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Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 19783728     EISSN : 24429740     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) (e-ISSN:2442-9740; p-ISSN:1978-3728) is published by the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga. Its diciplinary focus is dental science and dental hygiene. The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) is published in English on a quarterly basis with each 50-60 page edition containing between nine and eleven scientific articles on research, study literature and case studies. Contributors to the Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) included: dental researchers, dental practitioners, lecturers, and students drawn from Indonesia and a wide range of other countries.
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Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)" : 11 Documents clear
Piperin and piplartin as natural oral anticancer drug Bidarisugma, Berlian; Balbeid, Sarah Usman; Irmawati, Anis
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p215-219

Abstract

Background: Since the last few decades, oral cancer as pathology has become an attention in medicine and dentistry. The majority cases of oral cancer are affecting people with smoking habit and alcohol consumption. Many herbs contain substances which can stop cancer cells proliferation, such as Piper retrofractum/Retrofracti fructus, an herb plant from Piperaceae family which contains piperin and piplartin. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of piperin and pilplartin as natural oral anticancer drug. Reviews: Piperin and piplartin has function as antioxidant that can protect body cell from damage caused by free radicals. Piperin works synergistically with another bioactive substance like capsaicin and curcumin. Piperin increase the number of serum and life time of serum from a few nutrition substance like co-enzyme Q10 and beta-carotene. Beta-carotene can catch reactive O2 and peroxil radicals. The activity of anticancer piplartin related with obstruction of proliferation cell rate, observe form Ki67 reduction as antigen in nucleus that associated with G1, S, G2, and M phase in cell cycle. Comparing with piplartin, piperin is more potential to inhibit proliferation rate of Ki67, but piplartin’s antiproliferation mechanism will increase if supported by piperin. Conclusion: Piperin and piplartin contained in Javanese chili are potential for natural oral anticancer, by directly or indirectly suppress tumor cell development by increasing the number of immunity cells (immunomodulator), and by inhibiting cell proliferation with reduction of Ki67, nucleus antigen that associated with G1,S,G2, dan M phase of cell cycle.Latar belakang: Sejak beberapa dekade terakhir, patologi kanker rongga mulut telah banyak menjadi perhatian di bidang kedokteran dan kedokteran gigi. Risiko paling tinggi ditemukan pada penderita perokok dan peminum alkohol. Banyak tanaman herbal yang memiliki kandungan untuk menghambat pertumbuhan sel kanker atau antiproliferasi sel, seperti tanaman herbal yang berasal dari suku Piperaceae, salah satunya adalah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum) yang mengandung piperin dan piplartin. Tujuan: artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui mekanisme kerja piperin dan pilplartin sebagai antikanker alami rongga mulut. Tinjauan pustaka: Piperin dan piplartin berfungsi sebagai antioksidan yang dapat melindungi sel tubuh dari kerusakan akibat radikal bebas. Piperin bekerja secara sinergis dengan zat-zat bioaktif lainnya seperti capsaicin dan curcumin. Piperin meningkatkan jumlah serum dan umur serum dari beberapa substansi nutrisi seperti koenzim Q10 dan betakaroten. Betakaroten mampu menangkap oksigen reaktif dan radikal peroksil. Aktivitas antitumor piplartin berhubungan dengan penghambatan laju proliferasi sel, ditinjau dari reduksi Ki67 yaitu antigen pada inti sel yang berasosiasi dengan G1, S, G2, dan M pada siklus sintesa sel. Dalam mekanisme kerjanya piplartin akan lebih meningkat aktivitas antiproliferasinya jika disinergiskan dengan piperin. Kesimpulan: Piperin dan piplartin yang terkandung dalam cabe jawa berpotensi sebagai antikanker rongga mulut alami, dengan menekan perkembangan sel tumor baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung melalui peningkatan sel imun (immunomodulator), dengan penghambatan laju proliferasi sel, ditinjau dari reduksi Ki67, yaitu antigen pada inti sel yang berasosiasi dengan G1, S, G2, dan M pada siklus sintesis sel.
The effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing Rahmitasari, Fitria; J, Wisnu Setyari; Rachmat, Ester Arijani
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p192-195

