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Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia
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Articles 382 Documents
Uji Lapangan Formula Cair Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 terhadap Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat Soesanto, Loekas; Mugiastuti, Endang; Rahayuniati, Ruth Feti; Manan, Abdul
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 17, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9830

Abstract

A research aimed at knowing 1) the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 in liquid formula on Fusarium wilt of tomato, 2) the effect of P. fluorescens P60 in the formula on tomato growth and yield, and 3) P. fluorescens P60 mechanisms on tomata was carried out at tomato field of Selomoyo Village, Kaliangkrik Subdistrict, Magelang Regency at altitude of 826 m above sea level. Randomized block design was used with seven treatments and four replicates. The treatments were control, with P. fluorescens P60 soaked for 15 min and without fungicide, pathogen without P. fluorescens P60 with fungicide (PBG1), pathogen with P. fluorescens P60 without fungicide, pathogen with pouring P. fluorescens P60 1, 3, and 5 times. Result indicated that application of formulated P. fluorescens P60 for 5 times decreased the disease intensity as high as 26.77%, and late population of the pathogen but increased P. fluorescens P60 as high as 4.54×1010 cfu ml-1. P. fluorescens P60 affected growth and yield of tomato. P. Fluorescens P60 induced tomato resistance by increasing qualitatively its phenolic compound content (saponin, tannin, glycoside). Penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui: 1) pengaruh Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 dalam formula cair terhadap penyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat, 2) pengaruh P. fluorescens P60 dalam formula cair terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat, dan 3) mekanisme P. fluorescens P60 pada tanaman tomat dilakukan di lahan Desa Selomoyo, Kecamatan Kaliangkrik, Kabupaten Magelang dengan ketinggian 826 m di atas permukaan laut. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK), dengan 7 perlakuan dan jumlah ulangan 4 kali, dan setiap unit terdiri atas 8 tanaman. Perlakuan tersebut meliputi kontrol; dengan P. fluorescens P60 rendam 15 menit dan tanpa fungisida; dengan patogen; tanpa P. fluorescens P60; dengan fungisida (PBG1); patogen, tanpa P. fluorescens P60, tanpa fungisida; patogen, dengan penyiraman P. fluorescens P60 1 kali; patogen, dengan penyiraman P. fluorescens P60 3 kali; dan patogen, dengan penyiraman P. fluorescens P60 5 kali. Pemberian P. fluorescens P60 selama 5 kali memberikan pengaruh sangat nyata dalam menekan penyakit layu fusarium yang disebabkan Fusarium oxysporum. Hal ini ditunjukkan pada penurunan intensitas penyakit sebesar 26,77%, rendahnya kepadatan akhir F. oxysporum serta tingginya nilai kepadatan P. fluorescens P60 sebesar 4,54×1010 unit pembentuk spora/ml. Pengaruh pemberian P. fluorescens P60 belum menunjukkan pengaruh nyata pada komponen pertumbuhan dan hasil. P. fluorescens P60 mampu mengimbas ketahanan tanaman tomat dengan meningkatkan kandungan senyawa fenol (saponin, tanin, glikosida).
Herbisida Parakuat dalam Lahan Gambut: II. Pengaruhnya terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Kedelai Martani, Erni; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro; Supriyo, Agus; Margino, Sebastian
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.10017

Abstract

Utilization of peat soil for agriculture faces several constraints, such as low soil fertility and pH value. No-tillage agricultural system in peat land needs application of herbicides, for example herbicides with paraquat as active agent. This research was conducted to study the influence of paraquat on the growth and yield of soybean in peat. Peat soil from Central Kalimantan Province was obtained for this study. Due to the requirement of the plant, the soil was treated with lime and NPK-fertilizers. The results showed that paraquat significantly inhibited vegetative growth and decreased soybean production. These phenomena were found in early and advanced decomposed peat soil. Enhancement of vegetative growth and yield were detected when peat was treated with lime and or fertilizers. Liming treatment also supported the formation of root nodules. Inspite of increasing the growth of soybean, lime and fertilizers addition in peat was able to neutralize the negative effect of paraquat on the growth and yield of soybean. The best growth and yield of soybean were found in early decomposed peat soil, i.e. fibric peat soil.Key words: paraquat, peat, soybean
Hama Penggerek Buah Kakao - Kendala Utama Industri Kakao Indonesia dan Saran Pengelolaannya Wiryadiputra, Soekadar
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9361

