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Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)
Published by Universitas Airlangga
The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) (e-ISSN:2442-9740; p-ISSN:1978-3728) is published by the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga. Its diciplinary focus is dental science and dental hygiene. The Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) is published in English on a quarterly basis with each 50-60 page edition containing between nine and eleven scientific articles on research, study literature and case studies. Contributors to the Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) included: dental researchers, dental practitioners, lecturers, and students drawn from Indonesia and a wide range of other countries.
Articles
657
Articles
Effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract combined with DFBBX on type-1 collagen expressed by osteoblasts in the tooth extraction sockets of Cavia cobaya

Soekobagiono, S., Salim, Sherman, Hidayati, Hanoem Eka, Mundiratri, Karina

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry after which the residual ridge will no longer receive stimulus leading to volume, height and width loss. These anatomical changes can then result in difficulties with future denture fabrication and implant placement. Preservation of the alveolar ridge, therefore, assumes considerable importance after tooth extraction. Moringa oleifera, on the other hand, can enhance bone formation. Type-1 collagen is a marker of osteoblast formation. Purpose: This research aimed to analyze the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract combined with DFBBX on type-1 collagen expressions in tooth extraction sockets. Methods: 56 Cavia cobaya subjects were divided into eight groups. Their lower left incisors were then extracted prior to the sockets of the first and fifth groups being filled with PEG, those of the second and sixth groups with DFBBX, those of the third and seventh groups with Moringa oleifera leaf extract and a combination of DFBBX and Moringa oleifera leaf extract in those of the fourth and eighth groups. The sockets were then examined on days 7 and 30 by means of an immunohistochemical technique. The data collected was subsequently subjected to analysis by One Way Anova and Tukey HSD tests. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and the treatment group administrated with Moringa oleifera leaf extract combined with DFBBX. On days 7 and 30, the groups treated with the combination of DFBBX and Moringa oleifera leaf extract had the highest number of type-1 collagen expressions. Conclusion: A combination of DFBBX and Moringa oleifera leaf extract is effective in increasing type-1 collagen expressions in tooth extraction sockets.

Management of chronic traumatic ulcer mimicking oral squamous cell carcinoma on the tongue

Nelonda, Revi, Setiadhi, Riani

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Traumatic ulcers represent the most common oral mucosal lesions that can be differentiated from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by their clinical appearance. From a clinical perspective, OSCC may resemble a chronic traumatic ulcer (CTU) because the base of the CTU that is healing is filled with reddish-pink granulated tissue, similar to that in OSCC. Purpose: The aim of this case report is to provide information about the oral management of a CTU case that imitates OSCC. Case: A 30-year old female presented with a major, painful, non-healing ulcer located on the right lateral of the tongue for the previous two months. Approximately two years before, she had experienced a similar lesion on the tongue. Intra oral examination showed a 10mm x 5mm yellowish ulcer with a fibrous center, erythematous irregular-induration margin and concave yellow base. The 15th, 44th and 47th teeth were sharp and on occlusion caused trauma to the right lateral border of the tongue. Case management: Based on the clinical features, the lesion was imitating OSCC. After a case history review, clinical examination and appropriate investigation, the patient was diagnosed as suffering from a chronic traumatic ulcer. The primary treatment of traumatic ulcers involves eliminating etiological factors. As pharmacological therapy, a mixture of triamcinolone acetonide and 1mg dexamethasone tablet was administered in addition to folic acid and vitamin B12. Conclusion: Clinical presentation of traumatic lesions varies significantly and may, at times, be ambigous. It is important to immediately establish a correct diagnosis and implement prompt treatment of CTU lesions because they play a role at the oral carcinogenesis promotion stage.

