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INDONESIA
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY
ISSN : 23389427     EISSN : 23389486     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy (ISSN-e: 2338-9486, ISSN-p: 2338-9427), formerly Majalah Farmasi Indonesia (ISSN: 0126-1037). The journal had been established in 1972, and online publication was begun in 2008. Since 2012, the journal has been published in English by Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) Yogyakarta Indonesia in collaboration with IAI (Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia or Indonesian Pharmacist Association) and only receives manuscripts in English. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy is Accredited by Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) DIKTI No. 58/DIKTI/Kep/2013.
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Articles 9 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 23 No 2, 2012" : 9 Documents clear
CURRENT CHALLENGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF AMORPHOUS SOLIDS Kumar, Gannu Praveen; Kumar, Bakka Sravan
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1257.618 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp65-83

Abstract

Interest  in  amorphous  pharmaceutical  systems  is  steadily growing  over  the  last  10  years.   The  amorphous  state  is  critical  in determining  the  solid  state,  physical  and  chemical  properties  of many pharmaceutical dosage forms. The main reason of the growing interest  toward  amorphous  materials  is  the  need  to  improve  the bioavailability  of  drugs  with  poor  aqueous  solubility.  Many  drugs exist in crystalline solid form due to reasons of stability and ease of handling during the various stages of drug development. Conversion of  the  crystalline  to  amorphous  form  may  occur  during  various pharmaceutical  processes.   This  could  change  the  dissolution  rate and  transport  characteristics  of  the  drug.  The  current  focus  of research  in  this  area  is  to  understand  the  origins  of  amorphous forms.  The  various  thermodynamic  phenomena  such  as  glass transition,  fragility,  molecular  mobility,  devitrification  kinetics, molecular  level  chemical  interactions,  solubility  and  stability  are critically  discussed.  The  aim  of  this  review  is  to  understand  the recent  development  in  the  area  of  amorphous  state  and  to  address the  current  challenges  faced  by  pharmaceutical  formulation  and process  development  scientists  and  thus  is  mandatory  to  anticipate future developments.Key words:  Crystalline solids, amorphous forms, characterization, stabilization.
BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES OF CERTAIN PLANT SPECIES DUE TO VARIOUS DRYING TREATMENTS Iqbal, Pandith Javid
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (578.64 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp110-114

Abstract

Phytochemical analysis of the Indian medicinal plants to identify the therapeutically active chemical compounds in them and  clinically  testing  for  their  efficacy  and  risks  is  an inescapable  procedure,  to  provide  new  sources  of  natural products  to  the  pharmaceutical  industry.  Therefore,  the phytochemical  screening  studies  should  be  concentrated  on the  hitherto  unexplored  medicinal  plants  for  their  medicinal values.  In  the  current  study  the  leaves  of  different  medicinal plants  like  Achyranthus  aspera,  Acalypha  indica,  Euphorbia hirta,  Lindenbergia  indica,  Parthenium  hysterophorus  and Pesistrophe  bicalyculata  were  taken  for  the  chlorophyll  and carotenoid  estimation  by  the  method  of  Jayaraman  (1981). The  leaves  of  the  following  plants  were  allowed  to  dry  in  an oven at different temperatures, time period and freeze drying. Oven  drying  was  done  at  50±10C  for  9  hours  and  at  70±1ºC for  5  hours.  Results  obtained  revealed  that  both  the  drying treatments  affect/decrease  the  chlorophyll  content  of  all  the six  plants.  The  maximum  effect  was  seen  in  Euphorbia  hirta (93.97%)  for  oven  drying  at  50±1ºC  for  9  hours.  The minimum  effect  was  observed  in  Parthenium  hysterophorus (21.68%)  for  oven  drying  at  70±1ºC  for  5  hours  and Achyranthus  aspera  (11.56%)  for  freeze  drying.  The  leaf preparations  treated  by  oven  drying  was  found  to  have  lower chlorophyll  and  carotenoid  content  as  compared  to  freeze drying  which  in  turn  has  lower  chlorophyll  content  as compared to fresh extracts.Key words:   Chlorophyll  content,  Drying  treatments,  and  leaf extract. 
INFLUENCE OF Morinda citrifolia, L. FRUIT EXTRACT AS ADJUVANT ON IG-Y PRODUCTION RAISED IN LAYING CHICKENS AGAINST AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINE Sasmito, Ediati; Harimurti, Sri; Nurhidayat, Hendy; Anggoro, Wahyu; Hikmawati, Elika Nur; Wibowo, Joko Tri; Avi, Atut Sulma; Hilmi, Nurul
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (748.09 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp115-120

