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INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 20851103     EISSN : 23560991     DOI : -
This journal is a peer-reviewed journal established to promote the recognition of emerging and reemerging diseases specifically in Indonesia, South East Asia, other tropical countries and around the world, and to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination. The journal is intended for scientists, clinicians, and professionals in infectious diseases and related sciences. We welcome contributions from infectious disease specialists in academia, industry, clinical practice, public health, and pharmacy, as well as from specialists in economics, social sciences and other disciplines.
Articles 5 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 6, No 3 (2016)" : 5 Documents clear
BACTERIAL COLONY GROWTH IN THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT OF THE INTENSIVE OBSERVATION UNIT AT RSUD Dr. SOETOMO SURABAYA Perdhana, Fajar; Utariani, Arie; Semedi, Bambang Pujo; Setiawan, Philia
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 6, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (434.886 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v6i3.3013

Abstract

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains a problem with the highest cos, morbidity and mortalityt in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The correlation between mechanical ventilation and pneumonia is considered as common sense, yet scientific evidence to support this statement is still needed. This research aims to analyze the bacterial colony grows in mechanical ventilation circuit and those grew in the patient’s sputum culture. We performed an observational study. Samples for bacterial culture were taken from ventilator circuit and patient sputum on Day-0, Day-3 and Day-7. Sputum samplings are collected using double catheter tracheal aspiration technique; Results are then analyzed with Chi-square test. While the similarity of bacteria species in ventilator circuit to patient’s sputum is analyzed with Binomial test. Two samples are dropped out immediately due to the rate of bacterial growth on Day-0. Bacterial colony growth in ventilator circuit shows a significant difference on Day-3 and Day-7 at 50% and 92% respectively (p = 0.05). A comparison for the bacterial similarity of the ventilator circuit and patient’s sputum shows that the bacterial growth on Day-3 is 7 out of 14 (50%) and 3 with more than 105 CFU/ml colony; while on Day-7, there are 13 out of 14 positive bacterial growth, both in the circuit and the patient’s sputum. Among them, 5 out of 14 (35%) of the bacterial colony which grow in the circuit have the same species as those grow in patient’s sputum. The recent study shows that there is bacteria colony growth in the ventilator circuit after Day-3 and a significant increase on Day-7. Almost half of the colony illustrates similar species from both ventilator circuit and patient’s sputum. This suggests that the bacterial growth on Day-7 in the ventilator circuit might be related to those growth in patient’s sputum. 
THE USAGE COMPARISON OF CEFTRIAXONE AND CHLORAMPHENICOL FOR TYPHOID FEVER TREATMENT: AN EVIDENCE BASED CASE REPORT Susatyo, Jeffry Adijaya
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 6, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (128.699 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v6i3.3255

Abstract

Typhoid fever is a disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhi. Since its introduction in 1949, chloramphenicol has become the first-line treatment of typhoid fever for decades. Until now, chloramphenicol is still the first line treatment of typhoid fever in rural areas in Indonesia, due to its low cost. However, in addition to the problem of bacterial resistance, chloramphenicol is known to cause some side effect such as bone marrow suppression. Currently, many other antibiotics are used as the regimens for the treatment of typhoid fever, one of which is ceftriaxone. However, there are evidences on reemergence of chloramphenicol sensitivity in typhoid fever treatment. This report is created to answer the clinical question on whether ceftriaxone is more effective compared to chloramphenicol as the first-line treatment of typhoid fever. A structured search was performed on PubMed, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect and after a screening process and appraisal using the criteria from Center of Evidence Based Medicine at Oxford University, only one article was selected. The article shows higher efficacy of ceftriaxone in term of defervescence rate (P = 0.0001). No other study that compares the efficacy of ceftriaxone and chloramphenicol for typhoid fever treatment during the last ten years could be found during article searching. In conclusion, ceftriaxone shows better efficacy in the treatment of typhoid fever compared to chloramphenicol but with the rise of microbial sensitivity to chloramphenicol in recent years, more studies on this topic are needed to support this conclusion.
THE IMMUNOSTIMULAN POTENTIAL OF TENGGULUN (PROTIUM JAVANICUM) LEAVES TOWARDS T CELL CD4+ AND IFNγ SECRETION ON PBMC CHICKEN Jayawardhana, Andi; Puspitasari, Heni; Meles, Dewa Ketut; Koesdarto, Setiawan
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 6, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.478 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v6i3.2992