Abstract

Outbreak of cocoa pod borer has occurred inCentral Sulawesiand other Indonesian provinces since 1991. The reason of the outbreak has not been clearly defined, however, it was presumed that the event look place after tremendous expansion of cocoa plantation in the last two decades. Until December, 1995 the pest has infested 11 provinces including several main cocoa producing areas ofIndonesia. Total cocoa area damaged by the pest is about 40,000 ha.Bioecological aspects and management of the pest were reviewed from some recent literatures. These information should be useful to arrange the control strategy of the pest inIndonesia. Control measures developed in other countries can be adopted directly in handling the pest, especially for short term practices.Key words: cocoa pod borer, control strategy
Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) dengan Trichoderma sp. Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 17, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9396

Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation). Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag). Faktor kedua adalah waktu pemberian dengan tiga aras (dua minggu sebelum, bersamaan, dan dua minggu setelah inokulasi dengan Foc). Tiap perlakuan terdiri atas 10 ulangan. Intensitas penyakit diamati dengan sistem scoring (1–4) terhadap kelayuan daun. Biakan Trichoderma sp. ditumbuhkan dalam medium campuran sekam dan bekatul (2:1, g/g). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. bersifat antagonistik terhadap Foc in vitro dengan daya hambat terhadap perkembangan koloni Foc 86%. Mekanisme penghambatan berupa hiperparasitisme. Hifa Trichoderma sp. menempel, melilit pada hifa Foc sehingga terjadi lisis hifa. Lisis hifa Foc terjadi pada tempat persinggungan antara hifa Foc dan hifa Trichoderma sp. Hasil pengujian di rumah kaca menunjukkan bahwa penyakit layu Fusarium dapat dihambat dengan pemberian Trichoderma sp. dalam medium campuran dedak dan bekatul sebanyak 25 g pada per polibag yang dilakukan bersamaan dengan waktu inokulasi Foc. 
Patogenisitas Rhizoctonia solani setelah Penyimpanan pada Substrat Berbeda Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9959

Abstract

Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a polyphagus fungus causing damping off on nurseries. The fungus develops a resistant structure on plant debris in the form of sclerotium. The sclerotium is the major inoculum for next crops. Evidence indicated that viability and pathogenicity of the inoculum were affected by type of substrate in which the inoculum survived and by length of resting period. Rice straw appeared to be a better substrate for R. solani survival than that of soil. All seedlings planted on soil inoculated with inoculum from rice straw showed greater disease intensity, earlier symptom development, and more growth retardation than those of being inoculated with inoculum from soil.Key words: pathogenicity, Rhizoctonia solani, storage 
Kajian Tanaman Inang Nematoda Puru Akar Padi (Meloidogyne graminicola) Mulyadi, Mulyadi; Triman, B.
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9300

Abstract

The objective of the research was to study host plants or alternate hosts of root-knot nematode of rice (Meloidogyne graminicola). At the first phase research, ten rice cultivars were inoculated with M. graminicola. On the second phase, nineteen species of plants were treated with M. graminicola. Both experiments were done in green house in Completely Randomized Design. The third phase research was conducted as a survey method using “proportional random sampling”, with D.I. Yogyakarta as its survey areas. The research results indicated that all rice cultivars tested were attacked by M. graminicola. The lowest number of root-gall was found in IR 26. Of the 19 species plants tested, soybean, pea common bean, france bean, cabbage, and sugarcane var. Ps 56 were attacked by M. graminicola.The survey results indicated that 15 species of weeds were invaded by M. graminicola, i.e. Coix lacrymajobi, Comelina nudiflora, Cyperus flavidus, C. iria, Echinochloa colona, Eragrotis amabilis, Fimbristylis pilosa, Ichaimum mutichum, Leersia hexandra, Ludwigia adscendens, L. peruviana, Marsilea crenata, Monochoria vaginalis, Polygonum barbatum, and Stagnima sp. The highest populatiom of M. graminicola was found on E. colona.Key words: host plants, Meloidogyne graminicola
Kajian Kekhususan Inang Stegobium paniceum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) Wagiman, F. X.; Poerdriesti, V.
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9902

