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Warmadewa Medical Journal
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Published by Universitas Warmadewa
ISSN : 25274627     EISSN : -     DOI : -
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) is the Journal of Medicine & Health, contains scientific articles (Original/ Research Articles, Review Articles, Case Reports) by academic community of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Warmadewa University, other Faculties of Medicine and Health Sciences and other related Institutions. It is the medium for hardskill and softskills development as an integral part of the Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi (Education, Research, Public Service) and health services in the forms of media of communication, information, scientific education, as a subsystem of Medicine and Health holistic and comprehensive services.
Articles 15 Documents
Rangsangan Titik Akupunktur Nomer 16 Meningkatkan Kadar Hormon Testosteron Mencit Jantan Usia Sembilan Bulan Subrata, Tanjung
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 1, No 1 (2016):
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Warmadewa

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Penurunan kadar testosteron pada laki-laki mulai usia pertengahan antara 45-59 tahun dan menyebabkan terjadinya ganguan seperti menurunnya kekuatan otot, meningkatnya lemak visceral, gangguan fungsi seksual seperti libido menurun dan/atau disfungsi ereksi. Akupunktur dengan konsep pengobatan hantaran rangsang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan fungsi seksual laki-laki. Pada penelitian ini diteliti pengaruh perangsangan pada titik akupunktur no.16 dan 49 terhadap kadar hormon testosteron pada mencit (Mus musculus) yang telah mengalami proses penuaan.  Sebanyak 28 ekor mencit jantan usia 9 bulan dijadikan binatang coba. Binatang coba dibagi menjadi empat kelompok eksperimen secara random. Kelompok 1 diberikan rangsangan pada titik akupunktur no.16, kelompok 2 diberikan rangsangan pada titik akupunktur no.49 dan kelompok 3 diberi rangsangan pada titik akupunktur no.16 dan 49, dan kelompok 4 sebagai kontrol. Perlakuan diberikan selama 10 menit, diulang sebanyak tiga kali per minggu, dan diberikan selama empat minggu. Kadar hormon testosteron diukur dari sampel darah mencit setelah perlakuan selesai. Perbedaan rerata kadar hormon testosterone antar kelompok eksperimen diuji dengan uji Kruskal-Wallis dan Man-Whitney pada tingkat kemaknaan a = 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukan rerata (±sd) kadar hormon testosteron pada kelompok 1, 2, 3, dan 4 adalah 815,0 (±568,8) ng/dl,  229,5 (±337,4) ng/dl, 538,2 (±715,0) ng/dl, dan 50,8 (±32,2) ng/dl secara berurutan. Analisis Mann-Whitney menunjukan bahwa  kadar testosteron kelompok eksperimen 1 berbeda dengan kelompok lain dan control (P < 0,05). Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian rangsangan pada titik akupunktur no.16 meningkatkan kadar hormon testosteron mencit secara signifikan. Kata Kunci: akupunktur, hormon testosteron, mencit tua  [Stimulation on Acupuncture Point Number 16 Increases Testosterone Hormone Level in Nine-Month-old Male Mice]. Decreasing level of testosterone in man starts at the age between 45-59 years which causes disorders such as decreased muscle strength, increased visceral fat, sexual dysfunction such as decreased libido and / or erectile dysfunction. Acupuncture with excitatory conduction treatment concept can be used to enhance male sexual function. In this study we examined the effect of stimulation of acupuncture points no.16 and 49 on testosterone levels in mice (Mus musculus) who are aging. A total of 28 male mice aged 9 months were used as experimental animals. The experiment animals were divided into four groups randomly. Group 1 was given stimulation of acupuncture pointno.16, group 2 was given stimulation of acupuncture point 49 and group 3 was given stimulation of acupuncture points no.16 and 49, and group 4 as the control group. Treatment was given for 10 minutes, repeated three times per week, for four weeks. Testosterone levels were measured from blood samples of mice after treatment was completed. The mean differences of testosterone levels between experimental groups were tested by Kruskal-Wallis and Man-Whitney at significance level a = 0.05. The results showed  the mean (± sd)  of testosterone levels in group 1, 2, 3, and 4  were 815.0 (± 568.8) ng / dl, 229.5 (± 337.4) ng / dl, 538, 2 (± 715.0) ng / dl, and 50.8 (± 32.2) ng / dl, respectively. Mann-Whitney analysis showed that testosterone level of group 1 was different from those of the other groups and the control (P <0.05). It is concluded that stimulation of acupuncture pointno.16 increases testosterone levels in mice significantly. Keywords: acupuncture, testosterone hormone, aging mice
Respon Otonomik Jantung yang Buruk pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Paska Infark Miokard Akut Pranata, Gede Bagus Gita; Nadha, Ketut Badjra; Iswari, Ida Sri
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 1, No 1 (2016):
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Warmadewa

