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INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 20851103     EISSN : 23560991     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health, Science,
This journal is a peer-reviewed journal established to promote the recognition of emerging and reemerging diseases specifically in Indonesia, South East Asia, other tropical countries and around the world, and to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination. The journal is intended for scientists, clinicians, and professionals in infectious diseases and related sciences. We welcome contributions from infectious disease specialists in academia, industry, clinical practice, public health, and pharmacy, as well as from specialists in economics, social sciences and other disciplines.
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Articles 22 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 4, No 4 (2013)" : 22 Documents clear
UPDATE MANAGEMENT DENGUE SHOCK SYNDROME IN PEDIATRIC CASES Soegijanto, Soegeng; Chilvia, Eva
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: Since 1968 Dengue Virus Infection has been found in Indonesia, especially at Surabaya and Jakarta city. Firstly management of dengue virus infection very difficult to improve, therefore the higher mortality nearly 41,4% had been found but on the following years in five decades the mortality rates was becoming to decrease until 1,27% on 2011. Aim: To find the new management of Dengue Shock Syndrome to reach the lower fatality rate below 1%. Method: Until now to manage Dengue Shock Syndrome is very difficult, some cases can be improved but the other lost due to the late coming in the hospital and not involved in criteria diagnosis base on WHO 1997. To solve this problem WHO 2009 had made new criteria diagnosis Dengue Virus Infection focusing on early detection of severe Dengue Virus Infection especially Dengue Shock Syndrome. Result: On 2011 WHO had made an integrated criteria diagnosis base on WHO 2009 and WHO 1997. These criteria was focusing in Update management of Dengue Shock Syndrome in Pediatric Cases. Based on this action, this paper will improve clinical management to reach the lower mortality of Dengue Shock Syndrome in Community until CFR < 1%. Conclusion: By using integrated criteria of WHO 2009 and 1997, update management of Dengue Shock Syndrome in Pediatric cases, can improve clinical management to reach the lower mortality in community until CFR < 1%.
PROBLEM OF ANTIBIOTIC USE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN INDONESIA: ARE WE REALLY MAKING PROGRESS? Hadi, Usman; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Qiptiyah, Mariyatul; Paraton, Hari
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: Based on the results Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia: prevalence and prevention-study (AMRIN-study), the Ministry of Health of Indonesia in 2005 began a program antibiotic resistance control (PPRA) in some government hospitals, and is currently developing to all government teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Aim: The core activities of the PPRA are to implement standardized surveillance emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and the surveillance of antibiotic use in terms of quantity and quality. Method: Our research in the years 2003 showed the proportion of antibiotic use 84% of patients in a hospital. The use of inappropriate antibiotics was very high, 42% no indication. Result: In 2012 the results of surveillance showed decline of inappropriate use of antibiotic, but prevalence extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K.pneumoniae (58%), and E.coli (52%) andmethicillin-resistant S.aures (MRSA) (24%) were increasing. Conclusion: It was needed to implement the most appropriate programs to prevent the growth and development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics.
ANALYSIS ON WHOLE BLOOD, SGOT, SGPT, AND TNF-a EXAMINATION IN PATIENTS WITH NON-DENGUE AND POSITIVE DENGUE FEVER (DF/DHF) Anggraini, Rahayu; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: In Indonesia has four serotypes, the DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4. The management of Dengue virus becomes difficult because the patients were infected with different clinical profiles depending on the serotypes and genotypes of infecting dengue virus. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment becomes difficult. Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify the difference between the results of laboratory tests between non-dengue fever and positive dengue fever. Method: This study was an observational cross-sectional study. Fifteen samples were diagnosed with dengue fever and fifteen samples with negative dengue fever on NS1, IgM / IgG-anti-DHF strip test results. Laboratory tests comprising whole blood, SGOT, SGPT, and TNFa were first examined when the patient came to the hospital. The collected data were analyzed by Chi-Square test SPSS version 13 for Windows. Result: The results of the study in two groups regarding sex, age, days of fever, grade, hemoglobin levels, leukocytes count, platelet count, hematocrit percentage, SGOT levels, and TNFa level were not significantly different with p > 0.050, whereas the SGPT level in non-dengue increased 3 x of normal value of 66.7%, n = 10/15 and in positive dengue fever the SGPT level was within normal limits, found in 60%, n = 9/15, so there was significant difference with p = 0.022 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: in non-dengue SGOT and SGPT levels increased of 1–3 times the normal value. In positive dengue fever SGOT levels increased 1–3 x normal value, but SGPT levels was within normal value, so SGPT levels can be used as a predictive factor for distinguishing the two types of fever.
