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Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
Published by Universitas Airlangga
The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) (e-ISSN:2442-9740; p-ISSN:1978-3728) is published by the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga. Its diciplinary focus is dental science and dental hygiene. The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) is published in English on a quarterly basis with each 50-60 page edition containing between nine and eleven scientific articles on research, study literature and case studies. Contributors to the Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) included: dental researchers, dental practitioners, lecturers, and students drawn from Indonesia and a wide range of other countries.
Articles
588
Articles
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Effects of liquid ionic silver concentration on caspase-3 and p53mt expressions in the oral mucosal epithelium of Wistar rats

Muharram, R. Aries, Istiati, I., Soesilawati, Pratiwi

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Silver, especially oxidized silver, has been used as a medicine considered to have bactericidal properties. In the present day, ionic silver (Ag+) is also used in the manufacture of cosmetics, socks, food containers, detergents, sprays and other products to prevent the spread of germs. Unfortunately, ionic silver is assumed to be toxic not only to bacteria, but also to humans and the environment. Therefore, it is essential to identify the optimum dosage of ionic silver considered safe by investigating the effects of ionic silver concentration on cell death through activation of mutant p-53 expression by caspase 3 in the oral epithelium. Purpose: This research aimed to analyze the effects of concentrated liquid ionic silver (Ag+) on caspase-3 and mutant p53 expression in the oral mucosal epithelium. Methods: This research constituted a laboratory-based experimental study with posttest-only design. The research subjects consisted of 28 Wistar rats, divided into four treatment groups, namely; KK (with Aquadest), KP 1 (with 5% liquid ionic silver), KP 2 (with 10% liquid ionic silver) and KP 3 (with 15% liquid ionic silver). Each rat was then treated orally with 0.5ml of liquid ionic silver at fixed concentrations twice a day for seven days. The Wistar rats were then terminated and their tissue samples processed by means of histopathological and immunohistochemical staining examination. The monoclonal Caspase-3 and mutant p53 expressions in each group were evaluated with the data being tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Mutant p53 expression was also found in the control group. Moreover, the higher the concentration of liquid ionic silver, the greater the elevated Caspase-3 and mutant p53 expressions. Conclusion:  The concentration of liquid ionic silver plays an important role in elevating Caspase-3 and mutant p53 expressions.

Oral lesions as a clinical sign of systemic lupus erythematosus

Munthe, Eliza Kristina M., Sufiawati, Irna

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Oral lesions represent one of the most important clinical symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease with a high degree of clinical variability rendering it difficult to arrive at a prompt and accurate diagnosis. There are many unknown causes and multiple organ systems involved, with the result that permanent organ damage may occur before treatment commences. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to discuss the importance of recognizing the lesions related to SLE which may help dentists to make an early diagnosis. Case: A 17-year-old female patient was referred by the Internal Medicine Department with a suspected case of SLE. Prior to admittance to the hospital, the patient was diagnosed with tuberculosis. A subsequent extraoral examination revealed ulceration with a blackish crust on the upper lip. An intraoral examination showed similar ulceration covered with a blackish crust on the labial mucosa accompanied by central erythema in the hard palate. Blood tests indicated decreased levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets, but increased levels of leukocytes. A diagnosis of oral lesions associated with SLE and angioedema was formulated. Case management: The patient was given 1% hydrocortisone and vaseline album for extraoral lesions, while 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide was used to treat intraoral lesions. An improvement in the oral lesions manifested itself after two weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Early detection of oral lesions plays a significant role in diagnosing SLE. It is important for the dentist to recognize the presentation of diseases that may be preceded by oral lesions. A multidisciplinary approach and appropriate referrals are necessary to ensure comprehensive medical and dental management of patients with SLE.

