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JURISDICTIE Jurnal Hukum dan Syariah
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112
Articles
THE PROBLEMATICS OF EXECUTION LAW AGAINST NON-EXECUTABLE JUDGMENTS AND COMPARISONS WITH MALAYSIAN LAW

Ariadi Subagyono, Bambang Sugeng, Anand, Ghansham

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

In public courts, the litigation of civil case is under civil law procedure. This is a legal regulation to maintain material civil laws. The procedural law is also a way to file a particular civil case to civil court and to organize judges’ ways in making judgment toward legal subject. Civil law procedure prevents any vigilante actions that creates public legal order. Judiciaries provide protection for legal subject in preserving their rights and prevent any arbitrary actions. After case investigation process set under procedural law, a court judgment is made to judge and solve case. Legal actions are subsequently conducted to reach fixed legal judgment (inkracht van gewijsde). Some executions for civil cases in Indonesia is suspended since the object is different from reality or non-executable. Furthermore, civil case judgment is sometimes contradictory to criminal cases, although the objects are similar. Either litigant and/or defendant files request to the Supreme Court to have a legal protection or the chairman of district court requests for an instruction from the Supreme Court, may suspend court judgment. Therefore, the implementation of court judgments with legal power is still undeniably problematic. If the execution is suspended or not allowed, it may disadvantage “the justice seekers”; public society. The suspended or non-executable judgment should be immediately addressed on its implementation, instead of its law.Di pengadilan umum, proses kasus perdata berada dalam prosedur hukum perdata. Ini adalah peraturan hukum untuk mempertahankan hukum sipil material. Undang-Undang prosedural ialah cara mengajukan kasus perdata ke pengadilan sipil dan mengatur cara hakim memutuskan subjek hukum. Prosedur hukum perdata bertujuan mencegah tindakan hakim-sendiri sehingga tercipta tatanan hukum publik. Peradilan memberikan perlindungan bagi subjek hukum dalam melestarikan haknya dan mencegah kesewenang-wenangan. Setelah proses penyelidikan kasus sebagaimana diatur dalam hukum prosedural, putusan pengadilan dibuat untuk menilai dan memecahkan kasus. Tindakan hukum selanjutnya dilakukan hingga mendapat keputusan hukum tetap (inkracht van gewijsde). Beberapa putusan kasus perdata Indonesia ditangguhkan karena objek berbeda dari kenyataan atau tidak dapat dieksekusi. Selanjutnya, putusan kasus perdata terkadang bertentangan dengan kasus pidana, meskipun objeknya sama. Baik penggugat dan/atau terdakwa mengajukan permintaan ke Mahkamah Agung untuk memiliki perlindungan hukum atau ketua dari pengadilan distrik meminta instruksi dari Mahkamah Agung, bisa menangguhkan keputusan pengadilan. Karenanya, pelaksanaan putusan pengadilan dengan kekuatan hukum masih bermasalah. Jika eksekusi ditangguhkan atau tidak diizinkan, tentu dapat merugikan “para pencari keadilan”; masyarakat umum. Putusan yang ditangguhkan atau tidak dapat dieksekusi harus segera ditangani pada pelaksanaannya, bukan hukumnya.

KEMASLAHATAN DALAM PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM TERHADAP KONSUMEN DAN PELAKU USAHA MELALUI MEKANISME PENETAPAN HARGA OLEH NEGARA

