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Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 19783728     EISSN : 24429740     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) (e-ISSN:2442-9740; p-ISSN:1978-3728) is published by the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga. Its diciplinary focus is dental science and dental hygiene. The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) is published in English on a quarterly basis with each 50-60 page edition containing between nine and eleven scientific articles on research, study literature and case studies. Contributors to the Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) included: dental researchers, dental practitioners, lecturers, and students drawn from Indonesia and a wide range of other countries.
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Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)" : 11 Documents clear
Genetic variability of Candida albicans in HIV/AIDS patient with and without ARV therapy and non HIV/AIDS Rahayu, Retno Puji; P, Widiyanti; M, Arfijanto
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p28-34

Abstract

Background: Oral candidiasis is the mostly found oral manifestation in HIV/AIDS infected patient caused by immunocompromised especially immunodeficiency. Clinical symptoms is severe pain in oral cavity and dry mouth because of xerostomia which cause the loss of appetite. Candida albicans (C. albicans) is normal flora in oral cavity which plays as opportunistic pathogen and also the cause of oral candidiasis. Almost 90% of HIV–infected patient have oral candidiasis. This condition is clinical problem which has not been well-managed yet. C. albicans colonized oral mucous cavity has different genetic variability for each strain. Phenotype of C. albicans has been determined by genetic factor and environtment. This condition stimulate differences of genotype among various strain of C. albicans in the world. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze the genetic variability of C.albicans which colonized in the mucous oral cavity of HIV/AIDS patient in Surabaya in the treatment with and without ARV therapy and non HIV/AIDS. Methods: This research has been identify and characterize the prevalent strain of C. albicans isolat in Surabaya (East Java) in HIV/AIDS infected patient with oral candidiasis by method of Iatron candidal check. The highlight of this research including cytology examination by Papanicoloau staining, C. albicans culture, spheroplast making, DNA isolation and genetic variability checking by randomly amplyfied polymorphism DNA (RAPD). Results: C. albicans colonizing oral mucosa of non-HIV patients had a predisposition of farther genetic relationship (genetic distance of 0.452) with C. albicans colonizing oral mucosa of HIV ARV and HIV non-ARV patients. The genetic distance was ranging between 0 and 1, where 9 was long genetic distance and 1 was short genetic distance. In contrast, C. albicans colonizing oral mucosa of HIV ARV have predisposition of closer genetic relationship (genetic distance of 0.762) with C. albicans colonizing oral mucosa of HIV non-ARV patients. Conclusion: The conclusion of this research were C.albicans colonizing HIV/AIDS patiens with and without ARV showed no high genetic variability between C.albicans isolate in HIV patients. There fore, the character of C.albicans colonizing HIV ARV and HIV non-ARV patients had similar genotype predisposition of closer relationship value with C.albicans colonizing oral mucosa non HIV patients.Latar belakang: Oral candidiasis merupakan manifestasi kelainan rongga mulut yang paling sering timbul pada penderita HIV/AIDS karena kondisi immunocompromised terutama defisiensi imun. Gejala klinisnya berupa nyeri hebat di rongga mulut dan mulut kering karena xerostomia yang menyebabkan hilangnya nafsu makan. Candida albicans (C. albicans) berperan sebagai patogen oprtunistik dan merupakan penyebab Kandidiasis rongga mulut. Hampir 90% penderita terinfeksi HIV mengalami kandidiasis rongga mulut. Kondisi ini merupakan masalah klinis yang belum teratasi dengan baik. Kolonisasi C. albicans di mukosa rongga mulut mempunyai variabilitas genetic yang berbeda untuk tiap strainnya. Fenotip C. albicans ditentukan oleh faktor genetic dan lingkungan. Kondisi ini menstimulir perbedaan genotip di antara berbagai strain C. albicans di dunia. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah meneliti korelasi antara hubungan genetik yang menunjukkan variasi genetik kolonisasi C. albicans pada rongga mulut dan insidens kandidiasis rongga mulut pada penderita HIV/AIDS dan non-HIV/AIDS. Metode: Penelitian ini mengidentifikasi dan mengkarakterisasi strain Candida albicans isolat Surabaya (Jawa Timur) pada penderita HIV/AIDS dengan kandidiasis rongga mulut dengan metode iatron candidal check. Penekanan dalam penelitian ini termasuk pada pemeriksaan sitologi dengan pengecatan Papanicoloau, kultur C. albicans, pembuatan spheroplast, isolasi DNA dan pemeriksaan variabilitas genetik dengan randomly amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD). Hasil: C. albicans yang berkolonisasi di rongga mulut pada penderita non-HIV mempunyai predisposisi hubungan genetik (jarak genetik 0.452) dengan C. albicans yang berkolonisasi di rongga mulut pada penderita HIV yang mendapatkan terapi ARV dan non ARV. Jarak genetic bervariasi antara 0 dan 1, dimana 9 dalah jarak genetik terpanjang and 1 adalah jarak genetik terpendek. Sebaliknya, C. albicans yang berkolonisasi di rongga mulut pada penderita HIV yang menerima terapi ARV memiliki predisposisi hubungan genetic yang lebih dekat (jarak genetic 0.762) dibandingkan C. albicans yang berkolonisasi di rongga mulut pada penderita HIV non-ARV. Kesimpulan: Sebagai kesimpulan, penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa C. albicans isolate Surabaya yang mengkolonisasi penderita HIV/AIDS dengan ARV dan non ARV memiliki hubungan kekerabatan genetik yang sama dibanding dengan pasien non HIV/AIDS.
Immediate overdenture for improving aesthetic of anterior teeth with periodontal problem Soesetijo, FX. Ady
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p1-5

