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James Sibarani, S.Si., M.Si., Ph.D
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INDONESIA
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)
Published by Universitas Udayana
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Jurnal ini merupakan jurnal elektronik di bidang kimia terapan yang dikelola oleh Magister Kimia Terapan, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Udayana, Bali. Jurnal ini memuat artikel-artikel penelitian yang berhubungan dengan Kimia Terapan yang meliputi Kimia Analitik, Kimia Polimer, Biokimia, Kimia Bahan Alam, Kimia Fisik, Kimia Permukaan, Biomaterial,dan bidang-bidang terkait. Jurnal ini akan terbit 2 kali dalam setahun yaitu pada bulan Pebruari dan September. Jurnal ini terbuka untuk diakses oleh semua kalangann(Open Access Journal)
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Articles 74 Documents
EFEKTIFITAS MEMBRAN KHITOSAN DARI KULIT UDANG GALAH (Macrobanchium rosenbergii) UNTUK MENURUNKAN FOSFAT Yunarsih, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun; Dharma Putra, Ketut Gede
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 2, 2013
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Penanggulangan terhadap pencemaran air limbah yang mengandung senyawa fosfat terutama yang berasal dari air limbah laundry dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi membran. Pada penelitian ini, membran dibuat dari bahan polimer alam yaitu senyawa khitosan yang diperoleh dari khitin yang terdapat di dalam kulit udang galah (Macrobanchium rosenbergii) melalui proses deasetilasi menggunakan NaOH 50%. Kualitas khitosan yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini ditentukan dengan FTIR dan diperoleh derajat deasetilasi (DD) sebesar 66.27%.Khitosan dilarutkan dalam asam asetat 1% yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk membuat membran dengan variasi konsentrasi khitosan 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% dan 5%. Membran tersebut digunakan untuk menurunkan kadar fosfat larutan standar KH2PO4 10 ppm dengan waktu kontak 30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit.Membran khitosan 3% dan waktu kontak p60 menit merupakan membran terbaik karena mampu menurunkan kadar fosfat larutan standar KH2PO4 10 ppm secara optimal. Kondisi ini diaplikasikan untuk menurunkan kadar fosfat total yang terdapat dalam air limbah laundry. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa membrane tersebut dapat menurunkan kadar fosfat total sampai 97.40% setelah dilakukan filtrasi sebanyak empat kali dan pH larutan berubah dari 9 menjadi 8. Countermeasures against pollution waste water containing phosphate compounds derived primarily from laundry wastewater can be performed using membrane technology. Membranes can be made from natural polymers that is compound chitosan obtained from chitin is in shrimp shells. Chitin obtained from prawn shell can be converted to chitosan by deacetylation process using 50% NaOH. The quality of chitosan obtainedin this study was determined by FTIR and the degree of deacetylation ( DD ) was calculated to be 66.27%. Further, the chitosan was dissolved in 1% acetic acid and then used to make membranes with various concentrations of chitosan 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. Those membraneswere used to reduce the level of phosphate from standard solution of KH2PO4 10 ppm by varying the contact time from 30 up to 120 minutes.Membrane made from 3% chitosan with contact time of 60 minutes showed the best performance in adsorbing phosphate. These conditions were applied to reduce the level of total phosphate contained in laundry wastewater. The results showed that the levels of total phosphate decreased up to 97.40 % after fourth filtration and the pH of the solution changed from 9 to 8.
