococcus faecalis yaitu hemolysin diharapkan berguna untuk kesuksesan perawatan endodontik akibat pesistensinya bakteri tersebut. Metode: Penelitian diawali pada bagian pertama penelitian adalah identifikasi bakteri Enterococcus faecalis isolat saliva dan abses periapikal. Bagian kedua melihat karakter fenotip Enterococcus faecalis berupa deteksi gen hemolysin serta ekspresi hemolysin di kultur agar darah dari 60 sampel koloni. Hasil: Tidak semua kuman yang tumbuh dikultur teridentifikasi sebagai Enterococcus faecalis. Pada deteksi gen hemolysin positif menunjukkan seluruhannya terekspresi hemolysin di kedua sumber isolat klinik. Namun, terdapat sampel yang menunjukkan terekspresi hemolysin meskipun gen hemolysin tidak ada dan itu lebih banyak di saliva, walaupun tidak bermakna. Hal ini dapat disebabkan perbedaan tahap aktivasi hemolysin di saliva. Pengujian hanya dengan satu primer dapat menyebabkan kemungkinan ada gen hemolysin tetapi tidak terdeteksi. Walaupun memang ada sampel yang tidak memiliki gen hemolysin. Proporsi keberadaan ekspresi hemolysin pada saluran akar lebih sedikit dari saliva karena ekspresi hemolysin dipengaruhi faktor lingkungan. Namun demikian, Hemolysin adalah faktor viruensi yang penting khususnya untuk terapi penyakit. Kesimpulan: Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah ditemukan gen hemolysin pada sampel isolat klinik saliva dan saluran akar sebagai faktor virulen bakteri Enterococcus faecalis serta terjadi ekspresi hemolysin dari kedua sumber tersebut.
Antitumor activity of antisense oligonucleotide p45Skp2 in soft palate carcinoma cell squamous in vitro Supriatno, Supriatno; Yuletnawati, Sartari Entin; Sudarso, Iwa Sutardjo Rus
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p18-22

Abstract

Background: Human soft palate cancers are characterized by a high degree of local invasion and metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. Treatment options for this cancer are limited. However, a new strategy for refractory cancer, gene therapy is watched with keen interest. p45Skp2 gene as a tumor promoter gene is one of target of the oral cancer therapy. To inhibit the activity of p45Skp2 gene is carried-out the genetic engineering via antisense technique. Purpose: To examine the antitumor activity of p45Skp2 antisense (p45Skp2 AS) gene therapy in human soft palate [Hamakawa-Inoue (HI)] cancer cells. Methods: Pure laboratory experimental study with post test only control group design was conducted as a research design. To investigate the apoptosis induction of p45Skp2 AStransfected cell was evaluated by colorimetric caspase-3 assay and Flow cytometry. Furthermore, to detect the suppression of in vitro HI cell invasion and cell growth of p45Skp2 AS-treatment cell was examined by Boyden chamber kit and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The cell number of p45Skp2 AS-treated HI cell was significant decreased when compared with that of p45Skp2 sense (p45Skp2 S) cells (p<0.05). p45Skp2 AS-treated cell induced apoptosis characterized by an increase in the early and late apoptosis, and activation of caspase-3 (p<0.05). Therefore, suppression of HI cell invasion and cell growth were markedly increased by p45Skp2 AS treatment (p<0.05). Conclusion: Antisense oligonucleotide p45Skp2 has a high antitumor activity in human soft palate cancer cell, targeting this molecule could represent a promising new therapeutics approach for this type of cancer.Latar belakang: Kanker palatum lunak mempunyai karakteristik invasi dan metastasis ke limfonodi regional yang tinggi. Pilihan perawatan kanker tersebut masih sangat terbatas. Walaupun demikian, strategi baru untuk penanganan kanker yaitu terapi gen menjadi pilihan utama. Gen p45Skp2 sebagai gen pemacu tumor merupakan salah satu target terapi kanker oral. Untuk menghambat aktivitas gen p45Skp2 tersebut dilakukan rekayasa genetik melalui teknik antisense. Tujuan: Menguji aktivitas antitumor gen p45Skp2 antisense (p45Skp2 AS) terhadap sel kanker palatum lunak (sel HI). Metode: Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimen laboratorik murni dengan rancangan posttest only control group design. Induksi apoptosis sel yang ditransfeksi p45Skp2 AS dievaluasi menggunakan uji caspase-3 kolorimetrik dan flow cytometry. Untuk mendeteksi hambatan invasi dan pertumbuhan sel HI yang ditransfeksi p45Skp2 AS dilakukan uji Boyden chamber dan uji MTT. Hasil: Pertumbuhan sel HI yang ditransfeksi p45Skp2 AS menurun secara signifikan dibandingkan dengan p45Skp2 Sense (S) (p<0,05). Sel HI transfeksi p45Skp2 AS menginduksi apoptosis dengan meningkatkan aktivitas proteolitik caspase-3 dan early and late apoptosis (p<0,05). Hambatan invasi dan pertumbuhan sel HI secara signifikan meningkat pada sel yang diperlakukan dengan p45Skp2 AS (p<0,05). Kesimpulan: p45Skp2 AS oligonukleotida mempunyai aktivitas antitumor yang kuat pada sel kanker palatum lunak. Target dari molekul tersebut dapat menjanjikan suatu terapeutik baru untuk jenis kanker palatum tersebut.
Effect of Citrus aurantifolia swingle essential oils on methyl mercaptan production of Porphyromonas gingivalis Yusinta, Anindya Prima; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie; Dewi, Anne Handrini
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p50-54