Munthe, Mhd Erwin

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

In business competition there are often monopolistic activities which result in high prices for the game of business actors. This makes consumers uneasy because they do not get varied prices and fair prices, while for small business actors they do not have competitive ability. The existence of monopolistic practices and unfair competition is not in line with the constitution. Because the 1945 Constitution mandates that the national economy must be carried out by promoting people’s welfare. Therefore, the presence of the government is very necessary to realize the ideals mandated by the constitution and legislation. This study aims to analyze the mechanism and criteria for pricing by the state. The result is providing legal protection to consumers and other business actors, the government sets the highest retail price and the lowest retail price and provides subsidies to imported products that control the livelihoods of many people. This effort is carried out to realize mutual benefit between producers and consumers.Dalam persaingan usaha sering terdapat kegiatan-kegiatan monopoli yang mengakibatkan tingginya harga atas permainan pelaku usaha. Hal ini membuat kegelisahan konsumen karena tidak mendapatkan harga yang variatif dan wajar, sedangkan bagi pelaku usaha kecil tidak memiliki kemampuan bersaing. Adanya praktik monopoli dan persaingan tidak sehat ini tidaklah sejalan dengan konstitusi. Karena UUD 1945 mengamanatkan bahwa perekonomian nasional harus dijalankan dengan mengedepankan kesejahteraan rakyat. Oleh karenanya, kehadiran pemerintah sangat diperlukan untuk mewujudkan cita-cita yang diamanatkan konstitusi dan peraturan perUndang-Undangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis mekanisme dan kriteria penetapan harga oleh negara. Sementara metodenya penelitian doktrinal dalam bentuk penelitian evaluatif. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan perUndang-Undangan. Hasil penelitian ini adalah bahwa dalam memberikan perlindungan hukum kepada konsumen dan pelaku usaha lainnya, pemerintah menetapkan harga eceran tertinggi dan harga eceran terendah serta memberikan subsidi pada produk-produk impor yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak. Upaya ini dilakukan untuk mewujudkan kemaslahatan bersama antara produsen dan konsumen.

BISNIS JASA PENYALUR TENAGA KERJA PERSPEKTIF HUKUM EKONOMI SYARIAH

Abdurohman, Dede

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

Working is an attached part of life series. In Indonesia, some people try to be employed through labor distributor services, known as outsourcing. Indonesian law confirms that Outsourcing activities are protected by the act No. 13 of 2003 concerning Manpower, Decree of the Minister of Manpower and Transmigration of the Republic of Indonesia Number: KEP.101/MEN/VI/2004 concerning Procedures for Licensing of Workers/Labor Service Providers. However, workers joining Outsourcing agent considered themselves unprosperous. They then choose demonstration as a way to express their aspiration. The phenomenon of demonstration of labor in Indonesia usually can be seen every year in May. The issue is usually about the minimum wage which is according to them under the welfare standard and another is about outsourcing abolishment. In this article, the author will focus on Outsourcing agent, its system in Indonesia according to Islamic Economic Law’s perspective? The author thinks it is important to discuss since the labors do the demonstration every year for the same demands. Based descriptif kwalitatif analysis in Islamic business law, the outsourcing company is halal. Goverment can up the minimum wage consider the maslahah.Bekerja merupakan bagian tak terpisah dari rangkaian kehidupan. Di Indonesia, beberapa orang memilih mencari pekerjaan melalui agen penyalur tenaga kerja atau yang disebut outsourcing. Hukum di Indonesia menegaskan bahwa kegiatan outsourcing dilindungi oleh Undang-Undang No. 13 Tahun 2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan, Keputusan Menteri Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Republik Indonesia No.: KEP.101/MEN/VI/2004 tentang Tata Cara Perijinan Perusahaan Penyedia Jasa Pekerja/Buruh. Namun, buruh yang terjaring dalam lembaga outsourcing menganggap diri mereka belum sejahtera. Karenanya, mereka memilih demonstrasi untuk mengungkapkan aspirasinya. Fenomena demonstrasi para pekerja di Indonesia dapat disaksikan setiap tahunnya pada bulan Mei. Tuntutan mereka biasanya seputar upah minimum yang menurut mereka di bawah standar kesejahteraan dan penghapusan sistem outsourcing. Dalam artikel ini, penulis fokus pada lembaga outsourcing dan sistemnya di Indonesia menurut perspektif Hukum Ekonomi Syariah. Berdasarkan analisis deskriptif kwalitatif, maka perusahaan outsourcing sah secara hukum dan halal menurut hukum ekonomi syariah. Pemerintah dapat menaikkan upah minimum dengan memperhatikan kemaslahatan.

