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INDONESIA
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY
ISSN : 23389427     EISSN : 23389486     DOI : -
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy (ISSN-e: 2338-9486, ISSN-p: 2338-9427), formerly Majalah Farmasi Indonesia (ISSN: 0126-1037). The journal had been established in 1972, and online publication was begun in 2008. Since 2012, the journal has been published in English by Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) Yogyakarta Indonesia in collaboration with IAI (Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia or Indonesian Pharmacist Association) and only receives manuscripts in English. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy is Accredited by Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) DIKTI No. 58/DIKTI/Kep/2013.
Articles 677 Documents
The Effect of Medication Reminder Chart on Level Adherence in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients at RSUD Sleman Yogyakarta Suffiana, Yunita; Rahmawati, Fita; Andayani, Tri Murti
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 28 No 2, 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (663.068 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm28iss2pp125

Abstract

Patient adherence is a key factor that determines the outcome of diabetes mellitus therapy. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a medication reminder chart on level adherence and clinical outcome in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The experimental study used pretest-posttest design with control group was conducted during February until April of 2016 at Sleman Hospital in Yogyakarta. Patients were categorized into two groups of different subjects, who received of medication reminder chart tools were 40 patients (Code A) and the other 40 patients were assigned to control group (Code B). Morisky Medication Adherence Scale of 8-item (MMAS-8) was used to measure adherence. Clinical outcome were measured based on FBG decrease (mg/dl). Two independent sample t-test was using to determine the mean differences of the average score of the adherence level before and after using the medication reminder chart.  The results of this study showed that Medication Reminder Chart compared control groups improved adherence (p=0.000) but did not improve clinical outcome (p=0.411). The pharmacist might use The Medication Reminder Chart to improve medication adherence for chronic disease.
CURRENT CHALLENGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF AMORPHOUS SOLIDS Kumar, Gannu Praveen; Kumar, Bakka Sravan
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 2, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1257.618 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp65-83

Abstract

Interest  in  amorphous  pharmaceutical  systems  is  steadily growing  over  the  last  10  years.   The  amorphous  state  is  critical  in determining  the  solid  state,  physical  and  chemical  properties  of many pharmaceutical dosage forms. The main reason of the growing interest  toward  amorphous  materials  is  the  need  to  improve  the bioavailability  of  drugs  with  poor  aqueous  solubility.  Many  drugs exist in crystalline solid form due to reasons of stability and ease of handling during the various stages of drug development. Conversion of  the  crystalline  to  amorphous  form  may  occur  during  various pharmaceutical  processes.   This  could  change  the  dissolution  rate and  transport  characteristics  of  the  drug.  The  current  focus  of research  in  this  area  is  to  understand  the  origins  of  amorphous forms.  The  various  thermodynamic  phenomena  such  as  glass transition,  fragility,  molecular  mobility,  devitrification  kinetics, molecular  level  chemical  interactions,  solubility  and  stability  are critically  discussed.  The  aim  of  this  review  is  to  understand  the recent  development  in  the  area  of  amorphous  state  and  to  address the  current  challenges  faced  by  pharmaceutical  formulation  and process  development  scientists  and  thus  is  mandatory  to  anticipate future developments.Key words:  Crystalline solids, amorphous forms, characterization, stabilization.
Development of ciprofloxacin radiopharmaceutical formulation in single vial Z, Nurlaila; S, Maula Eka; W, Eva Maria
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 21 No 2, 2010
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (411.9 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp139-149

Abstract

Bacterial infection diseases is the greatest death causes in Indonesia. Detection of the deep-seated infection location caused by the gram positive and gram  negative  bacteries  could  be  done  with  nuclear  technique  using 99mTc-ciprofloxacin  radiopharmaceutical.   In  order  to  fulfill  the  necessity  of  this radiopharmaceutical,  the  development  of  formulation in  single  vial  based  on Sn(II)  chloride  and  tartaric  acid  instead  of  Sn(II) tartrat  has  been  carried  out. The  aim  of  this  investigation  is  to  obtained  the  optimum  condition of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin  preparation  with  maximum  labelling efficiency. Several  parameters  influencing  the  labelling  process  of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin such  as  the  amount  of  tartaric  acid,  pH  of  the  reaction,  the  amount  of  Sn(II) ion  as  a  reducing  agent  and  the  incubation  time  has been  studied.   The labelling  efficiency  and  the  radiochemical  purity  of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin  were determined  by  double  chromatography  system  using  Whatman  I/methyl ethyl  keton  to  determine  the  free 99mTc-pertechnetate  and  ITLCSG/(ethanol:water:ammonia = 2:5:1) to separate  the free 99mTc-reduced. The  optimum  preparation  condition  was  obtained  at  pH  =  2.95-3.20,  2  mg  of ciprofloxacin,  0.06  µg  of  tartaric  acid,  50  µg  of  SnCl2—2H2O  and  15  minutes incubation  time  at  room  temperature,  gave  90-93  %  of  labelling  efficiency,  in wchich was stable for 20 minutes at room temperature. Beside that, studies on the  effect  of  Na99mTcO4  solution  volume  to  the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin   labelling efficiency  was  carried  out.   Labelling with up to 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 solution volume gave less than 90 % labelling efficiency.Key words: radiopharmaceutical, ciprofloxacin, 99mTc, single vial
BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN BENGKOANG (Pachyrhizus erosus) AS ANTIOXIDANT AND TYROSINASE INHIBITING AGENTS Lukitaningsih, Endang
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 25 No 2, 2014
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (931.07 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm25iss2pp68