Abstract

Background: Wound healing treatment after tooth extraction should be an important consideration due to mouth discomfort and pain. Spirulina (blue green algae) consists of C-phycocyanin, b–carotenoids, vitamin E, zinc, some other trace elements and natural phytochemical which are believed to act as antioxidant and takes part in wound healing process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing process. Methods: Twenty eight males guinea pig are devided into four group, 7 guinea pig each. They are control group and treatment group which is given 0%, 3%, 6%, and 12% spirulina gel. After tooth extraction, histopathological evaluation was done to count fibroblast cell. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: The research has proven the relation between the increased growth of fibroblast cell and spirulina gel application. The higher the doses, the more cell growth. Hence, there has been significant different (p < 0.05) among groups. Conclusion: Spirulina gel increases the number of fibroblast in wound after tooth extraction and 12% spirulina gel has the most potential ability.Latar Belakang: Proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi merupakan salah satu hal yang penting karena akan menimbulkan rasa nyeri dan tidak nyaman dalam rongga mulut. Spirulina (Blue green Algae) mengandung C-phycocyanin, b-carotenoids, vitamin E, seng, beberapa trace elemen lainnya, dan phytochemical alami yang terbukti dapat berperan sebagai antioksidan dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek pemberian gel spirulina terhadap jumlah sel fibroblas pada proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi. Metode: Dua puluh delapan ekor guinea pig jantan dibagi dalam 7 kelompok, masing-masing terdiri dari 4 ekor. Kelompok tersebut adalah kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan gel spirulina dengan konsentrasi 0%, 3%, 6%, dan 12%. Setelah pencabutan gigi, dilakukan penghitungan sel fibroblas dengan metode histopatologi. Hasil: Penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara pemberian gel spirulina terhadap peningkatan jumlah sel fibroblas. Semakin tinggi dosis gel spirulina akan semakin meningkatkan jumlah sel fibroblas pula. Didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan antar kelompok (p < 0,05). Kesimpulan: Gel spirulina meningkatkan jumlah sel fibroblas pada luka bekas pencabutan dan gel spirulina dengan konsentrasi 12% mempunyai kemampuan yang paling potensial.
Betel leaf toothpastes inhibit dental plaque formation on fixed orthodontic patients Mayasari, Rizka Amelia; Goenharto, Sianiwati; Sjafei, Ahmad
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p169-172