Abstract

Background: The construction of overdenture is often applied because endodontic treatment usualy give very promising results and patient has high motivation to maintain their natural teeth. Overdenture is a removable partial or complete denture that covers and rests on one or more remaining natural teeth, roots and/or dental implants. The presence of retained teeth can maximize retention, stabilization and prevent trauma to the oral mucosa. Meanwhile, the presence of root in the bone can delay resorption of the alveolar process. The role of proprioceptor in the periodontal ligament abutment teeth remains effective. Thus, it can be said the overdenture treatment is a preventive prosthodontic treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this case report was to present a case of maxillary and mandibullary anterior teeth with periodontal disease, through endodontic and prosthodontic treatments for recovering its function of phonetic and aesthetic. Case: The 25 years old female with periodontal problems (protrusive, wiggly °1–°2 and along with gingival retraction) on 12, 11, 21, 22 and 32, 31, 41, 42. The patient felt bad about his performance and affect his self confidence. The patient visited tthe dental hospital to restore her teeth and recovering aesthetic and phonetic functions. Case management: The overdenture inserted immediately after one visit endodontic treatment and cutting off the clinical crown of the teeth. The adaptation of the denture is needed by relining using self cured acrylic resin. The patient was quite satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: In conclusion, the maxillary and mandibullary anterior teeth with periodontal problem could be managed through conservative and prosthotontic approach of treatment to recover of its performance and function.Latar belakang: Konstruksi overdenture sering diaplikasikan pada pasien, karena perawatan endodontik memberikan hasil perawatan yang sangat menjanjikan dan pasien memiliki motivasi tinggi untuk mempertahankan gigi asli mereka. Overdenture adalah gigi tiruan lepasan sebagian atau lengkap yang bertumpu pada satu atau lebih gigi asli yang tersisa, akar dan/atau implan gigi. Gigi asli yang tersisa di dalam mulut dapat memaksimalkan retensi, stabilisasi dan mencegah trauma pada mukosa oral. Selain itu, dipertahankannya sisa akar gigi dapat menghambat resorpsi tulang alveolar serta peran proprioseptor ligamen periodontal tetap efektif. Dengan demikian, dapat dikatakan bahwa perawatan overdenture adalah perawatan prostodontik pencegahan. Tujuan: Tujuan dari laporan kasus ini adalah untuk mempresentasikan kasus gigi-gigi anterior rahang atas dan rahang bawah dengan penyakit periodontal melalui perawatan endodontik dan prostodontik untuk memulihkan fungsi fonetik dan estetik. Kasus: Wanita usia 22 tahun dengan masalah periodontal (protrusi, goyang °1–°2 dan disertai dengan retraksi gingival) pada 12, 11, 21, 22 dan 32, 31, 41, 42. Pasien datang ke rumah sakit gigi dan mulut ingin memperbaiki giginya untuk mengembalikan fungsi estetik dan fonetik. Pasien merasa kurang percaya diri terhadap penampilannya. Tatalaksana kasus: Overdenture dipasang segera setelah perawatan one visit endodontik yang diikuti dengan pemotongan mahkota klinis. Relining dengan resin akrilik diperlukan untuk menyesuaikan gigi tiruan terhadap jaringan pendukungnya. Pasien cukup puas dengan perawatan ini. Kesimpulan: Disimpulkan bahwa, gigi-gigi anterior rahang atas dan rahang bawah dengan masalah periodontal dapat diperbaiki melalui pendekatan perawatan konservasi dan prostodonsi untuk memperbaiki penampilan dan fungsi.
Relationship between salivary fluor concentration and caries index in 12–15 years old children Pratiwi, Vidyana; Aripin, Dudi; Setiawan, Ame Suciati
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p35-38