Abstract

The study of the host range of Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was conducted at the Laboratory of Research center for Biological Control (RCBC), Gadjah Mada University, under room temperature of 26.55±0.72oC–30.66±0.40oC and 57.38±5.53% relative humidity. The materials tested were seventh materials of stored products in their original and flour form. No Choice Method and Free Choice Method were to determine the applied host range and host specificity. New generation of S. paniceum produced from a material was used to indicate that the material was its host. The results showed that the main host of S. paniceum was coriander, and its alternative hosts were caraway seed, rice, dry ginger, candlenut, and nutmeg, while S. paniceum could not survive on pepper. The material form did not significantly affect the S. paniceum development.Key words: Stegobium paniceum, Anobiidae, coriander
Identifikasi Ras Fisiologis Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Berdasarkan Sifat Kompatibel Secara Vegetatif dan Pembentukan Bahan Volatil Wibowo, Arif; Suryanti, Suryanti; Sumardiyono, Christanti
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 8, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.10099

Abstract

Race characterization of F. oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyd. & Hans. by determining disease reaction is difficult because the result may be biased due to the variability of growing condition. This study is aimed to identify physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense in banana plantation in the province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta by examining the relation of the fungal pathogen isolates. The identification of physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was based on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The research was conducted in The Laboratory of Mycology Faculty of Agriculture GMU on March to November 2000. Observation of heterokarion formed by the mutant of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense on selective medium was carried out in order to identify the compatibility of two different fungal isolates. Nitrate non utilizing (nit) mutants obtained without mutagen were used as the label. Nit mutant obtained from the same wild type isolates could form heterokarion on minimal agar medium containing NaNO3 as nitrogen source. Eleven isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense have been isolated from several cultivars of banana. Vegetative compatibility tests showed that of 11 eleven isolates, there were six different group VCGs where four of them formed volatile compound in rice medium whereas two of them did not.Key words: Fusarium wilt, F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs)
Kajian Aspek Biologi Stegobium paniceum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) Poerdriesti, V.; Wagiman, F. X.; Ananda, Koeswari
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 (1998)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9837

Abstract

The biological aspects of Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was studied by culturing the insect on coriander seeds at the Laboratory of Research Center for Biological Control (RCBC), Gadjah Mada University, under room temperature of 26.55± 0.72oC – 30.66± 0.40oC and 57.38 ± 5.53% relative humidity. The results showed that egg, larval, and pupal stages of S. paniceum were 9.15±1.37; 35.97±5.53 and 5.80±0.54 days, respectively. Females laid eggs firstly at 5 days old, hence, the life cycle was 55.92 days. The female produced eggs for 4.69±3.42 days, as many as 13.67±9.39 eggs. The eggs were laid in the coriander seeds; up to more than 50 eggs per seed, but only 68.54±29.27% out of them hatched and the one to three individuals of them developed into adult. Larvae and pupae lived in the coriander seeds or in coriander powder. The adults did not eat and could survive for 27.90±18.71 days, but could cause damage by making exit holes on the coriander seeds. The pest might cause coriander damage up to 80%.Key words: Stegobium paniceum, coriander, Anobiidae
Populasi Bakteri Antagonistik terhadap Fusarium sp. dari Rizosfer Lada Sehat dan Sakit Kuning Suwandi, Suwandi; Mazid, Abdul; Surahman, Surahman
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.10022

Abstract

Populations of antagonistic bacteria colonizing rhizosphere of diseased and healthy black pepper plants were compared to explore the biocontrol function of these populations on yellow disease of black pepper. As many as 180 isolates (equivalent to population of 1.8 x 1010 cfu/g fresh weight of root) were randomly selected and tested for their antagonistic activities against Fusarium sp., a pathogen of yellow disease. To characterize the populations, the isolates were tested for their fluorescent and Gram reaction. There was an evidence of significant association between antagonistic activities and the disease incidence. We found the significant larger proportion of antagonistic bacteria from the rhizosphere of healthy black pepper, whereas no significant difference between proportion of antagonistic and non-antagonistic population from yellow disease-affected rhizosphere. Populations of antagonistic bacteria were dominated by the population of non-fluorescent Gram-negative. Most of the fluorescent populations were antagonistic to Fusarium sp.Key words: biocontrol, rhizobacteria, yellow disease

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