THE ROLE OF HYPERBARIC THERAPY IN THE GROWTH OF CANDIDA ALBICANS Widiyanti, Prihartini
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Background: Candida albicans is opportunistic pathogen fungi which cause many disease in human such as reccurrent apthous stomatitis, skin lesions, vulvavaginitis, candiduria and gastrointestinal candidiasis. Aim: Infection mechanism of C. albicans is very complex including adhesion and invasion, morphology alteration from khamir form cell to filamen form (hifa), biofilm forming and the avoidance of host immunity. Method: The ability of C. albicans to adhere to the host cell which is act as important factor in the early colonization and infection. Result: The phenotype alteration to be filament form let the C. albicans to penetrate to the epithelium and play important role in infection and separation C. Albicans to the host cell. Hyperbaric oxygen is the inhalation of 100 percent oxygen inside hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized to greater than 1 atmosphere (atm). Conclusion: The organism was found to be inhibited within a pressure/time range well tolerated by human subjects, suggesting that hyperbaric oxygen might be used successfully in treating human candidiasis.
APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS ON BLOOD SERUM IMAGE FOR EARLY DETECTION OF TYPHUS Purnamasari, Betty; Arisgraha, Franky; Astuti, Suryani Dyah
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: Typhus is a disease caused by Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A Salmonella parathypi B, dan Salmonella paratyphi C bacteria that attacks digestive tract and caused infection in small intestine. The common test that performed in the laboratory is widal test. The result reading of the widal test still processed manually with looking the turbidity caused by the agglutination. Aim: The research was made to decrease human error by creating a program based on artificial neural network (ANN) with learning vector quantization (LVQ) method. Method: Input of this program is image of blood serum that has reacted with widal reagen. Image procesing start with grayscaling, filtering, and thresholding. Result: Output of this program is divided into two classes, normal and typhus detected. Conclusion: From this experiment result that using 24 testing data, gives the accuracy of this program 95.833% with 1 error result from 24 testing data.
SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN CITIES OF INDONESIA Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyanto, Kris Cahyo; Churotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kamioka, Masa Nori; Konichi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsusi; Wikanesthi, Dyah
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: Dengue Virus Infektion is major public health problem in Indonesia. Aedesaegypti is widespread in both urban and rural areas, where multiple virus Serotype are circulating. On 2013 outbreak of dengue virus infection occur in East Java. Therefore study seroepidemiology in Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Aim: to find a mutated strain of Dengue Virus in 4 cities of Indonesia. Method: On 2011 and 2012 seroepidemiology study had been done in Dr. Soetomo Surabaya and Soerya Sidoarjo Hospital; and on  2013 study had been done in Surabaya, Bangkalan and Lombok Hospital . Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection was based on Criteri WHO - 2009. Virus isolation in Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Result: a total of 349 isolate were obtained from dengue patients sera collected in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, 2011–2012 showed that Den V1 (182), Den V2 (20) Den V4 (1) were found in Surabaya on 2011 and Den V 1 (79) , Den V 2 (7) were found in Surabaya on 2012; Den V1 (40), Den V 2 (3) were found in Sidoarjo on 2011 and Den V 1 (17) were found in Sidoarjo on 2012; Virus isolation in Surabaya on 2013, January: 237 serum sample were collected, found Den V 1 (8), Den V 3 (2) and Den V 4 (5). And PCR stereotyping of isolated viruses in Madura found Den V 1 (1) and Den V 4 (23). In Lombok found Den V 4 (4).It is possible to shift predominant strain in Surabaya , Genotype or Serotype shift might increase the number of dengue patients. Conclusion: there were shift predominant strain in Surabaya especially Den V 1. Therefore to continuous surveillance of circulating viruses is required to predict the risk of DHF and DF.
MMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF NF-kB (P0/P) IN PATIENT WITH AGGRESSIVE AND CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS Prahasanti, Chiquita
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a protein complex that plays a role in transcription factors and in response to inflammation. Periodontitis is a periodontal disorder caused by various bacteria such as A. actinomycetemcomitan and P.gingivalis whose LPS is closely related to NFκB (p50/p65). Aim: This study observed whether NF-κB (p50/p65) played a role in aggressive and chronic periodontitis. Methods: Data were obtained from periodontal tissue 40 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 40 patients with chronic periodontitis. Samples were derived from periodontal tissue with abnormalities and NFκB (p50/p65) protein expression test was performed by immunohistochemistry. The statistical test used was the t-test. Results: In NF-κB (p50) the t value was -12 041 and significance 0.000, with α = 5%, showing significant difference in protein expression of NF-κB (p50) between patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis. OR estimation for the value of protein expression of NFκB (p50) was 0.64 (sign. = 0.000). It shows that if the protein expression of NFκB (p50) of the respondents is incremented by 1 (one) unit, the risk of chronic periodontitis increases 1.64 times. Box plot diagram shows that the distribution of the protein expression of NFκB (p50) between patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis patients is significantly different. In NF-κB (p65) the Z value was -7.137 and significance of 0000, with α= 5%, showed significant differences in protein expression of NF-κB (p65) between patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis. OR estimates for protein expression of NFκB (p65) was 0.66 (sign. = 0.000). This indicates that if the protein expression of NFκB (p65) respondents is incremented by 1 (one) unit, the risk of chronic periodontitis increases 1.5 times. Box plot diagram shows that the distribution of the protein expression of NFκB (p65) between patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients is significantly different. Conclusion: The protein expression of NF-κB (p50/p65) has more influence on the incidence of chronic periodontitis patients, so it can be used as a marker for chronic periodontitis.