Abstract

Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection leading to dissolution and localized damage of hard tissues. The assessment of caries risk is based on several caries indicators including clinical conditions (DMF-T index), environment (fluor), and general health. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between salivary fluor concentration and caries index in children aging 12–15 years old at SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan. Methods: This study is an observational analytical study using crosssectional approach and is conducted in a field trial manner. The study sample consists of 80 students in the age of 12 to 15 years old at SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII selected through Probability Sampling manner using simple random sampling method. Results: The result of this study shows a DMF-T index of 4.32 and salivary fluor concentration mean of 0.018. Pearson Product Moment correlation test shows that there is a weak correlation between salivary fluor concentration and DMF-T index. Conclusion: It is concluded that the salivary fluor concentration has an insignificant correlation with the DMF-T index since the fluor concentration in saliva is very low.Latar belakang: Karies gigi adalah penyakit infeksi bakteri yang berakibat pada disolusi dan kerusakan terlokalisasi jaringan keras. Penilaian risiko karies berdasarkan atas beberapa indikator karies yaitu kondisi klinis (indeks DMF-T), lingkungan (fluor), dan kesehatan umum. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan konsentrasi fluor yang terdapat dalam saliva dengan indeks karies pada anak usia 12-15 tahun di SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional yang dilakukan di lapangan. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 80 orang siswasiswi usia 12–15 tahun di SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan yang dipilih secara Probability Sampling dengan metode simple random sampling. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indeks DMF-T 4,32 dan rerata konsentrasi fluor dalam saliva sebesar 0,018. Tes korelasi Pearson Product Moment menunjukkan hubungan yang tidak kuat antara konsentrasi fluor dalam saliva dengan indeks DMF-T. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan konsentrasi fluor dalam saliva mempunyai hubungan dengan indeks DMF-T tetapi tidak signifikan dikarenakan nilai konsentrasi fluor dalam saliva yang sangat rendah.
Orthodontic treatment considerations in Down syndrome patients Goenharto, Sianiwati
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p6-11

