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INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 20851103     EISSN : 23560991     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health, Science,
This journal is a peer-reviewed journal established to promote the recognition of emerging and reemerging diseases specifically in Indonesia, South East Asia, other tropical countries and around the world, and to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination. The journal is intended for scientists, clinicians, and professionals in infectious diseases and related sciences. We welcome contributions from infectious disease specialists in academia, industry, clinical practice, public health, and pharmacy, as well as from specialists in economics, social sciences and other disciplines.
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Articles 5 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 5, No 4 (2014)" : 5 Documents clear
LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSE TO Mycobacterium leprae ANTIGENS IN REVERSAL REACTION STATE OF LEPROSY An in vitro study of Lymphocyte Stimulation Index using MTT method Iskandar, Fanny; Yusuf, Irawan; Arif, Mansur; Agusni, Indropo
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Reversal Reaction (RR) in Leprosy is a sudden inflammatory episode in the chronic course of the disease due to rapid change of cellular immunological status. The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro results of Lymphocyte Stimulation Index (LSI) RR leprosy derived lymphocytes after challenged with M.leprae antigens. Twenty three Borderline Leprosy with RR and 11 BorderlineLeprosy patients without RR were included in the study. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were separated from peripheral blood of these patients using Ficol-Hypaque column and cultured in laboratory. Using the colorimetric tetrazole (MTT) method these lymphocytes were challenged with PHA, Dharmendra antigen (1/100 and 1/10 dilutions), LAM (50 and 100 nanograms). Stimulation Index were calculated and superanatans were collected for measuring the IFN-γ and IL-10 production (ELISA). All of lymphocytesfrom RR patients showed higher Stimulation Index after challenged with the five M.leprae antigens compared to lymphocytes from non RR patients (p <0.05) . IFN-γ and IL-10 also increased but not significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that lymphocytes of leprosy patients during RR state are more sensitive to antigenic stimuli compared to non-RR leprosy patients. Further extended studies areneeded to determine the “cut off” value of lymphocyte Stimulation Index that is useful for clinicians in the field in the prediction of RR before starting anti leprotic treatment.
PATHOGENESI S, DI AGNOSTI C AND MANAGEMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS Yuliawati, Irma; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of protozoa groups, can infect humans and all warm-blooded animals, are found in almost all locations around the world. Infection generally occurs orally through the consumption of animal products that are not perfectly cooked infected oocyst, parasite containing foods in the form of bradyzoite, contact with cat’s feces containing oocysts or vertical transmission occurring through hematogenous placenta. Toxoplamosis can occur in acute or chronic. It divided into five categories, namely, toxoplasmosis in patients immunocompetent, toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, congenital toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients and ocular toxoplasmosis. In each category of clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis are often non-specific. Methods of diagnosis and interpretation are often different for each category. Toxoplasmosis can be diagnosed through aseries of tests such as serology, PCR, histology parasites and parasite isolation. Treatment management of this disease requires a long time. Therapy depends on the category of infections as well as individual therapeutic response. The combination of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine is the drug choice for toxoplasmosis.
PATHOGENESIS OF HEMORRHAGIC DUE TO DENGUE VIRUS Suseno, Arief; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Dengue is a viral disease that is mediated by a mosquito, which causes morbidity and mortality. Viruses can increase vascular permeability which can lead to hemorrhagic diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In Indonesia, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by dengue virus infection which was found to be endemic accompanied by an explosion of extraordinary events that appear at various specified period. The diagnosis of dengue is determined based on the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, 1999), which are sudden high fever accompanied by a marked tendency to hemorrhage positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymosis, purpura, mucosal hemorrhagic, hematemesis or melena and thrombocytopenia. The problem that still exists today is the mechanism of thrombocytopenia in patients with varying degrees of dengueinvolving levels of vWF (von Willebrand factor) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) can not be explained. The mechanism of hemorrhagic in dengue virus infections acquired as a result of thrombocytopenia, platelet disfunction decreased coagulation factors, vasculopathy with endothelial injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Indrawati, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Lukito, Bimo Dwi; Ferdiansyah, Ferdiansyah; Khairunisa, Siti Qomariyah; Kotaki, Tomohiro
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection). Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondaryinfections were toxoplasm (96.77%), hepatitis C (22.58%), tuberculosis (19.35%), and hepatitis B (3.22%). Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%), and Enterovirus (3.22%). Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals) target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.
OPTIMATION OF 48 kHz ULTRASONIC WAVE DOSE FOR THE INACTIVATION OF Salmonella typhi Lestari, Dwi May; Prijo, Tri Anggono; Astuti, Suryani Dyah
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

This study was aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonic dose exposure which could decrease the viability of Salmonella typhi by using the variation of exposure time (15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes) and volume of bacterial suspension (2, 4, 6, and 8 ml) at constant power. The sample used was Salmonella typhi. Ultrasonic wave transmitter was a piezoelectric tweeter with 0,191 watts of power and 48 kHz frequency generated by the signal generator. Piezoelectric tweeter was a kind of transducer which converted electrical energy into ultrasonic energy. This research was an experimental laboratory with a completely randomized design. The decrease of bacterial percentage was calculated by using TPC (Total Plate Count). Data were analyzed by using One Way Anova. The results showed that the variation of exposure time and volume of bacterial suspension gave significant effect on the percentage of Salmonella typhi kill. The most optimal of ultrasonic dose exposure to kill Salmonella typhi was 281.87 J/ml with 100% bacterial kill.

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