Abstract

One of the plants with immunostimulant activity is Tenggulun leaves which contain of flavonoid, like terpenoid. The aim of this research is to find the potential of Tenggulun’s leaves extract to have the immunostimulant activities. The potential of immunostimulant activity is identified by the increasing the amount of T-cell CD4+ expression and IFNγ secretion. The research method is conducted through cultured chicken PBMC which is infected by ND virus; it is then treated with Tenggulun’s leaves extract with immunostimulant. The result of immunocitochemistry examination CD4+ secretion on PBMC cultures shows how tenggulun is significantly different from the control in the secretion CD4+. The 10μg of tenggulun extract can modulate the T cell CD4+ secretion 68.8±0.83. It is significantly different from K (control) (p<0,05) and treatment group K+, P0, and P1. The examination of IFNγ level using ELISA from tenggulun leaves extract of 10μg doses were inoculated after being infected by ND virus contained immonostimulant potential in increasing the secretion of IFNγ 120.91±6.44. It is significantly different from K-, K+, and P1, yet not significantly different from P0. The content of terpenoid can increase IFNγ secretion on the macrofag cells culture and limfosit cells. 
SEZARY SYNDROME MIMICKING GENERALIZED PSORIASIS VULGARIS Lynoora, Eko Rianova; Rahmadewi, Rahmadewi
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 6, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (286.841 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v6i3.3134

Abstract

Sezary syndrome is the leukemic variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. This disease is characterized by some reddish patches or plaques all over the skin which extends to the whole body into erythroderma, lymphadenopathy. It is also indicated by the presence of atypical lymphocytes called Sezary cells. This case report is aimed to know clinical manifestation, examination and management of Sezary syndrome which clinically resembles generalized psoriasis. A 60 years old man came with scaly reddish brown plaques almost all over his body. It was accompanied by lymphadenopathy on the supraclavicular lymph node right and left as well as intense itchy. Other clinical features were alopecia, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, onychodysthropy, facies leonine without anesthesia on the lesion and enlargement of peripheral nerve. From a laboratory test, an increase in the number of leukocytes and, Sezary cells were found in peripheral blood smear examination; while the histopathology showed focal athrophy and acanthosis of the epidermis and dense infiltration of lymphocytes in the dermo-epidermal junction and superficial dermis. Patient received 3 x 5 mg (1 cycle) of methotrexate (MTX) with 0,1% cream mometasone furoate and 3x1 tablet of CTM for adjunctive therapy. Methotrexate was discontinued because there was a disturbance in liver function and deterioration of patient’s condition. After 25 days of treatment, the patient got sepsis and then passed away. Early onset of Sezary syndrome in this case is difficult to know because the clinical manifestation is similar with psoriasis vulgaris. Supporting examination such as laboratory test, blood smears and histopathology examination could help the diagnosis. The presence of lymphadenopathy, and atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the extensive skin involvement reflect the poor prognosis. The most common cause of death was sepsis.
BETLE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL FOR HEMOPHILIAC PATIENTS AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS ON MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Aisyah, Nourmalasari; Lestari, Puji; Setyawati, Harsasi
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 6, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (218.65 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v6i3.1387

Abstract

Betle leaf (Piper betle L.) is a medicinal plant. It contains essential oil and shows various biological activities, such as antibacterial, anticoagulant, etc. It is further reported to have low anticoagulant activities; thus, it is highly potential as a candidate for coagulant drug. Coagulant is used to prevent bleeding for patients with blood clotting disorders like hemophilia. In Indonesia, 1,236 people were reported with hemophilia. The standard parameters of anticoagulant activity are the freezing period and the compound concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of betle leaf’s essential oil on blood coagulation in patients with factor VIII and IX of blood plasma disorders. The isolation of essential oil is conducted through steam distillation method with two kinds of solvents, namely distilled water and n-hexane. The obtained n-hexane extract is then separated from the liquid-liquid extraction and rotary evaporator. Essential oil is diluted with citrate plasma solution. The test results of blood clots increase as the concentration of essential oils increase. The results are recorded as such: essential oils ½ times dilution of 99.67 seconds; ¼ times dilution of 127 seconds; 1/8 times dilution of 179 seconds; and 1/16 times dilution of 242.67 seconds. The test above proves that the piper betle extract possesses a coagulant activity. The ethanol extract contained in the piper betle could stimulate clotting in the blood cells. It is caused by the increase of blood plasma concentration which further escalate the plasma fluid into the blood cells. Based on this study, the activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be obstructed by betle leaf in ½ times dilution. The extract significantly reduces acid which accelerates bacteria development.

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