Abstract

Background: Halitosis is a term used to describe an unpleasant odors emanating timely from oral cavity. The unpleasant smell of breath most common caused from volatile sulphure compound (VSC). Methyl mercaptan is the major component of VSC. P. gingivalis produced large amount of methyl mercaptan. The essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle contain antibacterial component. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle on the production of methyl mercaptan compounds in P. gingivalis. Methods: Bacterial suspension of P. gingivalis in TSB medium with 108 CFU/ml concentration cultured in a microplate and added by the essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle with 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% concentration. Distilled water was used as negative control and 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash was used as a positive control. Microplate was incubated anaerobically for 48 hours. After the periode of incubation, 0.6% methionine as the exogenous substrate and 0.06% DTNB as a reagen for determining methyl mercaptan concentration were added to each wells. The microplate was futher incubated for 12 hours. Concentration of methyl mercaptan produced by the P. gingivalis was measured spectrophotometrically using microplate reader at 415 nm. Results: One-way ANOVA showed that the essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle take effect on the concentration of methyl mercaptan produced by P. gingivalis. LSD test results indicated that there was a significant difference of methyl mercaptan concentration between treatment groups of the essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle and distilled water that used as negative control. Conclusion: The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle has decreased the production of methyl mercaptan produced by P. gingivalis.Latar belakang: Halitosis adalah istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan bau tidak sedap yang berasal dari rongga mulut. Penyebab utama halitosis adalah senyawa volatile sulphur compound (VSC) dan metil merkaptan merupakan komponen VSC yang paling dominan menyebabkan halitosis. P. gingivalis dapat memproduksi metil merkaptan dalam jumlah banyak. Minyak atsiri kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia swingle) memiliki kandungan antibakteri di dalamnya. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui pengaruh minyak atsiri kulit jeruk nipis terhadap produksi senyawa metil merkaptan pada bakteri P. gingivalis. Metode: Suspensi bakteri P. gingivalis dalam media TSB dengan konsentrasi 108 CFU/ml dibiakkan dalam microplate. Selanjutnya dilakukan penambahan minyak atsiri kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 1%, 2%, 3%, dan 4%. Obat kumur chlorhexidine 0,2% digunakan sebagai kontrol positif dan akuades sebagai kontrol negatif. Microplate diinkubasi selama 48 jam untuk selanjutnya dilakukan penambahan metionin 0,6% dan DTNB 0,06% dan diinkubasi kembali selama 12 jam. Konsentrasi senyawa metil merkaptan yang diproduksi oleh bakteri P. gingivalis dihitung dengan menggunakan microplate reader pada panjang gelombang 415 nm. Hasil: ANOVA satu jalur menunjukkan bahwa minyak atsiri kulit jeruk nipis berpengaruh terhadap konsentrasi metil merkaptan yang diproduksi oleh bakteri P. gingivalis. Hasil uji LSD menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok perlakuan minyak atsiri kulit jeruk nipis dengan akuades sebagai kontrol negatif. Kesimpulan: Minyak atsiri kulit jeruk nipis dapat menurunkan produksi senyawa metil merkaptan yang dihasilkan oleh bakteri penyebab halitosis P. gingivalis.
Evaluation of local muscle soreness treatment with anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material Laksono, Harry; Salim, Sherman
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p23-29