Abstract

Background: Brackets, archwires, ligatures, and other fixed orthodontic appliance components complicate the use of conventional oral-hygiene measures. This often results in significant plaque accumulation around the bracket bases. The addition of betel leaf extract in toothpaste is expected to inhibit the growth of dental plaque. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of betel leaf toothpaste in inhibiting plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Methods: This study was done on dental student of Airlangga University aged 18–24 years, have been wearing fixed orthodontic appliances for 1–2 years, have no systemic diseases. The samples were divided into two groups, consisting of 20 samples. First group of samples brushed their teeth with betel group of samples brushed their teeth with betel brushed their teeth with betel leaf toothpaste and the second using placebo. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth using Scrub method until reaching zero (0) scor of orthodontic plaque index (OPI). Plaque scores were taken again 4 hours after brushing. The statistical analysis was done by using paired t test. Results: The average of accumulated plaque on group that use betel leaf toothpaste was 25.54 and placebo was 41.09. The result showed that there was significant difference in plaque accumulation between the group with betel leaf toothpaste and placebo 4 hours after brushing (p = 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, betel leaf toothpaste is effective in inhibiting the dental plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Latar belakang: Bracket, kawat busur, kawat ligatur dan komponen peranti ortodonti cekat yang lain mempersulit pembersihan gigi secara konvensional. Hal ini sering menyebabkan terjadinya akumulasi plak di sekitar dasar braket. Penambahan ekstrak daun sirih yang mempunyai efek bakterisid pada pasta gigi diharapkan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan plak. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efek pasta gigi mengandung ekstrak daun sirih dalam menghambat pembentukan plak pada pemakai peranti ortodonti cekat. Metode: Penelitian dilakukan pada mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Airlangga berusia 18–24 tahun, sudah memakai peranti cekat ortodonti selama 1–2 tahun, tidak mempunyai penyakit sistemik. Sampel dibagi dalam dibagi dalam dua kelompok, masing-masing 20 sampel. Sampel kelompok pertama menyikat gigi dengan pasta gigi yang mengandung daun sirih dan kelompok kedua dengan pasta gigi placebo memakai metode Scrub. Pembersihan gigi dilakukan sampai didapatkan skor nol (0) Pembersihan gigi dilakukan sampai didapatkan skor nol (0) didapatkan skor nol (0) orthodontic plaque index. Empat jam setelah itu skor plak diukur kembali. Data dianalisis dengan uji T berpasangan. dianalisis dengan uji T berpasangan. Hasil: Rerata pengumpulan plak pada pemakai pasta gigi mengandung daun sirih adalah 25,54 dan placebo adalah 41,09. Analisis data menunjukkan adanya perbedaan bermakna antara kedua kelompok (p = 0,001). Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pasta gigi mengandung daun sirih efektif dalam menghambat pertumbuhan plak pada pemakai peranti ortodonti cekat.
The difference of acrylic resin residual monomer levels with various polymerization method Salim, Sherman
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p196-199

Abstract

Background: After polymerization process, heat cured acrylic resin denture base actually still contains residual monomers that can become potential irritants later in oral cavity. Polymerization process is essential to obtain acrylic resin which can meet the requirements of the biocompatible and good physical properties. To meet the requirements, there are several methods of polymerization process used. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences of the residual monomer levels of acrylic resin processed by various polymerization methods. Methods: Acrylic resin powder and liquid were mixed based on the rules of factory, and sample was made with size of 30 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm and then polymerized by using microwave at 70° C for 24 hours based on the methods of Japan Industrial Standard (JIS). Each group of samples was cut with weight of ± 0.2 g, dissolved in 5 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in test tubes, and then stored at ± 5° C for four days. Residual monomer level was conducted by using gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Data obtained were then analyzed by using One-Way ANOVA test with p < 0.05. Results: After the level of polymerizing residual monomer with JIS method was compared to that at 70° C for 24 hours using microwave, it is known that there were significant differences (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The highest level of residual monomer of acrylic resin was that polymerized at 70° C for 24 hours.Latar belakang: Basis gigi tiruan yang berbahan dasar resin akrilik jenis heat cured setelah proses polimerisasi selesai masih mengandung monomer sisa yang berpotensi sebagai bahan iritan dalam rongga mulut. Proses polimerisasi sangat penting untuk mendapatkan resin akrilik yang memenuhi persyaratan biokompatibilitas dan fisik yang baik. Untuk persyaratan tersebut digunakan berbagai macam proses polimerisasi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar monomer sisa resin akrilik yang diproses dengan metode polimerisasi berbeda menggunakan gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Metode: Bubuk dan cairan resin akrilik dicampur sesuai aturan pabrik dan sampel dibuat berukuran 30 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm dipolimerisasi berdasarkan metode Japan Industrial Standard (JIS), suhu 70° C selama 24 jam, dan microwave. Setiap kelompok sampel dipotong seberat ± 0,2 gram dilarutkan 5 ml dalam metil etil keton pada tabung uji dan disimpan suhu ± 5° C selama empat hari, dilakukan analisis kadar monomer sisa dengan gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Data yang diperoleh dianalis ANOVA satu arah dengan nilai p < 0,05. Hasil: Kadar monomer sisa resin akrilik yang berpolimerisasi metode JIS dibandingkan polimerisasi suhu 70° C selama 24 jam dan microwave terdapat perbedaan bermakna (p < 0,05). Kesimpulan: Kadar monomer sisa paling tinggi pada resin akrilik yang dipolimerisasi suhu 70° C selama 24 jam.
In vivo characterization of polymer based dental cements P, Widiyanti; Siswanto, Siswanto
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p173-176