Management of palatal perforation in systemic lupus erythematosus patient

Setianingtyas, Dwi, Teguh, Paulus Budi, Widyastuti, W, Prasetyaningtyas, Neken, Putra, Ramadhan Hardani, Haryanto, Felicia Eda

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease which damages tissues and causes chronic inflammation with an idiopathic etiology. It has been suggested that oral lesions in patients with SLE can be grouped clinically as erythema, discoid lesions and oral ulcerations. The latter have been said to indicate the onset of a severe systemic disease flare and that oral ulcers represent cases of mucosal vasculitis. Palatal lesions generally present in the form of ulcers or, in more severe forms, as perforation. Acquired palatal perforations can be caused by several etiologies including: developmental disorders, malignancy and infections. Purpose: To report the management of palatal perforation in an SLE patient. Case: A 14-year-old female patient attended the Dr. Ramelan Naval Hospital, with both a perforated palate that often caused her to choke when eating or drinking and maxillary anterior tooth mobility. Case Management: The treatment for the patient in this case consisted of debridement and DHE, pharmacological therapy including aloclair gel and minosep mouthwash to maintain oral hygiene and prevent re-infection. At the end of the first consultation, the patient was prescribed an obturator in order to avoid oro-anthral infection. During the second consultation, the patient’s orthodontic bracket was removed to facilitate scaling and splinting of the anterior maxillary teeth carried out to prevent their movement. During the third consultation, a swab was taken by an oral surgeon who also administered antifungal therapy. During the fourth and final consultation, the patient was examined a prosthodontic specialist due to an obturator which was causing discomfort. Conclusion: The management of palatal perforation lesions in an SLE patient requires a multidisiplinary approach.

Acid fast bacilli detected in the oral swab sample of a pulmonary tuberculosis patient

Bakti, Reiska Kumala, Mertaniasih, Ni Made, Ernawati, Diah Savitri, Soebadi, Bagus, Hadi, Priyo

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that persists as a health problem worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as an etiological agent, is transmitted from infected to uninfected individuals via airborne droplet nuclei. Oral health care workers or dental practitioners may be at high risk of TB infection because of their close proximity to infected individuals during treatment procedures. Simple and rapid screening of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the oral cavity is necessary in order to prevent transmission of infection. Purpose: To investigate the presence of acid-fast bacilli in the buccal mucosa of pulmonary TB patients. Methods: Nineteen pulmonary TB patients of both sexes, ranging in age from 19 to 74 years old participated in this study. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was performed by clinical symptom assessment and supporting examination, including acid-fast bacilli on sputum examination. Two buccal mucosa swabs taken from pulmonary TB patients were collected for acid fast bacilli direct smear by Ziehl Neelsen staining. Results: With regard to mycobacterium tuberculosis, acid-fast bacilli presented in 10.5% of the oral buccal mucosa swabs of subjects, whereas in the sputum specimens, bacilli were found in 52.6% of subjects. Conclusion: Acid-fast bacilli can be found in the buccal epithelial mucosa of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, although its presence was very limited.

Effects of silkworm fiber position on flexural and compressive properties of silk fiber-reinforced composites

Faizah, Ariyani, Murdiyanto, Dendi, Widyawati, Yulita Nur, Dewi, Narawidya Laksmi

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Fiber-reinforced composites represent a combination of fiber-reinforced composite materials. The availability of fiber within dentistry in Indonesia is limited and, therefore, requires lengthy advance ordering. The increasing use of fiber derived from natural materials, such as silk, is of greater concern due to its considerable mechanical strength, biocompatibility and wider availability. The application of fiber will increase the mechanical strength of fiber-reinforced composites, including both flexural and compression strength. One factor affecting the mechanical strength of fiber is the laying of fiber or fiber position. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to establish the influence of silkworm fiber position on both the flexural and compression strength of silk fiber-reinforced composites. Methods: Flexural strength and compression strength tests using a universal testing machine involved the division of the research population into three treatment groups: compression side, neutral side and tension side. Results: The results of data analysis indicated that the tension side group possessed the highest flexural strength (121.42 MPa), while the compression side group demonstrated the highest compression strength (337.65 MPa). A one-way ANOVA analysis test produced a significant result of p = 0.000 (<0.05) both for silkworm fiber position effect and compression strength of silk fiber reinforced composites. Conclusion: The position of silkworm fiber will affect its flexural strength as well as that of the compression of silk fiber-reinforced composites.