Abstract

Background: Down syndrome is an easily recognized congenital disease anomaly, a common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with high prevalence of malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment demand should be high but it seems difficult to be done because of specific condition of disability. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review was to discribe the orthodontic problems found in Down syndrome patients and several consideration that shoud be done to treat them. Reviews: Many studies report the high prevalence of malocclusion among people with Down syndrome. There is a greater frequency of clas III relationship, crossbite, crowding and also open bite. Several problems might appear in the treatment because of dental, medical, mental, and behavioural factor. Conclusion: It is concluded that orthodonic treatment can be performed in Down syndrome patient, although several difficulties may appear. Good consideration in mental, behavior, medical and also dental condition will influence whether the treatment will success or not. Special care and facilities will support the orthodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down adalah suatu kelainan congenital yang mudah dikenali, merupakan kelaian kromosom autosomal yang cukup banyak terjadi, dengan prevalensi maloklusi cukup tinggi. Seharusnya permintaan akan perawatan ortodonti juga tinggi meskipun tampaknya sulit dilakukan karena adanya kondisi ketidakmampuan/cacat yang spesifik. Tujuan: Tujuan studi pustaka ini adalah untuk menggambarkan problem perawatan ortodonti pada penderita sindroma Down dan pertimbangan apa yang sebaiknya diambil untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Tinjauan pustaka: Banyak penelitian melaporkan tentang prevalensi maloklusi yang tinggi pada penderita sindroma Down. Maloklusi yang sering dijumpai adalah relasi klas III, gigitan silang, berdesakan dan juga gigitan terbuka. Problem dapat terjadi saat perawatan ortodonti karena adanya faktor dental, medis, mental dan tingkah laku penderita. Kesimpulan: Disimpulkan bahwa perawatan ortodonti masih dapat dilakukan pada penderita sindroma Down meskipun dengan beberapa kesulitan. Pertimbangan mental, tingkah laku, kondisi medis sistemik dan kondisi dental, akan mempengaruhi hasil perawatan. Tindakan dan fasilitas khusus diperlukan untuk menunjang suksesnya perawatan ortodonti pada penderita sindroma Down.
Crude toxin of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype-B increase PARP-1 expression in gingival epithelium Setiawatie, Ernie Maduratna
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p39-42

Abstract

Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitants) serotype-B has long been associated with aggressive periodontitis. Gingival epithelial cell is exquisitely sensitive to the toxin so that may lead to disruption of the epithelial protective barrier, facilitating invasion and perturbation of the underlying connective tissue. Currently suggested that Aa serotypeB produce protein toxin that caused DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear protein functioning as a DNA nick-sensor enzyme. PARP-1 was one of the first identified substrates of caspases, the main executioners of apoptosis. Therefore, a role for PARP-1 in the regulation of apoptosis has been suggested. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prove PARP-1 expression in gingival epithelium caused by toxin exposure of A. actinomycetemcomitant serotype-B. Methods: This is an experimental study involving twenty adult mice strain Swiss Webster (balb C) divided randomly into two groups: control group (Group A) and toxin group (Group B). Both group were acclimated for one week before treatment. Group A was applied topically with sterile distillated water every 12 hours. Group B was applied topically by 100μg/ml of crude toxin A. actinomycetemcomitant serotype B at the buccal area of mandibular anterior teeth using Hamilton syringe. The mice were sacrificed at 24 hours after toxin application, and then the tissue sections of gingival epithelium were stained with immunohistochemistry to reveal the PARP-1 expression. The data were analyzed with t-test. Results: The PARP-1 expression exhibited an increase with the toxin group (mean= 48.9; SD= 2.01) compared with the control group (mean= 25.21; SD= 1.72). DNA fragmentation appeared from the agarose gel examination, marked as DNA laddering, indicate the cell apoptosis. Conclusion: In conclusion the crude toxin exposure of A. actinomycetemcomitant serotype-B leads to DNA fragmentation and increase PARP-1 expression.Latar belakang: Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitant) serotype-B merupakan etiologi utama periodontitis agresif. Sel epitel gingiva sangat sensitif terhadap toksin sehingga dapat mengganggu epitel sebagai pertahanan awal gingiva, membantu invasi toksin dan mengganggu jaringan ikat dibawahnya. Saat ini diketahui bahwa toksin bakteri Aa serotype-B menyebabkan putusnya rantai DNA. PARP-1 merupakan protein dalam intisel yang berfungsi sebagai DNA nicksensor enzyme. PARP-1 merupakan penanda awal apoptosis, sehingga peran PARP-1 dalam pengaturan apoptosis perlu diteliti Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti ekspresi PARP-1 pada epitel gingiva yang dipapar toksin bakteri A. actinomycetemcomitant serotype-B. Metode: Penelitian eksperimen pada 20 mencit strain Swiss Webster (balb C) dibagi secara random dalam 2 kelompok, kelompok kontrol (Group A) dan kelompok perlakuan (Group B). Kedua kelompok diaklimasi sebelumnya selama 1 minggu. Kelompok diaplikasi secara topikal dengan air destilasi steril setiap 12 jam. Kelompok B diaplikasi 100 μg/ml toksin A. actinomycetemcomitant serotype-B secara topikal dengan menggunakan Hamilton syringe. Mencit dimatikan 24 jam setelah aplikasi toksin kemudian potongan epitel gingiva dilakukan pemeriksaan secara imunohistokimia untuk melihat ekspresi PARP-1. Data dianalisis dengan uji-t. Hasil: Ekspresi PARP-1 menunjukkan penigkatan pada kelompok perlakuan (Mean = 48,9; SD = 2,01) bila dibanding kelopok kontrol (Mean= 25,21; SD= 1,72). Tampak adanya gambaran DNA fragmentasi pada pemeriksaan gel elektroforesis yang menunjukkan adanya apoptosis. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa paparan toksin A. actinomycetemcomitant serotype-B menyebabkan DNA fragmentasi, dan meningkatkan ekspresi PARP-1.
The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) infusion as root canal irrigant solution Pangabdian, Fani; Soetanto, Slamet; Suardita, Ketut
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p12-16