PERBANDINGAN EFEKTIFITAS DISINFEKTAN KAPORIT, HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA, DAN PEREAKSI FENTON (H2O2/Fe2+) Setiawan, Didik; Sibarani, James; Suprihatin, Iryanti E
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 2, 2013
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi optimum dan efektifitas hidrogen peroksida dan pereaksi Fenton sebagai disinfektan dibandingkan dengan kaporit. Efektivitas disinfeksi ditentukan berdasarkan beberapa parameter yaitu: koefisien fenol disinfektan dan kualitas air yang dihasilkan yang diukur melalui pH, oksigen terlarut (DO, dissolved oxygen), dan suhunya serta harga disinfektan itu sendiri. Analisis statistik ANOVA dua arah tanpa interaksi  pada tingkat kesalahan 0.01 dilakukan guna menentukan disinfektan paling efektif dan konsentrasi optimumnya. Uji koefisien fenol dilakukan dengan mencampurkan disinfektan dengan konsentrasi tertentu dengan bakteri Salmonella typhosa dan Staphyllococcus aureuskemudian membandingkan hasilnya dengan fenol.Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa koefisien fenol dari kaporit, hidrogen peroksida, dan reagen Fenton berturut-turut adalah 4, 6, dan 6. Air yang dihasilkan oleh kaporit mempunyai pH, DO dan suhu berturut-turut adalah 10.07 - 9.2, 6.63-8.07 mgL-1, dan 28.5-28.13oC. Air yang didisinfeksi dengan hidrogen peroksida mempunyai pH,DO, dan suhu berturut-turut adalah 9.03-7.33, 6.93-9.40 mgL-1  , dan 28.5-28.03oC. Sedangkan air hasil didisinfeksi dengan reagen Fenton mempunyai pH, DO, dan suhu berturut-turut adalah 5.97-4.57, 7.40-8.57 mgL-1 , dan 28.47-28.07oC.Meskipun kaporit paling murah, namun dari segi kesehatan hidrogen peroksida merupakan reagen yang paling aman dan paling efektif karena dengan daya disinfeksi enam kali dibandingkan fenol, tidak meninggalkan residu yang membahayakan. Fenton, dilain pihak, meskipun mempunyai daya disinfeksi setara dengan hidrogen peroksida, namun menghasilkan ion Besi (III) dalam air sehingga memerlukan pengolahan lebih jauh.Dengan demikian, secara keseluruhan hidrogen peroksida merupakan disinfektan paling efektif dari ketiganya. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum concentration and the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent as disinfectants compared to chlorine. The most effective disinfectant is that having the highest phenol coefficient, and resulting good water quality with pH of 6.5-8.5, high dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature close to ambient, and cheap. The three materials were tested on Salmonella typhosa and Staphyllococcus aureus and their minimum concentrations that kill the bacteria were compared to that of phenol to determine the phenol coefficients. The results show the phenol coefficients of chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and Fenton are 4, 6, and 6 respectively. The pH of the water treated by the three disinfectants 10.07-9.2, 9.03-7.33, and 5.97-4.57 respectively. The disinfected waters have DO of 6.63-8.07 mgL-1, 6.93-9.40 mgL-1, and 7.40-8.57 mgL-1 respectively. The temperatures of the water are 28.5-28.3, 28.5-28.03, and 28.47-8.07 oC respectively. Chlorine is the cheapest in price, however, its residue may lead to the formation of the carcinogenic halomethanes in the drinking water, and its phenol coefficient is lower than both hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagents. The last two disinfectants have the highest phenol coefficient, however, hydrogen peroxide is saver because it does not produce harmful chemicals whereas Fenton reagent results in the formation of residual Iron(III) in the water that needs to be treated further.  
PRODUKSI BIODIESEL MELALUI REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI MINYAK JELANTAH DENGAN KATALIS CANGKANG KERANG DARAH (Anadara granosa) HASIL DEKOMPOSISI Lesbani, Aldes; Kurniawati M, Risma; Mohadi, Risfidian
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 2, 2013
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Biodisel telah diproduksi dari minyak jelantah melalui reaksi transesterifikasi menggunakan katalis hasil dekomposisi kerang darah. Kerang darah didekomposisi pada berbagai temperatur dimulai dari 600-1100oC pada kondisi udara terbuka menggunakan furnace.Produk dekomposisi dianalisa menggunakan difraktometer X-Ray.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan temperatur optimum dekomposisi kerang darah terjadi pada temperatur 900oC.Pola XRD produk dekomposisi pada 900 oC mirip dengan pola XRD kalsium oksida standar. Penggunaan katalis hasil dekomposisi untuk produksi biodiesel menghasilkan viskositas dan densitas biodiesel sebesar 5,81 mm2/s dan 0,87 g/cm3. Hasil ini sesuai dengan standar biodiesel dari SNI yakni viskositas dan densitas yang disyaratkan SNI sebesar 2,3-6,0 mm2/s dan 0,85-0,89 g/cm3. Biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil by transestrification reaction using decomposed cockle shell as catalyst. Cockle shell was decomposed at various temperatures ranging from 600-1100oC in open air condition using furnace. The decomposed product was analyzed using X-Ray diffractometer. The results showed that the optimum temperature for decomposition of cockle shell was at 900 oC. The XRD pattern of decomposed product at 900oC was similar with XRD pattern of calcium oxide standard. The use of decomposed shell to produce biodiesel resulted viscosity and density of biodiesel 5.81 mm2/s and 0.87 g/cm3, respectively. These results are appropriate with biodiesel standard form SNI where the viscosity and density of biodiesel from SNI value were 0.85-0.89 g/cm3 and 2.3-6.0 mm2/s.