Abstract

Background: In vivo studies investigating the characterization of dental cements have been demonstrated. As few in vitro studies on this cement system have been performed. Previous researches in dental material has been standardized dental cement which fulfilled the physical and mechanical characteristic such as shear strength but were on in vitro condition, the animal model and clinical study of dental cement from laboratory has not been done yet. This research examined physical and mechanical characteristic in vivo using rabbit by making the caries (class III) in anterior teeth especially in mesial or distal incisive, fulfilled the cavity by dental cement and analyzed the compressive strength, tensile strength, and microstructure using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Purpose: This study is aimed to describe the in vivo characterization of dental cements based on polymer (zinc phosphate cement, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer cement and zinc oxide eugenol). Methods: First, preparation was done on animal model’s teeth (6 rabbits, male, 5 months old). The cavity was made which involved the dentin. Then the cavity was filled with dental cement. After the filling procedure, the animal model should be kept until 21 days and than the compressive test, tensile test and microstructure was characterized. Compressive test and tensile test was analyzed using samples from extracted tooth and was measured with autograph. The microstructure test was measured using SEM. Results: The best compressive strength value was belongs to zinc phosphate cement which was 101.888 Mpa and the best tensile strength value was belongs to glass ionomer cement which was 6.555 Mpa. Conclusion: In conclusion, comparing with 3 others type of dental cements which are zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cement, zinc oxide eugenol cement has the worst for both physical and mechanical properties.Latar belakang: Studi in vivo meneliti karakterisasi secara in vivo dari semen gigi. Beberapa studi in vitro di bidang ini telah dilakukan. Beberapa riset di bidang material gigi telah menghasilkan semen gigi yang memenuhi standart sifat fisik dan mekanik seperti regangan dan kekuatan secara in vitro, sedangkan uji in vivo dan uji klinis dari semen gigi dari laboratorium belum dilakukan. Penelitian ini menguji karakteristik fisik dan mekanik semen gigi menggunakan hewan coba kelinci dengan membuat karies kelas III di gigi anterior terutama di permukaan mesial atau distal insisif, mengisi kavitas dengan semen gigi dan menganalisa kekuatan tekan, kekuatan tarik dan struktur mikronya dengan menggunakan scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tujuan: Studi ini bertujuan memberikan gambaran karakterisasi in vivo semen gigi berbahan dasar polimer (semen seng fosfat, polikarboksilat, ionomer kaca dan seng oksida eugenol). Metode: Pertama, kami melakukan preparasi pada gigi hewan coba (6 kelinci, jantan, usia 5 bulan). Kemudian kita membuat kavitas yang melibatkan dentin. Lalu kami menumpat kavitas dengan semen gigi. Setelah prosedur penumpatan, hewan coba dipelihara selama 21 hari dan dikarakterisasi kekuatan tekan, kekuatan tarik dan struktur mikronya. Kekuatan tekan dan kekuatan tarik dianalisa dari sampel uji gigi hewan coba yang diekstraksi dan diukur dengan autograf. Struktur mikronya diuji dengan SEM. Hasil: Hasil nilai kuat tekan terbaik diperoleh oleh semen seng fosfat (zinc phosphate cement) sebesar 101,888 Mpa dan nilai kuat tarik semen gigi terbaik adalah semen gelas ionomer (glass ionomer cement) sebesar 6,555 Mpa. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan, dari ketiga jenis bahan semen yaitu seng fosfat, polikarboksilat, dan ionomer kaca, yang mempunyai sifat fisik dan mekanikal terburuk adalah semen ionomer kaca.
Stimulation of osteoblast activity by induction of Aloe vera and xenograft combination Kresnoadi, Utari; Rahayu, Retno Pudji
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p200-204