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) dengan penyakit kardiovaskular sangat erat kaitannya. Pada beberapa penelitian telah dihubungkan antara diabetes mellitus dengan respon otonomik denyut jantung yang buruk, sedangkan hubungan diabetes mellitus dengan respon otonomik denyut jantung yang buruk pada pasien paska IMA masih belum ada. Pemulihan denyut jantung (HRR) dan denyut jantung istirahat (resting HR) merupakan alat investigasi yang baik,  terpercaya, dan mudah diukur dalam mengevaluasi pengaturan otonomik jantung dan sebagai faktor prediktor kuat untuk  semua kasus  mortalitas pada orang dewasa yang sehat maupun pada seseorang dengan penyakit kardiovaskular. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bahwa diabetes mellitus tipe 2 sebagai faktor yang memperburuk denyut jantung saat istirahat,  terhadap pemulihan denyut jantung setelah uji latih treadmill pada pasien pasca infark miokard,  serta merupakan variabel penting sebagai faktor prediktor kejadian morbiditas dan mortalitas pada pasien dengan  paska infark miokard akut. Pada analisis bivariat ditemukan pasien dengan diabetes mellitus tipe 2 dan tanpa diabetes mellitus tipe 2 berbeda secara bermakna dalam memperburuk respon otonomik denyut jantung (denyut jantung saat istirahat dan denyut jantung pemulihan) pada pasien paska IMA (p<0,01). Pada analisis multivariat tidak ditemukan adanya pengaruh faktor umur, jenis kelamin, riwayat keluarga, dislipidemia, hipertensi, merokok, aktifitas fisik, dan penyekat beta terhadap respon otonomik denyut jantung yang buruk pada pasien DM paska IMA (p>0,05). Kata kunci: diabetes mellitus tipe 2, Infark miokard akut, denyut jantung saat istirahat, denyut jantung pemulihan, treadmill.   [Poor Autonomic Heart Response in Diabetes Mellitus Patients Post Acute Myocardial Infarction] Diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease are very closely related. Several studies have shown the link of diabetes with poor heart rate autonomic response, whereas data on the relationship of diabetes mellitus with poor heart rate autonomic response in post AMI patients are still not available. Heart rate recovery (HRR) and resting heart rate (resting HR) is an investigative tool that is both reliable and easy to measure in evaluating the cardiac autonomic regulation and as a strong predictor factor for all causes of mortality in healthy adults as well as in ones with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a factor that worsens heart rate at rest worsens recovery heart rate after treadmill exercise test in patients with post myocardial infarction, and that it is an important variable factor as predictor for incidence of morbidity and mortality. The bivariate analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those without type 2 diabetes mellitus differed significantly in worsening the autonomic response of the heart rate (heart rate at rest and recovery heart rate) in post-AMI patients (p<0.01). Multivariate analysis didn’t find any relationship of the other variables i.e. age, gender, family history, dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, physical activity, and beta blockers with poor heart rate autonomic response in post-AMI diabetic patients (p>0.05). Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction, heart rate at rest, heart rate recovery, treadmill.   
Role playing Meningkatkan Nilai Ujian Akhir Mahasiswa Blok Profesionalisme Kedokteran Yenny, Luh Gede Sri; Wandia, I Made
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 1, No 1 (2016):
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Warmadewa