IDENTIFICATION OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES IN HUMAN AND POULTRY IN THE AREA OF LARANGAN WET MARKET SIDOARJO-EAST JAVA, INDONESIA Frederika, Edith; Mareta, Aldise; Poetranto, Djoko; Wulandari, Laksmi; Setyoningrum, Retno Asih; Setyowati, Lucia Landia; Yudhawati, Resti; Soegiarto, Gatot; Yamaoka, Masaoki
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Background: Influenza is a viral infection that attacks the respiratory system (nose, throat, and lungs) that commonly known as “flu”. There are 3 types of influenza viruses, such as type A, type B, and type C. Influenza virus type A is the type of virus that can infect both human and animals, virus type B are normally found only in human, and Influenza virus type C can cause mild illness in human and not causing any epidemics or pandemics. Among these 3 types of influenza viruses, only influenza A viruses infect birds, particularly wild bird that are the natural host for all subtypes of influenza A virus. Generally, those wild birds do not get sick when they are infected with influenza virus, unlike chickens or ducks which may die from avian influenza. Aim: In this study, we are identifying the influenza viruses among poultry in Larangan wet market. Method: Around 500 kinds of poultry were examined from cloacal swab. Result: Those samples were restrained with symptoms of suspected H5. The people who worked as the poultry-traders intact with the animal everyday were also examined, by taking nasopharyngeal swab and blood serum. Conclusion: Identification of influenza viruses was obtained to define the type and subtype of influenza virus by PCR.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE INTENSITY OF Mycobacterium leprae EXPOSURE TO CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN LOW AND HIGH ALTITUDE IN LOW LEPROSY ENDEMIC AREA OF SOUTH SULAWESI Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Mataallo, Timurleng Tonang; Adam, Safruddin; Adam, A. M.; Amin, Safruddin; Tabri, Farida; Adriaty, Dinar; Wahyuni, Ratna; Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi; Agusni, Indropo
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

Background: The intensity of Mycobacterium leprae exposure to people who live in leprosy endemic area could be measured by serological study and detection of the bacilli in the nose cavity. Different geographical altitude might have some influences to this exposure since the bacilli prefer to live in warm areas. Aim: A combined serological and PCR study of leprosy was conducted in Selayar island, South Sulawesi to 80 school children (40 from low land and 40 from highland altitudes) in order to compare the exposure intensity between the two areas. Method: Anti PGL-1 IgM antibody (ELISA) and PCR study to detect M.leprae in the nasal cavity were performed simultaneously from each person. Result: Seropositive cases were found in 23/40 children from low land compared to 16/40 children from high land, but statistically no significant difference (p>0.05). PCR positive for M.leprae in the nasal cavity only found in 1/40 children, both in low and high altitude. Conclusion: It is concluded that although the existence of M.leprae in nasal cavity is minimal, the intensity of exposure to this bacilli still high as indicated by serological study.
AWARENESS OF USING RINGER LACTAT SOLUTION IN DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION CASES COULD INDUCE SEVERITY Soegijanto, Soegeng; Sari, Desiana W.; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kameoka, Masanori; Konishi, Eiji
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Background: In 2012, serotype of Dengue Virus had changed from Den-2 and Den-3 to Den-1. In 5–10 years ago, serotype of Den-1 case showed a mild clinical manifestation; but now as a primary case it can also show severe clinical manifestation. One of indicator is an increasing liver enzyme, AST and ALT, with level more than 100–200 U/L. Aim: To getting a better solutions for this problem. Method: Obsevasional Study had been done in medical faculty of Airlangga University (Dr. Soetomo and Soerya hospital) Surabaya on Mei–August 2012. There were 10 cases of dengue virus infection were studied, 5 cases got Ringer Acetate solution (Group A) and 5 cases got Ringer Lactate solution (Group B). The diagnosis was based on criteria WHO 2009. Result: Five cases of Dengue Virus Infection had showed a liver damage soon after using Ringer Lactate solution; AST and ALT were increasing more than 100–200 U/L; but the other 5 cases showed better condition. It might be due to use Ringer Acetate that did not have effect for inducing liver damage. By managing carefully, all of the cases had shown full recovery and healthy condition when being discharged. Conclusion: Using Ringer Acetate as fluid therapy in Dengue Virus Infection is better to prevent liver damage than using Ringer Lactate.

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