Abstract

Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3). The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05), except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan disinfeksi dan sealer terhadap tubuli dentin dan mengurangi perlekatan bahan pengisi saluran akar, sehingga dibutuhkan larutan irigasi yang dapat membuang smear layer tersebut. Infusa daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) mengandung saponin yang dikarakteristikkan sebagai surfaktan yang dapat melarutkan smear layer, tetapi sampai sekarang belum ada penelitian tentang hal tersebut. Tujuan: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi efektif daya pembersih infusa daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) dapat membersihkan dinding saluran akar dari smear layer. Metode: 15 gigi premolar bawah manusia yang mempunyai akar lurus dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok secara acak (n=3). Gigi dipreparasi menggunakan rotary instrumen sampai Protaper F2 (30/0.02). Selama instrumentasi, dilakukan irigasi dengan infusa daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) dan konsentrasi 10, 20, 30, 40% dan diirigasi aquadest untuk grup kontrol. Setelah itu kebersihan dinding saluran akar diperiksa dengan menggunakan scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang signifikanantara masing-masing kelompok (p<0,05), kecuali kelompok yang diirigasi infusa daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) konsentrasi 30% dan 40% (p>0,05). Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan infusa daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) dengan konsentrasi 30% efektif untuk membersihkan dinding saluran akar dari smear layer.
Effectiveness of bleaching agent on composite resin discoloration Sampoerno, Galih
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p43-47