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Pendidikan profesionalisme kedokteran merupakan  salah satu komponen kurikulum yang sangat penting dalam kurikulum pendidikan dokter. Pengembangan dan perbaikan modul Blok Profesionalisme Kedokteran merupakan jembatan untuk menghasilkan lulusan kedokteran yang mampu bersikap dan berperilaku professional. Pengembangan modul dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai cara salah satunya yaitu dengan menerapkan metode role playing. Penerapan metode role playing dilakukan pada Blok Profesionalisme Kedokteran 2012 dan dibandingkan dengan Blok Profesionalisme kedokteran 2011 dimana pada saat itu metode role playing belum diterapkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terjadi peningkatan nilai ujian akhir mahasiswa, jumlah lulusan dan motivasi mahasiswa untuk belajar mandiri. Didapatkan kelulusan yang lebih tinggi pada Blok Profesionalisme Kedokteran 2012 dibandingkan dengan Blok Profesionalisme Kedokteran 2011 yaitu 83.7%: 32.2%. Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara penggunaan metode role playing dengan nilai ujian akhir mahasiswa (p<0.05) dan dengan kelulusan (p<0.05). Sebagian besar mahasiswa merasa lebih termotivasi untuk belajar profesionalisme kedokteran (94.55%). Penggunaan metode role playing dapat meningkatkan nilai ujian akhir, jumlah lulusan dan motivasi mahasiswa untuk belajar mandiri Blok Profesionalisme Kedokteran 2012. Kata Kunci: role playing, profesionalisme kedokteran, pendidikan kedokteran   [Role Playing Increases Students’ Scores of Final Examination in the Block Medical Professionalism] Medical professionalism education is one of very important curriculum components in medical education. Development and improvement of the module of the Block Medical Professionalism are the bridge to yielding a good, capable and professional medical doctor. The development of the module can be conducted in various ways, one of which is by applying the method of role playing. Role playing method applied at Block Medical Professionalism of 2012 was compared to Block Medical Professionalism of 201in which role playing was not applied This research aimed to assess if there was  increase of the result score of the students’ final test, total  number of passing students, and students’ self motivation to study  individually. The study results showed a higher number of passing students   in medical professionalism block of 2012  as compared to medical professionalism block of 2011 (83.7% vs 32.2%). There was a significant correlation between role playing and the mean score of the students’ final test (p<0.05) and with the number of passing students (p<0.05). Most student felt more motivated to learn medical professionalism (94.55%). Application of role playing method can improve the final test score, total number of passing students, and students’ self motivation to study medical professionalism of 2012. Keywords: role playing, medical professionalism, medical education
Potensi Penggunaan Materi Genetik Fetus pada Sirkulasi Maternal untuk Diagnosis Prenatal Noninvasif Penyakit Genetik Megawati, Anak Agung Dewi; Nainggolan, Ita M.; Mahendra, Agung Nova; Marzuki, Nanis S.
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 1, No 1 (2016):
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Warmadewa

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Diagnosis prenatal adalah teknik diagnostik untuk menentukan kondisi fetus yang belum lahir apakah memiliki kelainan genetik ataupun kelainan lainnya. Teknik ini umumnya dilakukan pada penyakit genetik yang tidak dapat diobati di mana terminasi menjadi bahan pertimbangan. Teknik ini juga dilakukan pada kasus yang memerlukan penanganan segera pada saat prenatal dan pada kondisi yang dapat menimbulkan morbiditas atau mortalitas pada ibu. Diagnosis prenatal dapat dilakukan melalui metode invasif dan noninvasif. Metode invasif seperti amniocentesis dan biopsi villi korialis (CVS) memiliki resiko menimbulkan kecacatan bahkan kematian fetus. Pendekatan nonivasif melalui ultrasonografi belum cukup akurat untuk diagnosis penyakit genetik, sehingga masih memerlukan pengambilan sampel fetus untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Pendekatan terbaru pengambilan sampel fetus secara noninvasif dilakukan melalui pengambilan sel fetus, DNA dan mRNA fetus yang terdapat dalam sirkulasi darah maternal. Pada artikel ini dipaparkan mengenai perkembangan riset, kendala, serta potensi aplikasi klinis ketiga metode pengambilan sampel fetus tersebut. Kata kunci: diagnosis prenatal nonivasif, penyakit genetik, cell-free fetal DNA/mRNA, sel fetus  [Potential Use of Fetal Genetic Material in Maternal Circulation for Prenatal Noninvasive Diagnosis of Genetic Disease] Prenatal diagnostic technique is used to determine whether the unborn fetus is affected with a genetic disorder or other abnormality. This technique is generally carried out for a genetic disease that is not treatable, in which the termination should be considered. This technique is also performed in cases that require immediate action during the prenatal period and in conditions that can lead to morbidity or mortality of the mother. Prenatal diagnosis can be done by invasive and noninvasive methods. Invasive methods such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) have a risk of causing disability and even death of the fetus. While noninvasive approach by ultrasound is not sufficiently accurate for the diagnosis of genetic diseases, therefore further  fetal sampling is required. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis is a new type of genetic testing done through taking fetal cells, fetal DNA and mRNA, which are found in maternal blood circulation. In this review, we present development of research, constraints, and potential clinical applications of these three methods for noninvasive sampling of the fetus. Keywords: noninvasive prenatal diagnosis, genetic disease, cell-free fetal DNA/mRNA, fetal cell
Korelasi Kadar Angiopoietin-2 Plasma dan Petanda Inflamasi Dengan Resistensi Insulin Pada Penderita Obesitas Abdominal Budhitresna, Anak Agung Gede
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 1, No 1 (2016):
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Warmadewa