The effect of Avocado leaf extract (Persea americana Mill.) on the fibroblast cells of post-extraction dental sockets in Wistar rats

Khoswanto, Christian, Juliastuti, Wisnu Setyari, Adla, Karina Awanis

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Tooth extraction, a common practice among the dental profession, causes trauma to the blood vessels during the wound healing process. The acceleration of wound healing, within which fibroblasts play an important role, is influenced by nutrition. Avocado leaves contain a variety of chemicals, including flavonoid compounds, tannins, katekat, kuinon, saponin and steroids/triterpenoid. Avocado leaves also contain glycosides, cyanogenic, alkaloids and phenols which function as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant agents. This avocado leaf content could be used as an alternative medicine to accelerate the wound healing process in post-tooth extraction sockets. Purpose: To determine the role of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill) in accelerating fibroblast cells proliferation in tooth socket post-extraction. Methods: The sample was divided into four groups, a control group and three treatment groups. The treatment groups used avocado leaf extract and 3% CMC Na solution which was inserted into the tooth sockets of Wistar rats. Both the control and treatment groups had their mandibula decapitated with all the required specimens being prepared on the 3rd and 7th days of the experiment. Mandibular decapitation and tooth extraction socket were prepared by HPA (Histology Pathology Anatomy) with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining. The  fibroblast proliferation was analyzed by means of a light microscope at 400x magnification. The obtained data was analyzed using a t-Test. Result: The t-Test obtained a significance value 0.001 (p <0.05) between the control and treatment groups. The number of fibroblast cells increased in the group treated on the third day and decreased in the group treated on the seventh day. Conclusion: Avocado leaf extract (Persea americana Mill.) accelerates proliferation of fibroblast cells in Wistar rats post-tooth extraction.

Herbal-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome with oral involvement and management in an HIV patient

Suniti, S., Sufiawati, Irna

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction affecting the skin and mucous membranes. Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of developing SJS which is predominantly caused by an adverse reaction to medications, including herbal varieties. In recent years, the consumption of herbal medicines has increased, while their safety remains a matter for investigation. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to explain the occurrence of SJS caused by herbal medicine. Case: A 43-year-old male patient with body-wide skin erosion was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine and subsequently diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome due to his consumption of a herbal medicine containing zingiber rhizoma, coboti rhizoma, asari herbal and epimedi. The patient’s chief complaints included difficulty when opening the mouth, dysphagia and excessive production of saliva continuously contaminated with blood and sputum. Extraoral examination showed a sanguinolenta crust on the lips. Intra oral examination of oral mucous showed erosive lesions with bleeding and pain. A HIV test performed at a Clinical Pathology Laboratory was positive for antibodies against HIV with a CD4 cell count of 11 cells/ml. Case management: Treatment consisted of the administering of NaCl 0.9 %, hydrocortisone 0.1% and Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12% for 12  days. Conclusion: SJS can be caused by herbal medicine and it is essential to be aware of the latter’s potential adverse effects, especially in immunocompromised patients. Symptomatic management of oral lesions should be planned as an early intervention in order to decrease morbidity and mortality in SJS patients.

Potential immunomodulatory activity of Phyllanthus niruri aqueous extract on macrophage infected with Streptococcus sanguinis

Hutomo, Suryani, Putri, Denise Uatami, Suryanto, Yanti Ivana, Susilowati, Heni

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Streptococcus sanguinis is an oral commensal bacterium commonly found in periodontal lesions and deep abscesses that are usually dominated by anaerobic bacteria. As an important causative agent of systemic diseases, and with the increasingly numerous cases of antimicrobial resistance, some means of modulating the immune response to bacterial infection is thus necessary. Phyllanthus niruri Linn is widely used as a medicinal herb to both prevent and treat disease and demonstrates immunomodulatory properties. Purpose: This study aimed to observe the potential for aqueous extract of Phylanthus niruri to induce macrophage proliferation and NO production following S. sanguinis infection. Methods: Macrophages were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy subjects, stimulated with P. niruri aqueous extract in graded doses and infected with S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 bacterial suspension. Cell proliferation and nitric oxide release was observed at 24 and 48 hours to determine macrophage activities. Results: NO production and cell proliferation started to increase upon 50 and 100µg/ml P niruri respective stimulation. Statistical analysis using One-way Anova demonstrated a significant difference of cell proliferation after stimulation with P. niruri aqueous extract at various doses (p<0.05). Conclusion: P. niruri aqueous extract induced macrophage proliferation and NO secretion upon S sanguinis infection, showing potential antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. At the same concentrations, NO production and macrophage were higher at 48 hours than at 24 hours.