Abstract

Immunized avian with vaccine, produces specific antibody in the serum as well as in the egg yolk. An adjuvant is used to augment  the   effects  of  a  vaccine  by  stimulating  the  immune response.   Morinda  citrifolia,  L.,  especially  the  fruit  contains  of some  chemical  compounds  such  as  polysaccharide,  scopoletin, damnacanthal,  proxeronine  and  proxeroninase.  All  those  of active  compounds,  are  soluble  in  different  solvents  and  have different  activities.  Some  of  those  compounds  have  adjuvant activity.  The  aim  of  our  study  was  to  observe  the  capability  of M.citrifolia  fruit  extracts  as  adjuvant  to  enhance  the  specific antibody  (IgY)  production  in  immunized  laying  chickens Lohmann  strain  (28  weeks  old)  with  a  commercially  available avian  influenza  (H5N2)  vaccine.  To  the  groups  (@6)  of  laying chickens  were  orally  administered  once  a  day,  through  out  of the  study,  with   n-hexane  (group  I;  divided  ino  3  sub  groups), ethanolic  (group  II;  divided  into  3  subgroups)  and  aqueous extract  (group  III;  divided  into  3  subgroups)  of  M.citrifolia (prepared  in  capsules)  on  dose  of   29  mg;  58  mg;  and  116 mg/chicken/day,  respectively,  and  group  IV  as  plasebo  control and  group  V  as  normal  control.  All  of  the  groups  were  induced with avian influenza vaccine, except the normal control. Eggs of 3, 6, and 10 weeks after immunized, were collected. Isolation of IgY  was  performed  by  repeated  polyethylene  glycol  6000 precipitation steps. IgY obtained was analyzed by indirect ELISA  method.  The  serum  was  tested   for  antibody  specificity  against the  influenza  H5N2  virus  by  hemagglutination-inhibition  (HI) method.  The  result  of  this  study  showed  that  the  dose  of  58 mg/chicken/day  of  aqueous  extract  of  M.citrifolia  fruit  had  an optimal  capability  to  enhance  specific  antibody  (IgY)  as  well  as IgG serum production against avian influenza (H5N2) vaccine .Key  words:  Adjuvant,  extract,  Morinda  citrifolia,  L.,  H5N2  vaccine, immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) 
BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE AND HEALTH EFFECT OF Perilla frutescence PLANT Asif, Mohammad
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (738.748 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp84-92

Abstract

The  study  was  designed  to  study  the  Biological  importance and nutritional benefits  of Perilla frutescence  plant. This plant has very  high  biological  activities.  It  contains  various  phytoconstituents  such  as  different  phenolic  compounds  (like rosemarinic  acids,  luteolin  chrysoeriol,  quercetin,  catcehin, apigenin, etc), vitamins,  minerals etc. Perilla seeds contained 30-40%  fixed  oil,  contained  both  saturated  (palmitic  acid  5-7%, stearic  acid  1-3%),  unsaturated  (UFAs)  or  polyunsaturated (PUFAs) (oleic acid 12-22%, linoleic acid 13-20%, γ-linolenic acid 0-1%,  α-linolenic  acid  52-64%,  icosanoic  acid  0-1%)  fatty  acids. Perilla  oil  is  highly  unsaturated  oil  among  the  all  current discovered  natural  vegetable  oils.  Whole  perilla  plant  has  many important  functions  on  improving  and  accelerating  human  health and is effective in prevention of various diseases.Key  words:    Perilla  frutescence,  biological  activities,  phyto-constituents, polyphenols, polyunsatured fatty acids.
THE OPTIMISED CONDITIONS OF INDUCTION OF RECOMBINANT RIP rMJC15310 ACTIVITY ISOLATED FROM Mirabilis jalapa L. LEAVES Astuti, Puji; ., Sudjadi; ., Sismindari
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (836.5 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp93-98