Abstract

Background: Local muscle soreness is the most common temporomandibular disorders complaint of patients seeking treatment in the dental clinics. The emergency treatment that can be done in the clinics to manage this disorder is by making anterior bite splint. Anterior bite splint is usually made of acrylic, but currently there is a soft putty impression material that can also be used for making anterior bite splint. The effectiveness of soft putty anterior bite splint in local muscle soreness treatment still has not clear. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of the soft putty impression material as a material used for making anterior bite splint in the treatment of local muscle soreness. Case: Six patients was reported five female patients aged 20-40 years old and one male patient aged 37 years old with local muscle soreness. Four female patients with a “click” sound on TMJ. Case management: Make differential diagnosis with screening history (anamnesis), clinical examination consists of extra oral examination such as muscle and temporomandibular joint palpation, measure the mandibular movement, end-feel, load test, intra oral examination and radiographic evaluation. Record the results and make the diagnosis. Make a soft putty anterior bite splint, adjusted and inserted in the maxillary anterior teeth. Record the results based on signs and symptoms. Conclusion: It can be concluded that anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material is effective for treatment the local muscle soreness.Latar belakang: Salah satu tipe temporomandibular disorders yang paling sering dijumpai di klinik dokter gigi adalah local muscle soreness. Perawatan yang dapat dengan segera dilakukan di klinik untuk mengelola gangguan tersebut adalah dengan pembuatan anterior bite splint. Biasanya anterior bite splint terbuat dari akrilik, namun saat ini telah ada bahan cetak soft putty yang memungkinkan untuk dipakai sebagai bahan pembuatan anterior bite splint. Efektivitas pemakaian anterior bite splint dari bahan putty untuk perawatan local muscle soreness sampai saat ini masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Mengetahui efektivitas pemakaian bahan cetak soft putty sebagai bahan anterior bite splint pada perawatan local muscle soreness. Kasus: Dilaporkan enam pasien terdiri dari lima pasien wanita usia 24-40 tahun dan satu pasien laki-laki usia 37 tahun dengan diagnosis local muscle soreness. Empat pasien wanita disertai suara “klik” pada sendi. Tatalaksana kasus: membuat diagnosis banding dengan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis terdiri dari pemeriksaan di luar rongga mulut yang meliputi palpasi otot pengunyahan dan sendi temporomandibular, mengukur pergerakan rahang bawah, end-feel, uji beban, pemeriksaan di dalam rongga mulut dan radiologis. Mencatat hasil pemeriksaannya dan membuat diagnosis. Setelah itu membuat soft putty anterior bite splint dan melakukan penyesuaian dan pemasangan. Mencatat hasilnya berdasarkan keluhan-keluhan dan tanda-tanda. Kesimpulan: Anterior bite splint yang terbuat dari bahan cetak soft putty efektif untuk perawatan local muscle soreness.
Patient’s expectation on communication performances community of Dental Health Services providers located in urban and rural area Bramantoro, Taufan; Hariyani, Ninuk
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 1 (2013): (March 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i1.p1-4

Abstract

Background: The quality of dentist’s communication skills is considered as one of important aspects on the quality of dental health services assessment. During the initial interview conducted at Ketabang, Dupak, and Kepadangan community dental health services at Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia, it appeared that eighty percent of initial respondents were not satisfied with the communication aspect. Community Dental Health Services (CDHS) need to assess the communication performances based on community characteristics in effort to promote the quality and effectiveness of the denta health services. Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze patient’s expectation values priorities on dentists communication performances in CDHS that located in urban and rural area. Methods: The study was conducted in Ketabang Surabaya, Dupak Surabaya and Kepadangan Sidoarjo CDHSs. The participants were 400 patients above 18 years old. Participants were assessed their expectation value using the communication performances of dental health services questionnaire. Results: Patients in urban CDHS appeared that there were two priority aspects which had high values, namely the clarity of instructions and the dentist’s ability of active listening to the patient, while patients in rural CDHS revealed that the clarity of instructions and dentist-patient relationship were the aspects with high values. Conclusion: Patients in CDHS that located in rural area expect more dentist-patient interpersonal relationship performance than patients in CDHS located in urban area. This finding becomes a valuable information for CDHS to develop communication strategies based on community characteristics.Latar belakang: Kualitas komunikasi dari dokter gigi merupakan salah satu aspek penting dalam penilaian kualitas layanan suatu sarana pelayanan kesehatan. Pada wawancara pendahuluan yang dilaksanakan di puskesmas Ketabang, Dupak dan Kepadangan di Surabaya dan Sidoarjo, Indonesia, diperoleh hasil bahwa delapan puluh persen responden merasa tidak puas dengan aspek komunikasi dari tenaga kesehatan gigi. Penyedia layanan kesehatan gigi perlu untuk menilai penampilan komunikasi dari tenaga kesehatan gigi sesuai dengan karakteristik masyarakat sebagai usaha untuk meningkatkan kualitas dan efektivitas layanan kesehatan gigi. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis prioritas harapan pasien terhadap penampilan komunikasi dokter gigi di puskesmas yang berlokasi di daerah perkotaan dan pedesaan. Metode: Penelitian dilakukan di puskesmas Ketabang Surabaya, Dupak Surabaya dan Kepadangan Sidoarjo. Responden berjumlah 400 pasien, berusia diatas 18 tahun. Penilaian harapan pasien akan aspek komunikasi dari tenaga kesehatan akan diukur dengan menggunakan kuesioner kualitas layanan terkait penampilan komunikasi. Hasil: Pasien pada puskesmas di daerah perkotaan menyampaikan bahwa ada dua aspek prioritas yang mereka anggap lebih bernilai, yaitu kejelasan instruksi dokter gigi dan kemampuan dokter gigi untuk mendengarkan mereka secara aktif, sementara pasien di puskesmas pedesaan lebih memberikan nilai prioritas yang tinggi pada aspek kejelasan instruksi dokter dan hubungan kedekatan antara dokter–pasien. Kesimpulan: Pasien pada Puskesmas yang terletak di daerah pedesaan lebih mengharapkan upaya membangun hubungan interpersonal dokter gigi dengan pasien dibandingkan dengan pasien pada puskesmas terletak di daerah perkotaan. Temuan ini merupakan informasi yang berharga bagi penyedia layanan kesehatan gigi untuk membangun strategi komunikasi berdasarkan karakteristik masyarakat sasaran.

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