Mandibular morphology of the Mongoloid race in Medan according to age groups

Sitanggang, Maria, Boel, Trelia

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: The mandible constitutes part of the craniofacial bone that plays an important role in determining an individual’s facial profile. The mandible grows and develops throughout life from the prenatal phase up to old age when it becomes and edentulous. Changes in the mandible can be measured using radiographs. These establish several parameters of mandibular morphology, including: ramus height, condylion height, body length, condylion angle, symphysis height, symphysis width and symphysis angle. Purpose: This study aimed to determine differences in the mandibular morphology of members of the mongoloid racial group in Medan according to age as measured by cephalometric radiography. Methods: This investigation constituted analytical research using cross-sectional study with a total sample of 150 individuals divided according to age: group 1 (aged 4-12 years), group 2 (aged 13-24 years, group 3 (aged 25-34 years), group 4 (aged 35-60 years) and group of 5 (aged > 60 years). The parameters were computerized by means of a digital cephalometric radiograph, the resulting data being analized with Oneway ANOVA and LSD. Results: The mean value of the highest to the lowest ramus height, and symphysis height from the five age groups, sequentially, were in group 3, group 4, group 5, group 2, and group 1. The mean value from the highest to the lowest of body length, condylion height, condylion angle, and symphysis width, sequentially, were in group 3, group 4, group 2, group 5, and group 1. The mean value from the highest to the lowest of symphysis angle, sequentially, were in group 1, group 3, group 4, group 2, and  group 5. Conclusion: The mandibular morphology of each age group differs in Mongoloid races in Medan based on lateral cephalometric radiography in which changes are may be affected by the state of teeth and age.

Differences in photodynamic therapy exposure time and Staphylococcus aureus counts

Tambayong, Adeline Jovita, Widjiastuti, Ira, Lunardhi, Cecilia G. J.

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: The success of endodontic treatment can be achieved when pathogenic bacteria are eliminated from the root canal and periapical tissue resulting in healing of such tissue. One of the bacteria located in root canals is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) reportedly found to be in severe periapical abscesses. Photodynamic therapy is one current technology that can help eliminate microorganisms without causing damage to human body cells. Average of research has been conducted using different tools and bacteria to evaluate the effects of exposure time used in photodynamic therapy on the number of bacteria. Purpose: The research reported here aimed to determine the correlation between the exposure time of photodynamic therapy and the number of S. aureus bacteria. Methods: The S. aureus bacteria used in this research were divided into seven treatment groups: a control group and six treatment groups with respective exposure times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds. All of the bacteria were administered a photosensitiser and radiated according to the treatment intended for each group. They were then planted in nutrient agar and incubated for 48 hours. The colonies of bacteria formed were calculated using the Quebec colony counter and subsequently analyzed by means of both Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Results: After calculating the number of bacterial colonies, the average number of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the non-irradiated group was 119 CFU/ml, 29 CFU/ml in the group with a 10-second exposure time, 20 CFU/ml in the group with a 20-second exposure time, 13 CFU/ml in the group with a 30-second exposure time, 7 CFU/ml in the group with a 40-second exposure time, but none in the groups with exposure times of 50 or 60 seconds. Conclusion: The longer the photodynamic therapy exposure time, the greater the number of S. aureus bacteria eliminated. An exposure time of 50 seconds was found to be sufficient to exterminate all S. aureus bacteria present.

Mauli banana stem extract application increased expression of NF-κB in traumatic ulcer healing

Apriasari, Maharani Laillyza, Rahayu, Retno Pudji, Ernawati, Diah Savitri

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: A traumatic ulcer represents one of the most prevalent disorders affecting the oral cavity. Ulceration of the oral cavity potentially results in secondary infection requiring topical medication which involves the use of antiseptics to accelerate wound healing. Previous research has shown that Mauli banana (Musa acuminata) stem extract (MBSE) contains bioactive material from terpenoid saponin present in Ambon bananas. The terpenoid saponin in Ambon banana stems will be captured by a G protein receptor in the macrophages, subsequently producing a protein kinase C that activates nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB). This increases both the activity and number of macrophages. Purpose: To analyze the expression of NF-κB (p50) in traumatic ulcers as an effect of MBSE. Methods: A true experimental design with a post-test only control group. It involved 40 male Rattus norvegicus strain rats as traumatic ulcer models divided into four groups: the negative control group administered gel, and the other treatment groups administered 25%, 37.5% and 50% ethanol extracts of MBSE gel respectively. A biopsy was performed on days 3 and 5. The preparation was produced to analyze the expression of NF-κB (p50) by means of immunohistochemistry examination. Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in NF-κB (p50) expression (p=0.005) following MBSE gel administration of 37.5% concentration on day 3 compared to day 5. Conclusion: It can be concluded that MBSE gel topical application can increase expression of NF-κB (p50) in traumatic ulcer healing.