Abstract

Background: Tooth extraction is generally followed by alveolar ridge resorption that later can cause flat ridge. Aloe vera have biogenic stimulator and hormone activities for wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know osteoblast activities in alveolar bone after induction of Aloe vera and XCB combination. Methods: Fifty four of Cavia cabaya were divided into three main groups. Group I was control group. Group II was filled with xenograft concelous bovine (XCB) and group III was filled with the combination of Aloe vera gel and XCB. Then, each group was divided into three sub groups according to timing, they are 14, 30, and 60 days after tooth extraction and application. Histology and morphology examination were performed on the harvested specimens. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and the other groups filled with the combination of Aloe vera and XCB. Conclusion: In conclusion, the application of Aloe vera gel and xenograft combination decrease the number of osteoclast and increase the number of osteoblast in post tooth extraction alveolar bone structure indicating the new growth of alveolar bone.Latar belakang: Pencabutan gigi pada umumnya selalu diikuti resopsi tulang alveolar, sehingga bila terjadi dalam waktu yang lama ridge akan menjadi flat. Aloe vera adalah bahan stimulasi biogenik dan mempunyai aktivitas hormon untuk proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas osteoblas pada tulang alveol dengan pemberian kombinasi Aloe vera gel dan xenograft concelous bovine (XCB). Metode: Lima puluh empat ekor Cavia cabaya, dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok besar, kelompok pertama adalah kelompok kontrol yaitu hanya dilakukan pencabutan saja tanpa perlakuan, kelompok ke-2 yaitu kelompok yang setelah dicabut diberi XCB saja dan kelompok ke-3 yaitu kelompok yang setelah pencabutan diberi kombinasi Aloe vera gel dengan XCB pada luka bekas pencabutan gigi. Kemudian masing-masing kelompok besar ini dibagi lagi berdasarkan waktu menjadi 3 sub kelompok yaitu setelah 14, 30 dan 60 hari. Kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan histology dan morfologi pada specimen hewan coba. Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok yang diberi kombinasi Aloe vera dan XCB. Kesimpulan: Disimpulkan bahwa pemberian kombinasi Aloe vera gel dan xenograft menyebabkan penurunan jumlah osteoklas dan peningkatan jumlah osteoblas pada struktur tulang alveol pasca pencabutan gigi yang menunjukkan adanya pertumbuhan tulang alveol baru.
Oral rinse as a potential method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients Radithia, Desiana; Hendarti, Hening T.; Soebadi, Bagus
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p177-180