Abstract

Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) are compounds isolated from plants with ability to inhibit protein synthesis. The inhibition of protein synthesis is due to inactivation of ribosomal RNA through a site-specific  deadenylation  mediated  by  RNA  N-glycosidase. Reportedly, RIPs mainly possess wide range of bioactivity including antiviral  activity  against  plant  infections.  Other  activities  of  RIP were  as  abortifacien,  antivirus  and  anticancer.  This  study  was aimed  to  isolate  and  characterize  the  optimum  conditions  for inducing  the  expression  of  recombinant  RIPs  isolated  from  the leaves  of  Mirabilis  Jalapa  L.  We  have  been  successfully  isolated several  RIPs  and  engineered  these  proteins  to  be  expressed  in  E. coli. These recombinant proteins were obtained by screening cDNA library  originated  from  the  mRNA  of  Mirabilis  jalapa  L  leaves,  and inserted  into  pUC19  carrying  lacZ  gene.  The  presence  of recombinant  plasmid  was  tested  by  using  α-complementation assay. Many RIPs have been isolated from plants and these proteins express  enzymatic  activity  by  cutting  supercoiled  double  stranded DNA. One RIP namely rMJC15310 was obtained from this study and the  proteins  having  ~  8kb  in  size,  cut  the  supercoiled  DNA  into linear  form  at  the  concentration  as  low  as  5  µg.  The  ability  to  cut supercoiled  DNA  increased  on  inducing  its  expression  with  0.4% IPTG.Key words:   Ribosome  Inactivating  Proteins  (RIP),  IPTG,  Mirabilis  jalapa L., recombinant protein 
PASSIVE AND IONTOPHORETIC PERMEATION OF CAPTOPRIL GEL: AN IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDY Jain, Ashish; Nayak, Satish; Soni, Vandana
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (834.114 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp121-129

Abstract

The  Objective  of  this  work  was  to  formulate  and evaluate  captopril  gel  to  assess  its  suitability  for  transdermal delivery  by  passive  and  iontophoresis.  A  polymer  gel  was prepared  using  hydroxypropyl  methyl  cellulose  and  in  vitro skin permeability was assessed in full thickness skin of rabbits and  pigs.  For  in  vivo  studies  New  Zealand  rabbits  were  used. In vitro  passive permeation was carried out in Franz diffusion cell but for iontophoresis, diffusion cell was modified according to  Glikfield  design.  Iontophoresis  was  performed  at  a  current density  of  0.5  mA/cm2via  silver  /silver  chloride  electrodes with passive controls but for in vivo  study current density wasreduced  to  0.1  mA/cm2.  Blood  samples  were  analyzed  for drug content by HPLC. Results of the  in vitro  study indicated that iontophoresis considerably increased  the permeation rate of  captopril  compared  to  passive  controls  in  both  the  skin types  (P<0.01).  The  plasma  concentration  of  captopril  was significantly  higher  (P<0.001)  than  that  obtained  in  the passive  controls.  Results  showed  that  the  target  permeation rates  for  captopril  could  be  achieved  with  the  aid  of iontophoresis by increasing the area in an appreciable range.Key words:   Captopril,  iontophoresis,  transdermal,  Rabbit,  Pigskin, in vitro, in vivo.
IN VIVO EVALUATION OF MISOPROSTOL FLOATING MICROSPHERES Vanitha, Kondi; Varma, Mohan; Ramesh, Allure
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (780.816 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp99-103