Differences in mucin expression in the submandibular glands of rats during peridontitis induction

Purwanti, Nunuk, Kusumawardhani, Banun, Murdiastuti, Kwartarini

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) produces lipopolysacharide (LPS) which acts as a stimulator of inflammation in periodontal tissues. Periodontitis-induced apoptosis and vacuolation of the salivary gland, therefore, causes hyposalivation. Mucin secretion is produced by the submandibular gland under stimulation by the cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Both forms of stimulation influence the volume of mucin secretion. Mucin saliva plays an important role in the early stages of Pg colonization in the oral cavity. On the other hand, it serves to protect against bacterial invasion. Purpose: The aim of this research was to identify differences in mucin expression in the submandibular gland during periodontitis induction. Methods: 32 male Wistar rats were assigned to either a sham periodontitis or a periodontitis group. The former group received a daily injection of a vehicle solution (n = 16), while members of the periodontitis induction group (n=16) were injected each day with 500 µL of Pg 108 into the mesial area of the upper molar. Mucin in the submandibular gland was analyzed at the 7th, 14th, 21th and 28th days after injection by means of periodic acid schiff (PAS) staining. Results: 28 days after injection mild gingivitis was developed in the periodontitis experiment group. Junctional epithelium (JE) thickness decreased gradually following the increase of PG injection periods (p<0.05).  However, mucin expression increased prominently at 7th, 14th, and 21th days after injection and decreased on day 28th after PG injection. Mucin was expressed in the duct cells of the submandibular gland. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that there are different levels of mucin expression in the submandibular gland during periodontitis induction.

Changes in the number of macrophage and lymphocyte cells in chronic periodontitis due to dental X-ray exposure

Asymal, Alhidayati, Astuti, Eha Renwi, Devijanti, Rini

Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 51, No 2 (2018): (June 2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by specific microorganisms that attacks tooth-supporting tissues, P. gingivalis bacteria are mostly found in patients suffering from chronic periodontitis which is usually diagnosed by means of clinical and radiographic examination. The latter play important roles in the management of periodontitis, including: establishing diagnosis, determining treatment plans and evaluating the results of treatment. Unfortunately, the use of X-rays to perform such radiographic examination has negative effects since the body’s various parts, especially the head, are not well protected from the effects of X-ray radiation. Purpose: This research aimed to analyze the effects of dental X-ray exposure on the number of macrophages and lymphocytes in experimental subjects suffering from periodontitis. Methods: 36 rats that had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were divided into three groups, namely: a control group, treatment group I (exposed to a 0.16 mSv dose of radiation) and treatment group II (exposed to a 0.32 mSv dose of radiation). These subjects were subsequently sacrificed on the third and fifth days after treatment. Thereafter, histopathological examination was performed to identify any changes in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes. Results: The results of an HSD test confirmed that, on the third day, there were significant differences in the number of lymphocytes between the control group and treatment group I, as well as between the control group and treatment group II. On the fifth day, there were also significant differences in the number of lymphocytes between the control group and treatment group I, as well as between treatment group I and treatment group II. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the number of macrophage cells on the third day between the control group and treatment group I. On the fifth day, there were also significant differences in the number of macrophage cells between the control group and treatment group I, as well as between treatment group I and treatment group II. Conclusion: Dental x-ray exposure at a dose of 0.16 mSv can elevate the number of macrophages and lymphocytes on the third and fifth days. On the other hand, dental x-ray radiation at a dose of 0.32 mSv can reduce the number of macrophages on day 3 as well as the number of lymphocytes on the third and fifth days.

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