ISLAM DAN PERBURUHAN: PEMBAGIAN KERJA, SAFETY NETWORKING DAN MASLAHAH PADA SISTEM PENGUPAHAN DI INDONESIA

Mardhiah, Nur

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

This study aims to analyze wage practice in Padang and to explain its feasibility in contemporary era. It is said feasible when the wage received represents the needs. This is studied based on harmonization between theory, positive law, and Islamic law. This is a legal research with an empirical juridical approach. The data result were analyzed using analytical descriptive approach. The findings reveal that the thinking paradigm of some entrepreneurs is only considering workers as production tools while receiving below-standard wage. This is almost the same as Ferdinand Lasalle’s (1825) idea on ‘iron theory’, in which entrepreneurs and companies will get maximum profit by minimizing wage of workers. On the contrary, this result reinforces Paul Spicker’s (1995) idea; the state is fully responsible for ensuring the minimum standard of living of each citizen by focusing on improving people’s welfare and providing universal social service as well as formulating law which sides people. In addition, the purpose of this study is in line with the opinion of Yusuf al-Qaradawi (2004), Bani Sadr, Jaribahal-Harithi (2003), Eva Zulfa (2014) that the wage are given on the basis of work values and ability and on the cosideration of their participation in improving company’s profit.Penelitian ini menganalisis praktik pengupahan di Kota Padang dan menjelaskan kelayakannya di era kontemporer. Dikatakan layak jika upah yang diterima merepresentasikan kebutuhan. Hal ini dikaji berdasarkan harmonisasi antara teori, hukum positif, dan hukum Islam. Ini merupakan penelitian hukum dengan pendekatan yuridis empiris. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan teknik deskriptif analitis. Temuan penelitian mengungkap paradigma berpikir beberapa pengusaha yang hanya menjadikan pekerja sebagai alat produksi dalam perusahaan dengan upah murah. Ini hampir sama dengan pemikiran Ferdinand Lasalle (1825) tentang ‘teori besi’, yang mana pengusaha dan perusahaan akan meraih laba maksimal dengan upah pekerja minimal. Sebaliknya, hasil penelitian ini memperkuat pemikiran Paul Spicker (1995) yang menyatakan bahwa negara bertanggung jawab penuh untuk menjamin standar hidup minimum setiap warganya yang difokuskan pada peningkatan kesejahteraan dengan memberikan pelayanan sosial universal dan membentuk Undang-Undang pro rakyat. Di samping itu, tujuan penelitian ini sejalan dengan Yusuf al-Qaradawi (2004), Bani Sadr, Jaribahal-Harithi (2003), Eva Zulfa (2014) bahwa upah seorang pekerja diberikan atas dasar nilai kerja dan kemampuan serta pertimbangan partisipasi mereka dalam menghasilkan laba perusahaan.

PENYALAHGUNAAN KEADAAN (MISBRUIK VAN OMSTANDIGHEDEN) SEBAGAI LARANGAN DALAM PERJANJIAN SYARIAH

Fidhayanti, Dwi

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

The principle of freedom of contract may cause problems in the form of an indication of misuse of circumstances (misbruik van omstandigheden) in the agreement. Misuse of circumstances (misbruik van omstandigheden) occurs when a person in a covenant is influenced by something that prevents him from making a judgment free from the other so that he can not take an independent decision. This research uses normative research with a legislative approach. invitations and conceptual approaches. Legal material is obtained through literature study and analyzed by legal interpretation method. The results of the study and discussion show that the concept of misuse of state (misbruik van omstandigheden) in the agreement is included in a covenant with a defective will. One party who has a strong position to suppress and even threaten against parties who have a weaker position so Bargaining position is not balanced. Persons who have a weak position are not given the freedom to give their opinion on the contents of the agreement. Sharia treaties that contain elements of abuse of the circumstances (misbruik van omstandigheiden or undue influence) are included in the forbidden agreement, called ikrah. To do slander is to do wrongdoing. As a result of the law, the agreement becomes null and void.Asas kebebasan berkontrak dapat menimbulkan permasalahan berupa adanya indikasi penyalahgunaan keadaan (misbruik van omstandigheden) dalam perjanjian. Penyalahgunaan keadaan (misbruik van omstandigheden) terjadi manakala seseorang di dalam suatu perjanjian dipengaruhi oleh suatu hal yang menghalanginya untuk melakukan penilaian (judgement) yang bebas dari pihak lainnya, sehingga ia tidak dapat mengambil putusan yang independen.Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian normatif  dengan pendekatan perundang-undangan dan pendekatan konseptual. Bahan hukum didapatkan melalui studi pustaka dan dianalisis dengan metode intepretasi hukum. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa konsep penyalahgunaan keadaan (misbruik van omstandigheden) dalam perjanjian termasuk dalam perjanjian yang cacat kehendak. Salah satu pihak yang mempunyai posisi kuat untuk menekan bahkan mengancam terhadap pihak yang mempunyai posisi lebih lemah sehingga Bargaining position tidak seimbang. Pihak yang punya posisi lemah tidak diberikan kebebasan untuk memberikan pendapatnya atas isi perjanjian. Perjanjian syariah yang mengandung unsur penyalahgunaan keadaan (misbruik van omstandigheiden atau undue influence) termasuk pada perjanjian yang dilarang, yang disebut dengan ikrah. Berbuat Ikrah berarti berbuat zalim. Akibat hukumnya, yaitu perjanjian tersebut menjadi batal demi hukum.