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Obesitas abdominal (Ob-Ab) merupakan komponen utama resistensi insulin (RI) yaitu kekutan pendorong utama untuk terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM)  tipe-2. Kadar angiopoietin-2  (Ang-2) plasma dilaporkan mengalami peningkatan pada  penderita Ob-Ab dan diduga bahwa Ang-2 berpengaruh untuk terjadinya RI. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui korelasi kadar Ang-2, Inflamasi dan RI pada penderita Ob-Ab. Dilakukan penelitian secara cross-sectional analitik pada 81 penderita dengan Ob-Ab. Kadar  TNF-α, sTNFR1 dan Ang-2 plasma diukur menggunakan metode ELISA. RI diukur menggunakan HOMA-IR. Analisis varian (ANOVA) dipergunakan untuk mengetahui persamaan variabel kontinyu. Analisis multivariat dipergunakan untuk mengetahui peran kadar TNF-α, s-TNFR-1, Ang-2 terhadap RI. Model analisis jalur (path analysis) dipergunakan untuk mengetahui pengaruh faktor risiko terjadinya RI. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar TNF-α plasma tidak berkorelasi dengan HOMA-IR, sedangkan sTNFR-1 dan  Ang-2 plasma berkorelasi positif bermakna dengan HOMA-IR (masing-masing r=0,323; p=0.003 dan r = 0,641; p=<0,001). Pada analisis multivariat ditemukan Ang-2 merupakan faktor bebas berhubungan dengan HOMA-IR (p=<0,001). Kadar Ang-2 plasma yang tinggi merupakan faktor dominan (64,1%, p=< 0.001). Simpulan: pada penderita Ob-Ab kadar Ang-2 berkorelasi dengan terjadinya RI dan inflamasi. Kata kunci: Ang-2, resistensi insulin, inflamasi, obesitas abdominal.   [Correlation of Plasma Angiopoietin-2 and Inflammation Marker with Insulin Resistence in Patients with Central Obesity] Abdominal obesity (Ab-Ob) is a central component of insulin resistance (IR) and it is suggested that IR is a driving factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).  Plasma Ang-2 levels have been reported to increase in the Ab-Ob and it has been hypothesized that Ang-2 plays important role in the occurrence of IR. We assessed the relationship between plasma Ang-2 levels, Inflammation and IR in Ab-Ob. A cross-sectional analytic study on 81 abdominally obese subjects was performed. The concentrations of TNF-α, sTNFR1 and Ang-2 plasma were measured using ELISA method. IR was measured using HOMA-IR. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the equality of continuous variables. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine the influence of TNF-α, s-TNFR-1, and Ang-2 on IR. Path analysis models were performed to assess the influence of risk factors on occurrence of IR. Plasma of TNF-α was not correlated with HOMA-IR (r=160; p=0,154) whereasTNFR-1 and Ang-2 were significantly positive correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.323, p = 0.003 and r = 0.641, p=<0.001, respectively).  The multivariate analysis showed Ang-2 was independently associated with HOMA-IR (p <0.001). It was found that high Ang-2 level was a dominant risk factor (64.1%, p=<0.001) for influencing IR in the abdominally obese subjects. It is concluded that plasma Ang-2 level is correlated with occurrence of IR and inflammation in abdominally obese subjects. Keywords: Ang-2, insulin resistance, inflammation, abdominal-obesity.
THE INFLUENCE OF ACUPRESSURE THERAPY AGAINST BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN PATIENTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN THE PROLANIS PROGRAM (A STUDY ON HEALTH IN AMBALAWI) mustamin, musmuliadin
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): November 2018
Publisher : Warmadewa University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1043.99 KB) | DOI: 10.22225/wmj.3.2.804.65-72