Abstract

Background: Candida isolate is easily sampled from oral cavity by swabbing directly on the candidiasis lesion, to be smeared onto slides for direct examination or cultured in a growth medium. This method is by far the gold standard for defining candidiasis diagnosis. However it is difficult to apply on sensitive patients and almost impossible on patients showing no clinical appearance of oral candidiasis. AIDS patients are very prone to candida infection and have a tendency of repetitive infection involving mixed species. As many candida species show different susceptibility to anti-fungal agents, it is necessary to identify the species causing the infection in the management of oral candidiasis. Oral rinse is a suggested method to obtain candida isolate to be cultured for further analysis such as species identification. This method is simple and less risky on infection transmission as less tools are required in the procedure. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the application of oral rinse as an alternative method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients. Methods: A cross-sectional observative study was conducted in HIV/AIDS in-Patient Facility of Intermediate Care Unit for Infection Disease, Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Fourteen stadium 4 AIDS patients matching criteria were swabbed on 1/3-posterior of the tongue, and then given 10 ml phosphate buffer saline to rinse vigorously for 15 seconds. Both specimens were cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and colony growth was observed. Results: Candida colonies were able to grow from all 14 isolates (100%) by both methods. Qualitatively, cultures from oral rinse specimens were more populated than cultures from swab specimens. Conclusion: Oral rinse is an applicable technique to obtain Candida species isolate. This technique is safe, easy, non-invasive, and needs less tools therefore less risky for HIV transmission.Latar belakang: Isolat Candida mudah diambil dengan cara mengusap lesi candidiasis, baik untuk dioleskan pada kaca preparat untuk pemeriksaan langsung maupun dikultur. Hingga kini, metode tersebut dinyatakan sebagai “standar emas” untuk menentukan diagnosis. Namun kekurangan metode ini yaitu berisiko merangsang muntah pada pasien sensitif, dan hanya bisa dilakukan bila tampak jelas ada lesi. Candidiasis adalah penyakit nosokomial yang sering terjadi. Pasien AIDS sangat rentan terhadap infeksi oportunis ini secara rekuren dan persisten. Identifikasi spesies penyebab harus dilakukan karena berbagai spesies Candida memiliki kerentanan yang berbeda terhadap berbagai jenis antifungal. Oral rinse adalah metode pengambilan isolat Candida yang non-invasif. Isolat yang didapat bisa dikultur dan diidentifikasi, selain itu bisa dilakukan pada pasien yang belum menunjukkan adanya lesi candidiasis untuk menentukan besar risiko pasien terkena candidiasis, sehingga dapat ditentukan perlu tidaknya pemberian profilaksis antifungal. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati efektivitas metode oral rinse untuk mengisolasi Candida dari rongga mulut pasien AIDS. Metode: Penelitian observasional dilakukan di bagian Rawat Inap Unit Perawatan Intermediate Penyakit Infeksi RSUD Dr. Soetomo. Swab pada 1/3 posterior lidah dilakukan pada 14 pasien yang memenuhi kriteria, kemudia pasien diberi 10 ml phosphate buffer saline untuk berkumur kuat-kuat selama 15 detik. Spesimen yang didapat melalui kedua metode dikultur pada medium Sabouraud untuk diamati. Hasil: Koloni Candida berhasil dikultur dari 14 spesimen (100 %) melalui kedua metode isolasi. Secara kualitiatif tampak bahwa hasil kultur dari oral rinse tampak lebih subur. Kesimpulan: Oral rinse adalah metode yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk mengisolasi Candida dari rongga mulut pasien. Tekniknya mudah, aman, non-onvasif, dan tidak memerlukan peralatan dan ketrampilan khusus, sehingga mengurangi risiko transmisi HIV.
The difference of dental anxiety in children based on frequency of dental appointment Astri, Mia Giri; Chemiawan, Eka; Rriyanti, Eriska
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p205-209

Abstract

Background: Problem of children’s anxiety during dental procedures is a common phenomenon. This is called dental anxiety. The anxiety children patien need to be paid a special attention, because it will affect the success of dental treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of dental anxiety degree in children aged 8 to 12 years old based on the frequency of dental visits in dental community health centre Bandung. Methods: The method of this research was analytical descriptive. The samples collected by using purposive sampling and the amount of sample was taken by consecutive sampling, and analysed by the U Mann-Whitney test. Results: The result of this research was from 76 correspondence there was 12 children feel anxious and 64 children did not feel anxious. Asymp.Sig is less than 0.05 in children having frequent and rarely frequency of dental appointment and Asymp. Sig is more than 0.05 in children having frequent and normal frequency of dental appointment also in children having normal and rarely frequency of dental appointment. Conclusion: In conclusion, the frequency of dental visits showed the difference of children’s dental anxiety.Latar belakang: Masalah kecemasan anak saat dilakukan perawatan gigi merupakan fenomena yang sering terjadi. Kecemasan  pada saat dilakukan perawatan gigi disebut juga dental anxiety. Kecemasan pada penderita anak-anak perlu perhatian khusus karena akan memengaruhi keberhasilan perawatan gigi. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan derajat dental anxiety anak usia 8–12 tahun berdasarkan frekuensi kunjungan ke dokter gigi di Balai Pengobatan Gigi Kota Bandung. Metode: Jenis penelitian adalah deskriptif analitik. Naracoba diambil dengan metode purposive sampling dan jumlah naracoba ditentukan melalui consecutive sampling, kemudian diuji dengan U Mann-Whitney. Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini adalah dari 76 naracoba terdapat 12 anak yang merasa cemas dan 64 anak merasa tidak cemas. Asymp.Sig kurang dari 0,05 untuk perbandingan antara anak dengan frekuensi sering dan jarang berkunjung ke dokter gigi serta Asymp.Sig lebih dari 0,05 untuk perbandingan anak dengan frekuensi normal dan sering ke dokter gigi juga untuk anak dengan frekuensi normal dan jarang ke dokter gigi. Kesimpulan: Disimpulkan bahwa jumlah kunjungan ke dokter gigi memberikan perbedaan pada dental anxiety anak.
In vitro effect of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser exposure on morphology, hydroxyapatite composition and microhardness properties of human dentin Apsari, Retna; Siswanto, Siswanto; Yuliati, Anita; Bidin, Noriah
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p181-186