PRINSIP SYARIAH DALAM PEMBAHARUAN KONSEP PERKOPERASIAN DI INDONESIA

Susamto, Burhanuddin

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

Cooperative has been a part of the existing business entity in the community. This theme is important to be reviewed in Sharia principles approach for the development of cooperative concept in Indonesia. Through cooperative, the members are able to make contracts/ transactions both among members and other parties. To build the relationship, all parties need syar’i contracts which functions as the underlying contract. Therefore, to have strong validity, the implementation of necessary sharia principles is not only at the conceptual level but also at the operational level from the cooperative establishment to its dissolution. By implementing the sharia principles in developing the concept of cooperative legal entity, it is expected to give opportunity for cooperative practitioners to practice their divine values.Koperasi telah menjadi bagian dari badan usaha di tengah masyarakat. Tema ini penting dikaji kembali demi pengembangan konsep perkoperasian di Indonesia dengan pendekatan prinsi-prinsip syariah. Badan usaha koperasi memungkinkan para anggota untuk melakukan perikatan/transaksi baik dengan sesama anggota maupun dengan pihak lain. Untuk membangun hubungan tersebut semua pihak pasti membutuhkan akad-akad syar’i yang fungsinya sebagai dasar perikatan (underlying contract). Karenanya, agar memiliki keabsahan yang kuat, implementasi prinsip-prinsip syariah adalah keniscayaan tidak hanya pada level konseptual melainkan juga pada level operasional, mulai dari pendirian koperasi hingga pembubarannya. Dengan mengimplentasikan prinsip-prinsip syariah dalam pembaharuan konsep badan hukum koperasi, diharapkan lebih membuka peluang bagi para praktisi perkoperasian untuk mengamalkan nilai-nilai ilahiya.

PENGGUNAAN BAHASA INDONESIA SEBAGAI SYARAT OBYEKTIF DALAM PEMBUATAN PERJANJIAN PINJAM MEMINJAM (AKAD ‘ARIYAH) YANG BERBENTUK AKTA OTENTIK: Studi Kasus Terhadap Putusan Hakim Mahkamah Agung No. 1572 K/Pdt/2015