Cytoxicity test of NaOCl and Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostin L.) peel extract used as an irrigation solution in human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLFc)

Yuanita, Tamara, Ristyawati, Dina, Samadi, Karlina

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Root canal irrigation is an important stage in root canal treatment as it is requires to eliminate necrotic and debris tissue as well as root canal wetting. Unfortunately, root canal irrigation can cause the material utilised to pass into the apical foramen leading to periapical complications. Consequently, the irrigation solution should have low toxicity. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a commonly used irrigation solution since it has antibacterial properties. Moreover, NaOCl is also known to have the ability to dissolve necrotic tissue, vital pulp tissue and organic components of dentin and biofilms. Nevertheless, it can still cause damage when coming into contact with periapical tissues. On the other hand, Mangosteen peel extract (Garcinia mangostana L.), also has antibacterial activities. Hence, Mangosteen peel extract is assumed to be employable as an alternative irrigation solution. Purpose: This research aimed to reveal the toxicity levels of NaOCl and Mangosteen peel extract (Garcinia mangostin L.) used as irrigation solution in human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLFc). Methods: HPdLFc were obtained from periapical tissues taken from one third of the first premolar teeth cultured. These cells were subsequently divided into several groups exposed to NaOCl and Mangosteen peel extract at certain concentrations. A toxicity test was then conducted using MTT assay. The results were analyzed with an Elisa reader. Cell deaths and LC50 were then calculated. Results: NaOCl became toxic at a concentration of 0.254 µl/ml or 0.025%, while Mangosteen peel extract became so at one of 2.099 ug/ml or 0.209%. Conclusion: NaOCl can be toxic at a concentration of 0.254 µl/ml or 0.025% and Mangosteen peel extract at one of 2.099 ?g/ml or 0.209%.

The effect of various concentrations of HA-TCP derived from cockle shell synthesis on scaffold porosity

Ferdynanto, Reyhan Alvaryan, Dharmayanti, Priska Evita Setia, Dewi, Putu Tahlia Krisna, Prananingrum, Widyasri

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Porosity is an important property that must be possessed by scaffold due to its role in new bone growth. Hydroxyapatite is a scaffold material with a composition resembling that of bone that can be synthesized from cockle shell (Anadara granosa). Purpose: This research aimed to determine the effects of various HA-TCP concentrations (wt%) derived from cockle shell synthesis on scaffold porosity. Methods: HA-TCP was synthesized from cockle shells using a hydrothermal method at 200o C with a 12-hour sintering process period. An XRD test was subsequently carried out to determine the composition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) compounds. Eighteen scaffold samples (n=6) were then produced using a freeze dry method and divided into three groups, namely; Group 1 (K1) treated with 5% HA-TCP, Group 2 (K2) treated with 25% HA-TCP and Group 3 (K3) treated with 50% HA-TCP. Thereafter, a scaffold porosity test was conducted using liquid displacement method. Scaffold porosity was observed by means of an SEM image. A One-Way ANOVA test was subsequently performed, followed by an LSD Post-Hoc test (p <0.05). Results: The results of the XRD test showed that the percentage of HA was 51.5%, while TCP was 16.8%. The porosity of the scaffolds was within the range of 67.24% - 80.17%. The highest porosity was found in Group 1, while the lowest occurred in Group 3. There were significant differences in all groups. Conclusion: The concentration of HA-TCP derived from the synthesis of cockle shells affects the porosity of scaffold. The lower the concentration of HA-TCP, the higher the scaffold porosity.

Socioeconomic status and orthodontic treatment need based on the Dental Health Component