Abstract

Background: A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was employed as a source of ablation. The fundamental wavelength of the laser is 1064 nm, with pulse duration of 8 nanosecond operates with uniphase mode of TEM00. In the following experiments, dentin samples (without caries and plaque) are exposed to pulse laser with Q-switching effect at various energy dose. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of laser ablation on dentin samples using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser exposure. Methods: The laser was operated in repetitive mode with frequency of 10 Hz. The energy dose of the laser was ranging from 13.9 J/cm2, 21.2 J/cm2 and 41.7 J/cm2. The target material comprised of human dentin. The laser was exposed in one mode with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Energy delivered to the target through free beam technique. The exposed human dentin was examined by using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluoresence scanning electron microscopy for energy dispersive (FESEM-EDAX). Microhardness of human dentin were examined by using microhardness vickers test (MVT). Results: The result obtained showed that the composition of hydroxyapatite of the dentin after exposed by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are 75.02% to 78.21%, with microhardness of 38.7 kgf/mm2 to 86.6 kgf/mm2. This indicated that exposed pulsed Nd:YAG laser on the human dentin attributed to the phototermal effect. The power density created by the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser enables the heat to produce optical breakdown (melting and hole) associated with plasma formation and shock wave propagation, from energy dose of 21.2 J/cm2. From XRD analysis showed that the exposure of Nd:YAG laser did not involve in changing the crystal structure of the dentin, but due to photoablation effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, the application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser as contactless drills in dentistry should be regarded as an alternative to the classical mechanical technique to improve the quality of the dentin treatment.Latar belakang: Mode Q-Switch pada laser Nd:YAG dapat menghasilkan fenomena ablasi pada dentin. Laser Nd:YAG yang digunakan mempunyai panjang gelombang 1064 nm, durasi pulsa 8 ns beroperasi dengan mode TEM00. Sampel dentin yang digunakan tanpa karies dan plak, yang dipapari laser dengan mode Q-switch dalam berbagai variasi dosis energi. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengamati efek ablasi dentin secara in vitro akibat paparan laser Nd:YAG Q-switch dengan pengamatan morfologi permukaan, komposisi hidroksiapatit, dan uji kekerasan mikro. Metode: Laser Nd:YAG Q-switch dengan frekuensi 10 Hz dan variasi dosis energi 13,9 J/cm2, 21,2 J/cm2 dan 41,7 J/cm2 ditembakkan pada sampel dentin manusia dengan teknik penyinaran bebas tanpa dilewatkan serat optik. Dentin yang terbuka diamati menggunakan x-ray diffraction (XRD) dan fluoresence scanning electron microscopy for energy dispersive (FESEM-EDAX). Kekerasan mikro dari dentin juga diamati menggunakan microhardness vickers test (MVT). Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi hidroksiapatit dari dentin setelah paparan laser Nd:YAG Q-Switch menunjukkan peningkatan berkisar 75,02% sampai 78,21% dibandingkan normal, dengan kekerasan mikro berkisar 38,7 kgf/mm2 sampai 86,6 kgf/mm2. Perubahan pada struktur mikro tersebut disebakan karena adanya efek fototermal. Kerapatan daya yang bervariasi berdasarkan variasi dosis energi menyebabkan efek panas pada dentin yang menyebabkan adanya fenomena optical breakdown, yang ditandai dengan munculnya efek leleh dan lubang pada sampel karena produksi plasma dan adanya gelombang kejut, mulai dosis 21,2 J/cm2. Berdasarkan uji XRD, efek yang muncul pada dentin tidak menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan struktur kristal hidroksiapatit, tetapi menyebabkan perubahan komposisi hidroksiapatit yang disebut dengan fotoablasi. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan mode Q-switched pada laser Nd:YAG sebagai alat dengan kontak minimal dapat dijadikan teknik alternatif untuk meningkatkan kualitas perawatan dental.
Volatile sulphur compounds elimination: A new insight in periodontal treatment Setiawatie, Ernie Maduratna; Hudyono, Rikko
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 44, No 4 (2011): (December 2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v44.i4.p210-214