Abstract

In Indonesia, the roots of bengkoang (Phacyrhizus erosus) have been used as the excipient for sun screening and skin whitening paste. Since the active compounds exhibiting skin whitening or sun screening effect have not previously been studied, the aim of this study was to identify compounds with antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor activities. Soxhlet extraction was used as the method of isolation with petroleum ether as the solvent and it was followed by fractionation using ethyl acetate to obtain three isoflavonoids (i.e. daidzein (2); daidzein-7-O-ß-glucopyranose (3); 5-hydroxy-daidzein-7-O-ß-glucopyranose (4)), and a new pterocarpan (i. e. 8,9-furanyl-pterocarpan-3-ol (1)) which antioxidant activities (SC50% values) of 2.11; 11.86; 0.69 and 7.86 respectively. All compounds showed tyrosinase inhibiting activities with IC50 values of 4.38; 5.35; 7.49 and 22.20 mM, respectively for compound 4, 2, 1 and 3. These compounds can be used as antioxidant and skin whitening materials.
Activity of propyl p-benzoyloxybenzoate as mu-class glutathione s-transferase inhibitor Harnita, Agnes Nora Iska; Istyastono, Enade Perdana; Martono, Sudibyo
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 17 No 2, 2006
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (173.279 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp76-80

Abstract

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most prescribed medicines. Anti-inflammatory activity was reported to have relationship with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, one of the inflammation mediators. The inhibition mechanism might be through the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition, oxygen radical scavenging, and mu-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition. Aspirin has been used as a NSAID since a hundred years ago and was reported as cyclooxigenase-1 (COX-1) selective inhibitor. The selectivity leds to gastrointestinal ulceration. Propyl p-benzoyloxybenzoate was a new compound which was predicted to have anti-inflammatory activity and would be developed to be an NSAID with minimum side effect.mu-class GST inhibition was examined using formation reaction model of GS-CNB conjugate through conjugation of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) and glutathione (GSH) with GST (prepared from rat’s liver) as a catalyst. GSTs were isolated from the rat liver cytosolic fraction by centrifugation according to Lundgren. Protein concentration of the cytosol was determined spectrophotometrically by using bovine serum albumin as a standard. The GST activity was determined using conjugation reaction rate between DCNB and GSH, followed by determination of IC50 of propyl p-benzoyloxybenzoate. The result showed that propyl p-benzoyloxybenzoate has activity as  mu-class GST inhibitor with IC50 = 111.77 μM as the result from extrapolation.Key words: Anti-inflammatory, propyl p-benzoyloxybenzoate, inhibitor, mu-class glutathione S-transferase (GST).
Optimization of celery (Apium graveolens L.) herb extract granule production using Fluidized Bed Granulator Djatmiko, Mohammad; Soebagyo, Sri Sulihtyowati; Pramono, Suwijiyo; Martono, Sudibyo
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 20 No 2, 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (497.149 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp91-98

Abstract

Celery is an Indonesian herb being used as vegetable and medicinal purposes especially in hypotensive remedy. In order to produce a good quality of celery herb extract granules, a study on the influence of spray rate, level of lactose and Aerosil in fluidized bed granulator (FBG) toward homogeneity, flow rate and water content of granules was done.In the optimization process was programmed by factorial design, the maximum spray rate was 4 L/hours and the minimum was 2 L/hours, the maximum amount lactose was 100% and the minimum was 80% of extract weight, and Aerosil content maximal 20% and minimal 0% of extract weight. The optimum area of optimization result was found from superimposed contour plot granule parameters including homogeneity of apiin content, flow rate and moisture content of granules.The result showed that the Aerosil was proven to be disadvantageous in FBG process. The optimum area of optimization to obtain good granules was achieved by 2.75 L/hour to 2.00 1/hour of spray rate with the amount of lactose at 93.5% to 100% of extract weight with viscosity at 2.8 cP and density at 1.07 g/mL and without Aerosil. The granules possesed homogeneity of apiin with CV 3-5%, 0.85-1.00% of water content and 12.0-13.0 g/sec of flow rate.Key words: Celery (Apium graveolens L.), apiin, factorial design, extract, granules.
GENERAL ASPECTS OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY TO HUMAN Mursyidi, Achmad
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 13 No 3, 2002
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (90.757 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp149-155