Lubis, Hilda Fitria, Laturiuw, Hilda Paula

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: The dental health component (DHC) is used to assess different malocclusions by evaluating the number of teeth, overjet, overbite and contact points of each tooth. This index is subjectively influenced by socioeconomic factors. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the overview of the socioeconomic status and orthodontic treatment need based on the DHC of State 15 Medan Junior High School students. Methods: This study represented a descriptive research featuring cross-sectional design. The subjects of this study consisted of 100 high school students. This study was conducted by making dental impressions and distributing questionnaires. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS 17.0 software using a descriptive statistical test and presented in a distribution and frequency table. Results: 89% of subjects demonstrated DHC levels of 1-2. 66.3% of subjects with parents of secondary education level had DHC grades 1-2, followed by 31.5% with parents of higher education level and 2.2% with parents of basic education level. The majority of subjects with DHC grades 1-2 had parents occupying class 2 jobs and the lowest number of students had parents holding class 4 jobs. The majority of the subjects with DHC grades 1-2 (77.5%) were of low income parents.  Conclusion: The largest distribution of orthodontic treatment need based on DHC among students of State 15 Junior High School occurred at levels 1-2 which either required or did not require minor orthodontic treatment. The majority of the students with DHC grades 1-2 have parents of secondary education level, a class 2 job and a low monthly income.

The effects of breadfruit leaf (Artocarpus Altilis) extract on fibroblast proliferation in the tooth extraction sockets of Wistar rat

Rinaldi, Darin Hulwani, Kamadjaja, David B., Sumarta, Ni Putu Mira

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: A prolonged tooth extraction socket healing process can affect the well-being of the patient and increase the risk of infection. Fibroblast proliferation in the proliferation phase is an important stage in the healing process. Fibroblast formed from extracellular matrix and collagen fibers support bone formation in the socket. Breadfruit leaves, extremely common in Indonesia, contain polyphenol, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid substances which accelerate the wound healing process because of their anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant properties. A previous study showed that 16% breadfruit leaf gel extract administered to Wistar rats produced an encouraging anti-inflammatory effect, but its capacity for increasing fibroblast proliferation remains to be fully understood. Purpose: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of applying breadfruit leaf extract on fibroblast proliferation on the healing process in tooth extraction sockets. A preliminary phytochemical study was undertaken. Methods: 24 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: two control groups and two experimental groups. 16% breadfruit leaf gel extract was applied to the experimental groups, while none was applied to the control groups. The number of fibroblasts was counted on both the third and fifth days post-extraction. Data was analyzed statistically using an independent T-test. Results: There were significant differences in the number of post-extraction fibroblasts in Wistar rat tooth sockets on day 3 (p=0.000; p < ?=0.05) and day 5 (p=0.000; p < ?=0.05). Conclusion: Breadfruit leaf gel extract application increases fibroblast proliferation during the healing process in the tooth extraction sockets of Wistar rats.

Antibacterial potential of Ocimum sanctum oils in relation to Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

Prisinda, Diani, Setiawan, Ame Suciati, Fitriadi, Fajar

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 3 (2018): (September 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive cocci present in the root canal due to the failure of endodontic treatment and  pulp tissue necrosis. The ideal root canal medicine offers biocompatible properties, ease of cleaning, absence of tooth staining and non-disruption of the root canal filling process. Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is one of the herbs widely used in salads which produces anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral effects. The antibacterial effect of basil results from the eugenol which represents a main component demonstrating antibacterial properties. Basil essential oil has an antibacterial effect on both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether the essential oils contained in basil leaves offer any antibacterial potential with regard to the growth of Enterecoccus faecalis ATCC 29212. Methods: The research was experimental in nature incorporating a simple random sampling technique. In this study, groups of active substance compounds contained in basil leaves were extracted by distillation in order to obtain the essential oil. Preparation of the test solution involved essence of basil leaf oil at concentrations of 5,000 ppm, 10,000 ppm and 20,000 ppm in methanol solvent. A phytochemical test of basil was subsequently conducted in order to identify the content of the compound. The bacteria in this study was tested utilizing a disc diffusion method (Kirby and Bauer test) by measuring the diameter of the clear zone (clear zone) which is indicative of the bacterial growth inhibition response of antibacterial compounds in the extract. Results: The results of the research into the phytochemical test showed that basil contains phenolic flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, tannins which produce a negative result on steroids. The results of this study showed that the basil essential oil inhibition zone present in the Enterecoccus faecalis growth had a diameter of 11.70 mm at a concentration of 20,000 ppm. This concentration therefore proved most effective in relation to Enterococcus faecalis than other concentrations. Conclusion: It can be concluded that essential oils of basil leaves demonstrate anti-bacterial inhibitory properties with regard to Enterococcus faecalis.

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