Abstract

Background: Recent evidences had demonstrated a link between halitosis and apoptosis in periodontitis. Periodontal pathogenic micro-organisms produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs). VSCs are toxic to periodontal tissue. Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to reveal the mechanism of VSCs in periodontal breakdown according to the most recent knowledges. Reviews: Halitosis is mainly attributed to VSCs such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide. Several studies demonstrated a strong relationship between VSCs and periodontal disease progression. VSCs are released from amino acid breakdown from food, protein, cells, blood and saliva. In prone subjects, the VSCs may cause alteration in tissue integrity by increasing its permeability and facilitate the endotoxin to penetrate the tissue barrier. They may also causing apoptotic in gingival and periodontal tissue, which are considered the main pathogenesis in aggravating the periodontitis. VSCs may also initiate the increase of proinflammatory cytokines which is considered to have negative effects in host response. Conclusion: VSCs had been shown to have detrimental effects in gingival and periodontal ligament cells. The use of chlorine dioxine agent and topical antioxidant is beneficial in controlling the periodontal disease severity.Latar belakang: Penelitian terakhir menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara halitosis dengan terjadinya apoptosis pada periodontitis. Mikroorganisme penyebab periodontitis memproduksi volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) yang bersifat toksik terhadap jaringan periodontal. Tujuan: Tujuan penulisan ini adalah membahas mekanisme VSCs dalam menyebabkan kerusakan periodontal berdasarkan penelitian terakhir yang ada. Tinjauan pustaka: Halitosis seringkali dikaitkan dengan timbulnya VSCs seperti hidrogen sulfida, metil merkaptan, dan dimetil sulfida. Penelitian terakhir menunjukkan bahwa VSCs yang dilepaskan dari pemecahan asam amino makanan ternyata memiliki korelasi dengan kerusakan jaringan periodontal. Pada subjek yang peka, VSCs dapat menyebabkan terjadinya disintegritas epitel dengan meningkatkan permeabilitasnya sehingga endotoksin dapat masuk melewati epitel. Adanya VSCs tersebut memicu terjadinya apoptosis pada jaringan gingiva dan ligamen periodontal, dimana proses ini menyebabkan keparahan penyakit periodontal. VSCs juga dapat mencetuskan peningkatan sitokin proinflamasi yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan jaringan periodontal. Kesimpulan: VSCs dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada gingiva dan ligamen periodontal. Penggunaan bahan chlorine dioxine untuk dan antioksidan topikal sangat berguna dalam mengontrol keparahan penyakit periodontal.

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