Abstract

Background: The discoloration of teeth, especially anterior teeth, is one of aesthetic problems. The use of tooth bleaching agents for discolored natural teeth is becoming increasingly popular. Many dentists, however, get many problems when they conduct bleaching process since there is much composite filling on patient’s anterior teeth. Although many research have focused on the discoloration of composite resin after bleaching process, the problem still becomes debatable. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of the discoloration between hybrid composite and nano composite before and after the application of tooth bleaching agent, 38% hydrogen peroxide. Methods: Eighteen disk-shaped specimens (5 mm) of each of two composite resins, hybrid and nano filler, were prepared. The each group was treated 3 times and the specimens were divided into two groups consisted of 9 specimens for each, and then immersed in black tea solutions for 72 hours. Next, after having staining and bleaching processes, the color of the specimens was measured with a optic spectrophotometer by using photo with type BPY-47 and digital microvolt. The differences of the light intensity among three measurements were then calculated. Afterwards, GLM MANOVA Repeated Measure and parametric analysis (Independent t-test and Paired t-test) were then used to analyze the data. Results: After staining process, it is then known that the nano composite had more discoloration and more affected by the black tea solution than the hybrid one. Conclusion: After bleaching, the discoloration was finally removed completely from both hybride and nano filler composite resins and became brighter from the baseline color.Latar belakang: Salah satu problem estetik adalah adanya perubahan warna pada gigi anterior. Peningkatan pemakaian bahan bleaching semakin popular. Banyak dokter gigi mempunyai problem ketika mereka akan melakukan proses bleaching dan ditemukan banyak tumpatan komposit pada gigi anteriornya. Meskipun telah banyak penelitiahan yang dilakukan tetapi masalah ini masih menjadi pro dan kontra. Tujuan: Melihat perbedaan perubahan warna antara komposit hybrid dan komposit nano sebelum dan sesudah terpapar bahan pemutih gigi hidrogen peroksida 38%. Metode: Tiap kelompok mendapatkan perlakuan 3 kali. Dipersiapka 18 spesimen berbentuk tabung (5 mm) dan dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok masing-masing 9 untuk resin komposite hybrid dan komposit nano. Direndam larutan teh hitam selama 72 jam. Perubahan warna diukur dengan spektrofotometer tipe BPY-47 dan mikrovolt digital, baik sebelum, setelah perendaman larutan teh hitam dan setelah proses bleaching. Perbedaan intensitas cahaya dihitung dengan GLM MANOVA Repeated Measuse dan analisa parametrik. Hasil: Setelah perendaman teh hitam, komposit nano mempunyai perubahan warna yang lebih gelap dibandingkan komposit hybrid. Setelah bleaching, baik komposite hybrid dan komposit nano kembali ke warna aslinya. Tetapi perubahan warna komposit nano lebih besar dari pada komposit hybrid. Kesimpulan: Setelah bleaching, baik resin komposit hybrid dan nano menjadi lebih terang dari warna aslinya.
Degrees of chitosan deacetylation from white shrimp shell waste as dental biomaterials Sularsih, Sularsih; Yuliati, Anita; D, Coen Pramono
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p17-21

Abstract

Background: Chitosan is biomaterial improved for various dentistry applications because it is biocompatible, degradable, nontoxic, and not carcinogenic. The main parameter affecting the characteristics of chitosan is deacetylation degree. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the degree of deacetylated of chitosan derived from white shrimp shell waste used as dental biomaterial. Methods: White shrimp shells were crushed into powder. Next, deproteination process was conducted with 3.5% NaOH solution, demineralized with 1N HCl solution, and then depigmented with 90% acetone solution into chitin powder. Deacetylation process was then conducted by soaking the chitin powder in 50% NaOH solution for 6 h at 65° C to produce white powder of chitosan. Afterwards, deacetylation degree test was conducted by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) to calculate the ratio of the absorption bands between the absorbance peak of amide group about 1655 cm–1 and the absorbance peak of hydroxyl group about 3450 cm–1. Results: The result of the deacetylation degree test on the chitosan powder derived from white shrimp shell waste was high, about 85.165%, and had the eligible form, solubility, and pH. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the deacetylation degree of chitosan from white shrimp shells could reach 85.165%.Latar belakang: Kitosan merupakan biomaterial yang dikembangkan untuk berbagai aplikasi kedokteran gigi karena biokompatibel, dapat didegradasi, tidak toksik dan tidak karsinogenik. Parameter utama yang mempengaruhi karakteristik kitosan adalah derajat deasetilasi. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui derajat deasetilasi kitosan dari limbah kulit udang putih sebagai biomaterial kedokteran gigi. Metode: Kulit udang putih dihaluskan menjadi serbuk. Setelah itu dilakukan proses deproteinasi dengan larutan NaOH 3,5%, demineralisasi dengan larutan HCl 1N, depigmentasi dengan larutan aseton 90% sehingga menjadi serbuk kitin. Proses deasetilasi dilakukan dengan merendam serbuk kitin dalam larutan NaOH 50% selama 6 jam pada suhu 65° C sehingga dihasilkan serbuk putih kitosan. Uji derajat deasetilisasi menggunakan metode spektrofotometer Fourier Transform Inframerah (FTIR) dengan menghitung nilai perbandingan pita serapan antara puncak absorbansi gugus amida sekitar 1655 cm–1, dan puncak absorbansi gugus hidroksil sekitar 3450 cm–1. Hasil: Hasil uji derajat deasetilasi serbuk kitosan dari limbah kulit udang putih adalah tinggi yaitu sebesar 85.165% dan memiliki bentuk, kelarutan dan pH yang memenuhi syarat. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan derajat deasitilasi kitosan dari kulit udang putih adalah 85,165%.
Analysis of importance level and quality achievement aspect in dental health service (A case study on Waru Sidoarjo Community Dental Health Service) Bramantoro, Taufan; Palupi, Retno
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p48-51