Reaksi Antara Gliserol dan o-Metoksi Fenol Dalam Suasana Basa dan Asam Sebagai Upaya Pendahuluan Pemanfaatan Gliserol dari Produk Samping Produksi Biodiesel Untuk Pembuatan Obat Batuk Gliseril Guaiakolat Ritmaleni, Ritmaleni
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 2, 2013
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Berbagai kondisi reaksi basa dan asam termasuk penggunaan asam Lewis telah diaplikasikan pada reaksi antara gliserol dan o-metoksi fenol sebagai upaya dalam pemanfaatan gliserol dari hasil samping produksi biodiesel berbahan dasar minyak jelantah. Reaksi ini nantinya akan digunakan pada pembuatan obat batuk gliseril guaiakolat. Kondisi reaksi yang dilakukan belum menghasilkan suatu reaksi yang berjalan secara optimal sehingga masih diperlukan penelitian berikutnya. Some reaction conditions in basic and acid including Lewis acid have been applied on the reaction between glycerol and o-methoxy phenol. This study is an attempt to use glycerol as by-product of waste cooking oil-based biodiesel production. This reaction will be applied for synthesizing of cough medicine named glyceryl guaiacolate. Based on the results obtained, the reaction conditions applied were still not fit yet for optimum reactionand need to be found in the further study.
KAJIAN INTERAKSI ION Co2+ DENGANSELULOSA DARI SERBUK GERGAJIKAYU Mohadi, Risfidian; Hidayati, Nurlisa; Saputra, Adi; Lesbani, Aldes
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 2, 2013
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Telah dilakukan pemisahan selulosa dari serbuk gergaji kayu dengan menggunakan metanol dan HCldengan konsentrasi1%, 3%, 7%, dan 11%(v/v) dalam waktu 3 jam. Selulosa hasil pemisahan dikarakterisasi dengan spektroskopi FT-IR untuk selanjutnya digunakan sebagai adsorben ion logam Co2+ dalam medium air. Proses adsorpsi dipelajari melalui berbagai waktu interaksi, variasi konsentrasi, dan desorpsi terpisah. Spektrum infra merah menunjukan bahwa selulosa hasil pemisahan dari serbuk gergaji kayu dengan konsentrasi asam 5% memiliki kemiripan dengan spektrum inframerah selulosa standar. Konstanta laju adsorpsi ion logam Co2+ pada selulosa hasil pemisahan sebesar2.10-4 denganenergy adsorpsi sebesar 31,54 kJ/molserta pada serbuk gergaji kayu sebesar 4.10-4 dengan energy adsorpsi31,00kJ/mol. Kapasitas adsorpsi ion logam Co2+pada selulosa hasil pemisahan sebesar 0,55 x10-4 mol/g dan 0,09 x10-4mol/g untuk serbuk gergaji kayu. Desorpsi terpisah ion logam Co2+ menggunakan H2O, Na-EDTA, Amonium asetat, dan HCl menunjukan interaksi yang kuat ion logam Co2+ pada selulosa dan serbuk kayu. Separation of cellulosefrom wood sawdust using methanol and hydrocloric acid in acid concentrations of 1%, 3%, 7%, dan 11%(v/v) for 3 hours has been carried out. The cellulose was characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and used as adsorbent for Co2+ metal ion in aqueous medium. Adsorption process was studied by varying the interaction time, concentration of solution, and desorption. The FT-IR spectrum of cellulose obtained from wood using 5% HCl has similarity withFT-IR spectrum of the standardcellulose. The adsorption rate constant and adsorption energy ofCo2+on cellulose obtained from wood sawdustare 2.10-4 and31,54 kJ/mol respectively,meanwhile those values are4.10-4  and 31.00 kJ/mol respectively on raw wood sawdust.The adsorption capacity  of cellulose andof wood sawdust are 0,55 x10-4 mol/g and 0,09 x10-4mol/g, respectively.The separated desorption of Co2+ metal ion using H2O, Na-EDTA, Amonium acetic, and HCl showedthat Co2+wasstrongly bound to cellulose and wood sawdust.
UJI TOKSISITAS DAN IDENTIFIKASI EKSTRAK ETANOL SPONS Callyspongia aerizusa TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L. Rahayu, Made Rai; Sibarani, James; Swantara, I Made Dira
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 1, 2013
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Identification of active compounds extracted from marine sponge Callyspongia aerizusa and their toxicity against  Artemia salina L. larvae using BSLT method had been carried out. Partition of the ethanol extract using n-hexane, chloroform and water was conducted and we found that the chloroform fractions was the most toxic with LC50 of 43.65 ppm. The chloroform fractions were then separated by column chromatography using chloroform: ethyl acetate (7:3) as eluent and 5 fractions (FA-FE) were obtained. Fraction A was the most toxic with LC50 of 52.48 ppm. Identification the chemical compounds of the toxic isolates (FA) was conducted by using GC-MS showing eight (8) compounds which are hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9-heneicosene, 9-ctadecenoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis-(2-ethylhexyl) ester, octacosane, n-heneicosane, and tetratetracontane.
PENENTUAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM Cd DAN Cu DALAM PRODUK IKAN KEMASAN KALENG SECARA SPEKTROFOTOMETRI SERAPAN ATOM (SSA) Tehubijuluw, Hellna; Fransina, Eirene.G.; Pada, Semuel Simra
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 1, 2013
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Determination of cadmium and copper concentration of canned fish have been done. Some canned fished were taken away from three mercks circulating in a market and marked as RS (the 1st sample), NF(2nd sample), and CP(3rd sample). The aim of this research is to determine of  cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) content of canned fish and to compare the content with the standard limit regulated by the Directorate General of Drug and Food Control No: 03725/B/SK/VII/89. Determination of metal concentration was conducted using  atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). It was found that Cd concentrations of RS and  NF samples are 0.1969 mg/kg and0.0448 mg/kg, respecively while for  CP it was not detected. For Cu concentrations of  RS, NF, and CP are 3.3303 mg/kg, 4.6130 mg/kg, 3.3047 mg/kg  respectively. The results indicated that the samples of the canned fishes  have been contaminated with Cd and Cu metals although the levels of those metals are still lower than  the maximum limit regulated by the Directorate General of Drug and Food Control No: 03725/B/SK/VII/89 where the maximum limit for Cd and  Cu are 0,2 mg.kg and 5.0 mg/kg respectively.    
IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L. Sukmarianti, Ni Wayan Sri; Suaniti, Ni Made; Swantara, I Made Dira
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 1, 2013
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The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST) test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.
UJI TOKSISITAS DAN IDENTIFIKASI EKSTRAK SPONS Haliclona fascigera TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L. Wirmandiyanthi, Kadek Dewi; Manurung, Manuntun; Swantara, I Made Dira
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Volume 1, No. 1, 2013
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The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of sponge  Haliclona fascigera against larvae of Artemia salina and determine the compounds contained in the toxic isolates of sponge. The results showed chloroform fraction had the highest toxicity with LC50 of 63.10 ppm. Chloroform extracts were then separated by using eluent chloroform: ethyl acetate (8:2) and obtained five fractions. Based on the results of toxicity tests of the fifth fraction indicates the fraction 5 (F5) has the highest toxicity with LC50 of 89.13 ppm. Identification of toxic isolates F5 with GCMS show contained compound is 2-decenal, 3-eicosene, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanon, dibutyl-1,2-benzendikarboksilat, heksadekanoat acid, 4,8,12,16-tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide and dioctyl-1,2-benzendikarboksilat.  
MOLECULAR DOCKING, SINTESIS dan UJI AKTIVITAS SITOTOKSIK Pangaribowo, Dian Agung
CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
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ABSTRAK: Senyawa 1-benzoil-1,3-dimetilurea telah dirancang, disintesis, diidentifikasi struktur, dan diuji aktivitas sitotoksik secara in vitro. Simulasi docking dilakukan dengan memposisikan senyawa ke dalam sisi aktif reseptor Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) untuk menentukan model pengikatan ligan reseptor. Sintesis 1-benzoil-1,3-dimetilurea dilakukan lewat reaksi asilasi antara 1,3-dimetilurea dan benzoil klorida. Kemurnian produk hasil sintesis ditentukan dengan metode Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT). Identifikasi struktur dilakukan dengan spektrofotometer UV, FT-IR dan spektrometer NMR. Hasil uji antiproliferatif menunjukkan bahwa senyawa 1-benzoil-1,3-dimetilurea memiliki aktivitas sitotoksik terhadap sel HeLa yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kontrol positif. Senyawa 1-benzoil-1,3-dimetilurea dengan aktivitas sitotoksik dapat menjadi agen antikanker yang potensial. Kata kunci: 1-benzoil-1,3-dimetilurea, molecular docking, aktivitas sitotoksik ABSTRACT: A novel 1-benzoyl-1,3-dimethylurea has been designed, synthesized, structurally determined, and the in vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Docking simulation was performed to position this compound into the Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) active site to determine the probable binding model. Synthesis of 1-benzoyl-1,3-dimethylurea was completed by acylation reaction between 1,3-dimethylurea and benzoyl chloride. The purity of synthesized product was determined by Thin Layer Chromatography. Structure identification was performed by UV spectrophotometer, FT-IR and NMR spectrometer. Antiproliferative assay result demonstrated that this compound possessed good cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells, which is comparable to the positive control. This compound with potent cytotoxic activity might be a potential anticancer agent. Keywords: 1-benzoyl-1,3-dimethylurea, molecular docking, cytotoxic activity