Rahayu, Nur Irma, Syafa'at, Rachmat, Widiarto, Aan Eko

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

Halal cause is an essential element in Indonesian legal agreement. Its definition in the Article 1320 of Civil Code Procedure is unclearly elaborated leading to multi interpretations. There is even Judge’s interpretation in the language use that cause its invalidity only because Indonesian language is considered as a halal cause. This leads to uncertainty of all parties involved in a agreement. This research discusses the accuracy of ratio legis of Supreme Court judges in decree Number 1572 K.Pdt.2015 that decides the authentic deeds of loan agreement and fiduciary guarantee for an object as void at law. The researcher employs normative juridical method. The approaches employed are legislation, conceptual, and case. The research reveals, there is irrelevant interpretation of halal cause by Supreme Court judges in decree 1572/K/Pdt/2015 when related to the Article 1320 of Civil Code Procedure and Rasio legis of the judges; the decision has overlooked the provision of foreign language use in the authentic deeds as regulated in notary office law. It is because the legal framework used infringes the principle of lex spesialis derogat legi generalli. Furthermore, the legal consequence toward the authentic deeds regarding the use of foreign language agreed by all agreement parties written in decree Number 1572 K.Pdt.2015 should not be void at law because it does not guarantee the legal certainty of all deed makers.Kausa halal merupakan unsur krusial dalam Hukum perjanjian Indonesia. Maknanya dalam pasal 1320 KUHPerdata kurang terjabar jelas sehingga ada multi tafsir. Bahkan ada penafsiran Hakim terhadap bahasa ini yang berakibat pembatalan akta hanya karena menganggap Bahasa Indonesia masuk dalam kausa halal. Hal ini membuat ketidakpastian pihak pembuat perjanjian. Penelitian ini membahas ketepatan rasio legis hakim Mahkamah Agung dalam putusan No. 1572 K.Pdt.2015 yang memutuskan batal demi hukum akta otentik perjanjian pinjam-meminjam dan perjanjian Jaminan Fidusia Atas Benda. Peneliti menggunakan metode yuridis normatif. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah perundang-undangan, konseptual, dan kasus. Hasil penelitian, hakim Mahkamah Agung kurang tepat dalam memaknai kausa halal No. 1572/K/Pdt/2015 yang terkait dengan pasal 1320 KUHperdata dan rasio legis hakim; keputusannya mengesampingkan ketentuan penggunaan bahasa asing dalam akta otentik yang telah diatur Undang-Undang Jabatan Notaris. hal ini karena dasar-dasar hukum yang digunakan hakim tidak tepat yaitu menyalahi asas lex spesialis derogat legi generalli. Serta, akibat hukum terhadap akta otentik perjanjiannya yang telah disepakati para pihak dengan menggunakan bahasa asing dalam putusan No. 1572 K.Pdt.2015 seharusnya tidak menjadi batal demi hukum karena putusan tersebut tidak menjamin kepastian hukum para pihak pembuat akta.

SINGLE ECONOMIC ENTITY: Kajian Hukum Persaingan Usaha di Indonesia

Silalahi, Udin

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

Single economic entity doctrine has just been applied in Indonesia. KPPU applied this doctrine in the Temasek case. This application becomes controversial among law practitioners, exactly between lawyers and KPPU. Single economic entity doctrine has been well-known in the terminology of competition business law meanwhile some law practitioners argued that this doctrine is not common yet in Indonesia. This article discusses and elaborates whether the competition business law in Indonesia has been regulated and how KPPU applies the aforementioned doctrine based on the competition business law in Indonesia. This article is normative using library research. There are three approaches used in the article; they are the act, the case, and the conceptual approaches. The result shows that single economic doctrine is implicitly regulated in the Act No. 5 Year 1999. KPPU has applied the act and decided that Temasek Group contravened the Article 27, the Act no. 5 Year 1999 about share cross ownership.

THE EMERGENCE OF LEGAL SYSTEM IN ISLAMIC FINANCE

Qonita, Nuha

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

Legal system and jurisdiction take an important role in developing system or product innovation. The principle of Islamic financial transaction is recently elaborated in different frames of finance. It describes the challenge of Islamic finance in several countries which is linked with the perspective of stakeholders, consumer, industry, and the existing regulation. Various problems and recent decision making concept should be solved properly. This article aims to re-emphasize the rationality of Islamic finance regulation adjusted with consumer’s need. In some points, this study is used as the analysis on Islamic finance regulation. This is a study case categorized in qualitative research. The in-depth analysis is done on the basis of legal appeal in the court of Indonesia and is referred to Indonesian law about Islamic finance.

PELANGGARAN KEWAJIBAN PENDAFTARAN SERTIFIKAT HALAL: Dapatkah Dibuat Sanksi?

Nasyi’ah, Iffaty

JURISDICTIE Jurisdictie: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

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Abstract

The number of businessmen who have not yet registered for halal certificate grabs government’s attention. This is reflected in the Article 4 about Halal Product Warranty (Jaminan Produk Halal/JPH). The infraction against that article has no juridical implication, either administratively or criminally. The inconsistency of this article encourages researcher to seek for answers on two issues: can the infraction of article 4 be judged? Which kind of sanction is appropriate as the juridical consequence of the aforementioned article? The article is a normative research and uses legislation and conceptual approaches. Using the individual-liberalistic and strafrecht’s ordenings theories, the researcher assumes that infraction against Article 4 of JPH Law is still possible. The reason is that this article does not have a particular status of infraction; either it is civil, administrative, or criminal. This JPH law should be revised by adding strict sanctions, in both, the article itself and the chapter on criminal provision. Criminal sanctions that can be given are confinement and/or fine payment.