Abstract

Acupressure lowers the blood glucose level through a massage at the point of the meridian, which can trigger the calming and uplifting response in the body, having a positive effect on emotions, and causing relaxation and normalizing the body functions. However, the great influence of acupressure in the Prolanis Program has not been seen. This study aims to analyze the effect of acupressure therapy against blood glucose levels in patients of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, who joined a program of chronic diseases management called Prolanis Program. With quasi-experiment research design, the study was conducted at the Clinic of Ambalawi, Bima District-Indonesia. As many as 34 patients with DM type 2 who have joined the Prolanis Program were selected as participants in this study, using a purposive sampling method. These participants were divided into two groups: experiment group and control group. Acupressure therapy was given 3 times during 3 weeks. Each group was measured for blood glucose levels on day 6, day 12, and day 18. The data were analyzed using t-test (p= 0.05). Giving therapy for three weeks to people with diabetes mellitus type 2 has a positive effect on lowering their blood sugar levels. Acupressure therapy and Prolanis Program for 3 weeks effecttively lowered the blood glucose levels in patients of type 2 of DM. Acupressure therapy has a more significant effect with p value < 0.005. There are significant differences between the experiment group and the control group by p value (p = 0.00).
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN OSTEOPOROSIS AND AGE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND OBESITY IN ELDERLY OF TULIKUP VILLAGE, GIANYAR Juwita, Ratna
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): November 2018
Publisher : Warmadewa University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (865.382 KB) | DOI: 10.22225/wmj.3.2.684.33-42

Abstract

The proportion of elderly population in Tulikup Village, Gianyar Regency is 0.72%. One of the potential disease affecting this aging population is osteoporosis. Morbidity of osteoporosis could impose future burden to community and government in term of medical, social and financial implications. The present study determined prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis to provide solid basis for the development of screening model. Cross sectional study was conducted and 221 of 649 people aged ≥45 were randomly sampled by multi-stage random sampling method. Examined variables were osteoporosis treated as dependent variable and several independent variables: age groups, gender, personal history of fracture, dietary calcium intake, physical activity, alcohol & phosphorus intake, body mass index (BMI), parental history of fracture, diabetes mellitus, and smoking habit. Data was analyzed statistically by univariate, bivariate (chi square), and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis. The prevalence of osteoporosis in eldery was 28.1% (26.0% in women and 30.6% in men) and the rest was osteopenia (54.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that prevalence ratio (PR) of osteoporosis in relation to obesity, elderly group, post elderly group, and vigorous physical activity were 0.3 (CI 95%: 0.1-0.9), 4.5 (CI 95%: 1.4-1.9), 6.2 (CI 95%: 1.8-20.9), and 0.5 (CI 95%: 0.2-0.9), respectively. In general, obesity and vigorous physical activity significantly decreased the risk of osteoporosis. Obesity decreased the risk of having osteoporosis by 70% and vigorous physical activity deceased the risk of osteoporosis by 50% . Being elderly and post elderly increased the risk of having osteoporosis significantly. Elderly group was 4.5 times more likely to have osteoporosis, furthermore post elderly group increased the risk of by 6.2 times.
Role of Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Information and Counselling Program towards Knowledge and Attitude in Pregnancy Planning among Adolescent Female in Malang City Pripuspitasari, Dini Eka
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): November 2018
Publisher : Warmadewa University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1221.607 KB) | DOI: 10.22225/wmj.3.2.687.43-52