Abstract

Background: Patients as customers of health services actually have expectation and assessment of health services perceived. During the initial interview conducted at Waru Sidoarjo Community Dental Health Service (Waru Sidoarjo CDHS), it is known that one hundred percent of initial respondents were not satisfied with dental care service provided. All of those respondents assessed that Waru Sidoarjo CDHS still has not met their expectations of service quality factors considered to be important for them. It is even known that there is usually a gap between the expectations of quality dental care service and the assessment of services perceived. As a result, further researches are needed to be conducted regarding the level of importance and achievement-related with factors that affect the quality of health services. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of importance and achievement of the quality aspects of the health service provided by Waru Sidoarjo CDHS. Methods: This study can be considered as a descriptive observational study. The instrument used in this study was measurement instruments of service quality. Respondents in the study were 200 patients who visited to dental care services in Waru Sidoarjo CDHS in July 2011. Results: All of the attributes had a mean value of dominant importance and assessments at four. The attributes of the appearance feasibility of medical staffs had the highest interest, about 4.780. Meanwhile, the mean value of the lowest importance was on the attributes of the service suitability, about 4.595. During the observation of the service value, it is also known that the highest mean value was on the non-discriminative services, about 4.600. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there were attributes considered to be important for patients, but still not being fully met by health services provided by the service provider or Community Dental Health Care. Those attributes involving waiting room comfort, service readiness and service preparation attributes which not only had high importance value, but also had a large percentage of respondents who were not satisfied.Latar belakang: Pasien sebagai pengguna jasa pelayanan kesehatan, memiliki harapan dan penilaian terhadap pelayanan kesehatan yang diterima. Pada wawancara awal yang dilakukan pada pasien Balai Pengobatan Gigi Puskesmas Waru Sidoarjo, didapatkan bahwa seratus persen responden awal merasa tidak puas dengan pelayanan kesehatan gigi. Seluruh responden awal menilai pihak BPG Puskesmas belum memenuhi harapan mereka terhadap faktor kualitas pelayanan yang mereka nilai penting. Terdapat kesenjangan antara harapan mereka terkait kualitas pelayanan kesehatan gigi yang mereka nilai penting dengan penilaian mereka terhadap pelayanan yang diterima, sehingga diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai tingkat kepentingan dan pencapaian terkait faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap kualitas pelayanan kesehatan. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kepentingan dan pencapaian aspek kualitas pelayanan yang diberikan Balai Pengobatan Gigi Puskesmas Waru Sidoarjo. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif observasional. Instrumen yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah instrumen pengukuran kualitas pelayanan jasa. Responden pada penelitian adalah 200 pasien yang berkunjung dan mendapatkan pelayanan kesehatan gigi di Balai pengobatan Gigi Puskesmas Waru Sidoarjo pada bulan Juli 2011. Hasil: Seluruh atribut memiliki rerata nilai kepentingan dan penilaian yang dominan pada nilai 4. Atribut kelayakan penampilan staf medis memiliki nilai kepentingan tertinggi sebesar 4,780. Rerata nilai kepentingan terendah pada atribut kesesuaian layanan sebesar 4,595. Pada pengamatan nilai penerimaan layanan, rerata nilai tertinggi pada atribut layanan yang tidak diskriminatif sebesar 4,600. Rerata nilai terendah didapatkan pada atribut kesiapan layanan sebesar 4,200. Kesimpulan: Disimpulkan bahwa terdapat atribut yang dinilai penting tetapi belum sepenuhnya terpenuhi oleh pelayanan kesehatan yang diberikan oleh penyedia layanan atau Puskesmas. Atribut kenyamanan ruang tunggu, kesigapan layanan, dan kesiapan layanan, memiliki nilai kepentingan yang tinggi, tetapi memiliki nilai persentase yang besar pada jumlah responden yang merasa tidak puas.
Antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in diabetes mellitus rats treated with insulin Ermawati, Tantin; Murdiastuti, Kwartarini
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 45, No 1 (2012): (March 2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i1.p22-27

Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues. Etiology of periodontal disease includes Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) which is the most predominant disease-causing bacteria found in the gingival sulcus. Periodontitis can be exacerbated by the systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus considered as a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency. Treatment of periodontitis is then required in patients with type I diabetes to avoid radical reaction that can not only cause bleeding, but can also prevent infection, as a result, topical antimicrobial therapy and blood glucose control are required. Topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide is a disinfectant that is effective in killing A. actinomycetemcomitans. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effects of topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide gel or rinse on the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans in DM rats treated with insulin. Methods: 20 three month old male Wistar rats with weight of 170–200 grams were divided into four groups. First, periodontitis and DM were manipulated into all groups through aloksan injection with dose of 170 mg/kg. Those rats in group I were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide gel, those in group II were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide rinse, those in group III were treated with insulin only, and those in group IV were without treatment. In the third and seventh weeks, the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans was measured. The data was tested by using One-Way ANOVA test followed by LSD test. Results: The study showed that chlorine dioxide gel has a greater ability in reducing the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse although both are antimicrobials. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of chlorine dioxide gel can more effective to decrease the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse in DM rats treated with insulin therapy.Latar belakang: Periodontitis adalah suatu penyakit inflamasi kronis jaringan periodontal. Etiologi penyakit periodontal diantaranya adalah A. actinomycetemcomitans yang merupakan bakteri paling dominan penyebab penyakit yang terdapat pada actinomycetemcomitans yang merupakan bakteri paling dominan penyebab penyakit yang terdapat pada sulkus gingiva. Periodontitis yang terjadi diperparah adanya penyakit sistemik yaitu diabetes mellitus (DM) yang merupakan penyakit metabolik yang ditandai dengan hiperglikemi akibat defisiensi insulin. Perawatan periodontitis pada penderita DM tipe I adalah untuk Perawatan periodontitis pada penderita DM tipe I adalah untuk menghindari tindakan radikal yang dapat menyebabkan perdarahan dan mencegah terjadinya infeksi, sehingga digunakan terapi antimikroba topikal serta kontrol glukosa darah. Antimikroba topikal chlorine dioxide merupakan desinfektan yang efektif dalam membunuh A. actinomycetemcomitans. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek antimikroba topikal chlorine dioxide gel atau rinse terhadap jumlah A. actinomycetemcomitans pada tikus DM dengan insulin. Metode: Dua puluh ekor tikus Wistar, jantan, usia 3 bulan, berat 170–200 gram, dibagi menjadi empat kelompok. Semua kelompok sebelumnya dimanipulasi periodontitis serta DM dengan injeksi aloksan dosis 170 mg/kgBB. Kelompok I adalah tikus yang diterapi insulin dan chlorine dioxide gel, kelompok II diterapi insulin dan chlorine dioxide rinse, kelompok III diterapi insulin, serta kelompok IV adalah tikus tanpa dilakukan terapi apapun. Pada minggu ke-3 dan ke-7 dilakukan penghitungan jumlah A. actinomycetemcomitans. Hasil pengukuran di analisis menggunakan uji Anava 1 jalur dilanjutkan dengan uji LSD. Hasil: Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa chlorine dioxide gel mempunyai kemampuan lebih besar dalam menurunkan jumlah A. actinomycetemcomitans dibandingkan chlorine dioxide rinse, walaupun keduanya bersifat antimikroba. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian chlorine dioxide gel lebih efektif menurunkan jumlah A. actinomycetemcomitans dibandingkan kelompok yang diberi chlorine dioxide rinse pada tikus DM dengan terapi insulin.

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