Abstract

Prostaglandin  (PG)  has  been  reported  to  be  an  important protective  and  acid  suppressive  factor  in  the  gastric  mucosa.  The objective  of  the  study  was  to  develop  and  evaluate  a  stomach specific  drug  delivery  system  for  controlled  release  of  Misoprostal  a PE analogue for gastric ulcer induced NSAIDs. Floating microspheres were  prepared  by  emulsification-solvent  evaporation  method  using ethyl  cellulose  as  a  polymer,  carbopol  as  mucoadhesive  polymer. Ulcers were induced by the oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg)  to  24  h  fasted  Wistar  male  rats  (n=8),  weighing  200  g. Sodium  bicarbonate  solution,  misoprostal  solution  and  drug  loaded microspheres were tested. Formulations were administered orally 1h before the administration of ethanol. Prior to the oral administration, rats  were  anesthetized  with  ethylic  ether.  After  2  h  of  ethanol administration,  animals  were  sacrificed;  the  stomachs  were removed,  opened  along  he  greater  curvature  and  examined  for lesion measurements. Ulcer indexes (UI) were calculated. The in vivo evaluation showed that ulcer  index values were 0.61 ± 0.14 for the sodium  bicarbonate  solution,  0.58  ±0.18  for  the  misoprostal  and 0.11  ±  0.06  for  the  misoprostal-loaded  microspheres.  The  KruskalWallis  test  detected  statistical  differences  (p  =0.002)  between  the ulcer  indexes.  The  multiple  analyses  (Student-Newman-Keuls) showed  that  the  misoprostal  loaded  microspheres  presented  a gastric  ulcer  index  statistically  lower  than  that  of  the  sodium bicarbonate  solution  (p  =  0.001)  and  the  misoprostal  solution  (p  = 0.021).  The  percentages  of  ulceration  inhibition  were  31  and  75% after  the  administration  of  misoprostal  solution  and  microspheres, respectively.  In  conclusion,  the  in  vivo  evaluation  showed  that  the microspheres  presented  ulcer  index  lower  than  the  solutions, showing  that  misoprostal-loaded  microspheres  were  efficient  in protecting the stomach against ulcer formation.Key words: Misoprostal, microspheres, ulcer index, 
IDENTIFICATION OF SAFETY ALERT BY MONITORING ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS AND HIGH-RISK DRUGS Vilaplana, Vicente Escudero-; Antúnez, María Gómez-; García, Esther Durán-; Míguez, Antonio Muiño-; Sáez, María Sanjurjo-
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (662.163 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp130-134

Abstract

Early detection of  adverse  drug  reactions  (ADR) increases patient  safety.  Our  objective  was  to  identify  ADR  by  monitoring laboratory  parameters  and  high-risk  drugs.  We  carried  out  a two-month  prospective  observational  study  in  a  Internal Medicine  Department,  with  daily  recording  of  drugs  prescribed and  the  following  parameters:  Na,  K,  Ca,  serum  creatinine, glomerular  filtration  rate  (GFR),  INR,  glucose,  haemoglobin, platelets,  ALT,  AST,  bilirubin,  GGT,  alkaline  phosphatase,  TSH, T4,  and  blood  digoxin.  High-risk  drugs  were  closely  monitored. 52  patients  included,  of  whom  46.2%  experienced  an  ADR.  We observed  an  association  with  drugs  in  25.5%,  as  follows: reduction  in  GFR,  26.9%  (associated  with  loop  diuretics [41.7%],  angiotensin-converting  enzyme  [ACE]  inhibitors [33.3%],  angiotensin  II  receptor  blockers  [ARB]  [16.6%],  andanti-diabetic  drugs  [8.3%]);  hypokalemia,  22.3%  (associated with  loop  diuretics  [50.0%],  potassium-free  fluid  [37.5%],  and salbutamol  [12.5%]);  hyperkalemia,  14.4%  (associated  with ACE  inhibitors  [60.0%]  and  ARB  [40.0%]);  INR  out  of  range, 10.8%  (associated  with  drug  interactions  [66.7%]); hyperglycemia,  8.1%  (associated  with  corticosteroids  [66.7%] and  anti-diabetic  drugs  [33.3%]);  and  other  conditions,  18.8%. We  conclued  that  patient  safety  could  be  improved  by implementing  warnings  in  electronic  prescriptions  in  cases  of  a decrease  in  GFR  or  modification  of  potassium  levels  in  patients who are prescribed loop diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or ARBs.Key words:   Adverse drug reaction,  clinical decision support,  high-risk drug, safety 
DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN PORCINE AND BOVINE GELATIN IN CAPSULE SHELLS BASED ON AMINO ACID PROFILES AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS Widyaninggar, Amalia; ., Triwahyudi; Triyana, Kuwat; Rohman, Abdul
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (737.207 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp104-109

Abstract

Gelatin  used  for  capsule  shells  can  be  derived  from porcine  origin.  Some  religion  like  Islam  prohibited  their followers  to  consume  any  products  containing  porcine derivatives  including  porcine  gelatin  in  the  products. Consequently,  some  rapid  and  reliable  techniques  are continuously  developed  for  detection  of  porcine  gelatin  in some pharmaceutical products like  capsule shells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to use  amino acid profile  in  combination  with  chemometrics  of  principal component  analysis  for  detection  and  classification  between gelatin in capsule derived from porcine and bovine. Based on score  plot  of  first  principal  components  (PC1)  and  second principal  components  (PC2),  porcine  and  bovine  gelatins  in capsule could be apparently distinguished.Key  words:  bovine  gelatin;  porcine  gelatin;  amino  acid  profile; principal component analysis

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