Abstract

Abstract Each adolescent will experience changes related to reproductive health problems. The growth and sexual maturity drive happens earlier in women rather than in men. KPAI survey data in 2017 states that 97% of adolescents in Indonesia have watched pornographic films and 93.7% have ever done kissing, petting, and oral sex. Malang City Health Office noted in 2014, 139 teenagers aged less than 18 years have been pregnant and increased to 176 cases in 2015. This condition implies that adolescent in Malang city has a big risk of experiencing morbidity and mortality related to the condition of maternal pathology. Following this kind of problem, BKKBN established the Reproductive Health Information and Counselling Program (PIK-KRR) as a platform for young people to prepare for a family life. Through that program, each adolescent female will receive support to understand the substance of pregnancy planning, which includes the physical, psycho-social, and social economy aspects. The main objective is that each adolescent female will postpone the age of marriage and pregnancy before they are able to fulfill those essential aspects. The aim of this research is to understand the role of the Reproductive Health Information and Counselling Program in its relation to the knowledge and the attitude of adolescent females towards pregnancy planning in Malang city. This research applies the comparative observational design by using a proportional sampling technique for 350 students of selected high schools who provide such program and 350 students of selected high schools who do not provide such program. The instrument used for data collection is the questionnaire that has gone through validity and reliability tests. The research data are then analyzed and interpreted by SPSS window release computer program version 23. The results of the knowledge scoring with the category of lack of knowledge in the high school without PIK-KRR group showed the biggest difference compared to that of in the high school group with PIK-KRR. This proves that PIK-KRR contributes meaningfully to the knowledge of high school students. Likewise in the high school groups that have the PIK-KRR, the category of female students with a positive attitude is greater than that of high schools that do not have PIK-KRR. This proves that the presence of PIK-KRR has a significant influence on attitudes in pregnancy planning in adolescents in Malang City. This study shows that there is a significant difference in knowledge and attitude (p=0,00
Subgenual cingulate cortex activity in predicting risk factor and treatment response in depression Supit, Alva S. A.; Roosdy, Ireine
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): November 2018
Publisher : Warmadewa University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (532.233 KB) | DOI: 10.22225/wmj.3.2.743.53-60

Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) contributes significantly to morbidity, disability, and decreased quality of life, despite the expansion of treatment options. This, in part, is caused by a lack of valid, applicable, and reliable biomarkers to predict the risk, treatment response, and prognosis of depression. In recent years, the anterior cingulate cortex, in particular pars subgenual (sgACC), has received much attention due to its potential utilization as a neural endophenotype for depression. This essay will discuss the functional activity of sgACC, mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging, in relation to predicting risk for developing depression, predicting patient response-to-treatment, and eventually, to create a platform for personalized psychiatric approach to each patient. The caveats and conditions need to be met will also be discussed, in order to firmly establish sgACC activity as a valid biomarker for depression.
TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPA (TNF-α) LEVEL IN DENGUE FEVER (DF) PATIENS AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (DHF) PATIENTS Siskayani, Ayu Savitri
WMJ (Warmadewa Medical Journal) Vol 3, No 2 (2018): November 2018
Publisher : Warmadewa University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (727.078 KB) | DOI: 10.22225/wmj.3.2.685.61-64

Abstract

Dengue virus infection is still one of the health problems in tropical and subtropical regions. In its pathogenesis, some cytokines play an important role in the natural and adaptive immune response to the severity of dengue virus infection. Replication of dengue virus that activates macrophages will release cytokines for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). This study aims to determine whether there are differences in mean TNF-α levels in DD and DHF patients. This study was an analytic observational study using cross sectional design, where blood samples were taken from 27 people with DD and 27 people with DHF. Serum TNF-α levels were analyzed by ELISA and TNF-α levels were analyzed statistically by Mann-Whitney test. The results showed the mean TNF-α level in DD patients was 76.82 ± 1.20 pg / mL and in DHF patients was 195.15 ± 30.30 pg / mL. This mean differed significantly (p

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