Abstract

Photochemistry, the study of chemical reaction initiated by light plays an important role to human lifes. Photochemical reaction is intiated by the absorption of light giving excited molecules. The excited molecules, depending upon their structures and environment, may undergo various chemical reactions. Some very important and beneficial photochemical reactions occur in human body such as photochemical reaction of vision, the formation of vitamin D, and psoriasis medication. On the other hand, some photochemical reactions result in harmful effect to human, for examples, skin ageing, skin cancer, and cornea damage. Photosynthesis and photodegradation of pesticides are examples of photochemical reaction in the environment which are beneficial to human ienterset. In addition photochemical concept has been employed to synthesise drugs, nylon, and alkane-sulphates (detergents). However, some photochemical reactions create problem in the environment, i.e., formation of photochemical smogs, ozon layer depletion, and photodegaradion of drugs All those aspects of photochemistry are illustrated in this article.Key words: photochemistry, excited molecule, photodegradation, photooxidation, photosynthesis.
In vivo sensitivity test of Chloroquin on Plasmodium falciparum : A Study at Pituruh Sub District, Purworejo Handayani, Rina
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 15 No 2, 2004
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (248.046 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp81-88

Abstract

Until now Malaria remains a major health problem in Indonesia. Purworejo one of the regencies in Central Java, is a malaria endemic area and the prevalence remains the same even though some efforts to eliminate the disease have been done. This study was aimed to investigate the susceptibility of P. falciparum to chloroquine, extended in vivo test was used. Subject were enrolled using mass blood survey and mass fever survey. This study show that 45,6% P. falciparum was resistant to chloroquine, consisted of RI early recrudescence (16.22%), RI delayed recrudescence (8.11%), RII (16.22%), RIII (5.41%).Key word: invivo test, P. falciparum, chloroquine
ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT EVALUATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM HYDROLEA ZEYLANICA S, Borkar Vijay; K, Senthil Kumaran; KL, Senthil Kumar; H, Gangurde Hemant; A, Chordiya Mayur
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 26 No 4, 2015
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (747.299 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm26iss4pp185

Abstract

The whole plant of Hydrolea zeylanica (HZ) (Hydrophyllaceae family) was coarsely powdered and extracted with ethanol using soxhlet apparatus. The ethanol extract was then fractionated successively using various polarity ranges of solvents and screened for in-vivo antidiabetic activity using streptozotocin induced diabetic male wistar rats. The phytochemical investigation of all the fractions and powdered drug analysis was performed. Among the fractions evaluated, chloroform fraction showed highest decrease in blood glucose, total cholesterol and serum triglyceride level as 75.11%, 59.77% and 35.98% respectively when treated at 50 mg/mL concentration. As the chloroform fraction has shown better potency towards antidiabetic activity, was subjected to chromatographic separation and three compounds stigmasterol, kaempferol and p- coumaric acid were isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The overall results tend to suggest the antidiabetic activity of HZ and principal source of presumed bioactive compounds which may be responsible for many of the pharmacological properties.Key word: Hydrolea zeylanica, antidiabetic, total cholesterol, triglycerides, in vivo.
OPTIMIZATION OF SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE AS A FORMAZAN SOLVENT AND COMPARISON OF 3-(4,-5-DIMETHYLTHIAZO-2-YL)-2,5-DIPHENYLTETRAZOLIUM BROMIDE (MTT) ASSAY WITH WST-1 ASSAY IN MCF-7 CELLS Septisetyani, Endah Puji; Ningrum, Ratih Asmana; Romadhani, Yulaika; Wisnuwardhani, Popi Hadi; Santoso, Adi
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 25 No 4, 2014
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (871.837 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm25iss4pp245

Abstract

A 3-(4,-5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay  is  a method that used to measure cell viability. It is based on the conversion of MTT by succinic dehydrogenase enzyme into insoluble formazan. Dissolution of formazan by using proper solvent is the most important step of MTT assay to obtain valid and reliable data. In this study, we observed several solvents [isopropanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)] to validate MTT assay by using MCF-7 cells. The observation was performed by MTT addition at concentration of 0.5µg/µL, 3-4h cells incubation at 37°C, dissolution of formed formazan crystal and absorbance measurement at 570nm. The result showed that formazan completely dissolved in DMSO and 10% SDS. The most advantage of using SDS was it avoided the removal of partially dissolved formazan. In this observation, we also found that pH was a very important factor in SDS solution that affected the reaction. The use of optimal condition on MTT assay by SDS-0.01M HCl and SDS-0.025M HCl as formazan solvents showed that IC50 of curcumin were 32.3±0.78µM and 24.08±1.72µM respectively, while WST-1 assay resulted IC50 of curcumin 80.69±5.35µM. Altogether, this study strongly indicated that SDS-0.01M HCl was the best formazan solvent for MTT assay.

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