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INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 20851103     EISSN : 23560991     DOI : -
This journal is a peer-reviewed journal established to promote the recognition of emerging and reemerging diseases specifically in Indonesia, South East Asia, other tropical countries and around the world, and to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination. The journal is intended for scientists, clinicians, and professionals in infectious diseases and related sciences. We welcome contributions from infectious disease specialists in academia, industry, clinical practice, public health, and pharmacy, as well as from specialists in economics, social sciences and other disciplines.
Articles 22 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 3, No 2 (2012)" : 22 Documents clear
ANALYSIS OF HIV SUBTYPES AND CLINICAL STAGING OF HIV DISEASE/AIDS IN EAST JAVA Ismail, Yulia; Soetjipto, Soetjipto; Wasito, Eddy; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) known to cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) disease are divided into several subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K) and Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF). Different characteristics of subtype of the virus and its interaction with the host can affect the severity of the disease. This study was to analyze HIV-1 subtypes circulatingin HIV/AIDS patients from the East Java region descriptively and to analyze its relationship with clinical stadiums of HIV/AIDS. Information from this research was expected to complement the data of mocular epidemiology of HIV in Indonesia. This study utilited blood plasma from patients who had been tested to be HIV positive who sected treatment to or were reffered to the Intermediate Care Unit of Infectious Disease (UPIPI) Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya from various area representing the East Java regions. Plasma was separated from blood samples by centrifugation for use in the the molecular biology examination including RNA extraction, nested PCR using specific primer for HIV gp120 env gene region, DNA purifying, DNA sequencing, and homology and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the HIV gp120 env gene, it was found that the most dominant subtypes in East Java were in one group of Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF) that is CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B which was also found in Southeast Asia. In the phylogenetic tree, most of HIV samples (30 samples) are in the same branch with CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B, except for one sample (HIV40) which is in the same branch with subtype B. HIV subtypes are associated with clinical stadiums (disease severity) since samples from different stages of HIV disease have the same subtype.
PLATELET RICH PLASMA PREPARATION PROTOCOLS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY Nugraha, Hans Kristian; Muljanti, Meiti; Hernaningsih, Yetti; Nugraha, Jusak
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Currently, therapy with Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has been widely used and continues to grow for various clinical applications. Along with its development, there are various options in the method of obtaining PRP, either automatic or manual, while one of the most reliable methods according to the literature is a double centrifugation method. The purpose of this research is to produce anoptimization of the double centrifugation method. This study used experimental data obtained by conducting a research at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Experiments were conducted on stored blood obtained from the blood bag from Indonesian Red Crossand fresh blood from healthy donors with CPD anticoagulant. Results: PRP with optimum platelet count could be made with sufficient personal laboratory skills and amounted to 4.11 times with the platelet count of 1.152 million using 1300 rcf for 5 minutes for the first centrifugation, and 2300 rcf for 7 minutes for the second centrifugation.
EVALUATION ON THE EFFECT OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS ON CD4 T-CELL AND THE INCREMENT OF BODY WEIGHT AMONG HIV-AIDS PATIENTS IN SURABAYA Frederika, Edith; Normalina, Irine; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Mega, Rury
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Antiretroviral drug discovery has encouraged a revolution in the care of people living with HIV, although it has not been able to cure diseases and to increase the challenge in terms of drug side effects. Side effects of antiretroviral drugs are fairly common occurrences in HIV patients and generally occurr within the first three months after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, although long-term side effects are also often found afterwards. This study aims to evaluate the number of CD4 T-cells in patients with AIDS before and after getting on ARV therapy, the side effects arising during the taking of ARVs are related to the increment of body weight among the HIVAIDS patients. Subjects were then narrowed down from 25 to 12 due to the incomplete data. The results showed that the top three most side effects which often occur in people with AIDS are appetite loss (20.0%), nausea (17.8%), and diarrhoea (15.6%). Meanwhile, about 58% of the subjects experienced increment of their body weight, and 42% were losing weight due to the side effects of the ARV therapy. Among those who lost their body weight, 50% were in the productive ages between 21–30 years old. The present study shows that combination antiretroviral therapy gives good results to the increased number of CD4 T-cells in patients living with HIV, as shown by the tendency of an increment in the number of CD4 T-cells in patients who received antiretroviral therapy. However, around 42% of those patients were losing weight because of the side effects of the therapy. Therefore, the importance of giving specific nutrient to overcome with the weight loss is needed to be given to the patients HIV instead of only giving the ARV treatment.
TUBERCULOSIS COUNTER (TC) AS THE EQUIPMENT TO MEASURE THE LEVEL OF TB IN SPUTUM Purwanda, Fendy; Fibriawan, Yufan; Sasmito, Dyar; Rahmawati, Fatkhunisa; Widiyanti, Prihartini
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This disease is the third killer disease aftercardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases, and is also he number one killer disease in a group of infectious diseases. This is partly due to the late handling and a non real time detection, both of which will inhibit the therapy which yields a large numberof microorganisms in the body, and will eventually complicate the recovery. Based on this phenomenon, we offered an alternativesolution for detecting the sum of microorganism using Tuberculosis Counter, a tool used to count the number of Tuberculosis bacteria in the patients sputum. Technically, the patients sputum preparat was screened using the TCS230 color sensor that was able to filter the color of the preparat. Tuberculosis bacteria in the stained sputum Ziehl-Niellsen preparat was colored red, while the other was colored blue. By utilizing these optical phenomena, the TCS230 color sensor was supposed to filter the red color in the preparat. By using regression equation measurement, we gained the equation which then correlated the bit value as an output of the sensor with the number of Tuberculosis bacteria. Then, the digitalization process yielded the real time and accurate data of Tuberculosis bacteria.
DAPSONE RESISTANCE IN A Mycobacterium leprae ISOLATE WITH TWO POINT MUTATIONS IN folP GENE FROM A LEPROSY PATIENT Ardiaty, Dinar; Wahyuni, Ratna; Prakoeswa, Cita; Abdullah, Rasyidin; Agusni, Indropo; Izumi, Shinzo
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Drug resistance in leprosy is important for Leprosy Control Program, since the WHO-Multidrug regiment (MDT) has been used for global treatment of leprosy for more than two decades already. A Dapsone resistance case in a Multibacillary (MB) leprosy case is reported. The patient was diagnosed and treated in Tajuddin Chalid Hospital Makassar, South Sulawesi. Previously he was treated in a health center at South Sulawesi and was given a treatment for one year, before referred to the hospital. The leprosy skin lesions are still active with erythematous skin lesions and thickened ear lobe. Bacteriological examination was positive for Acid Fast Bacilli, the Bacterial Index was 3+ and the Morphological Index was 1%. The specimens of M.leprae isolation was sent to the Institute of Tropical Disease Surabaya for drug resistance study. Using the Lp1-2 and Lp3-4 nested primers, PCR test was positive for M.leprae.Sequencing result for folP gene showed a double mutation at codon 53 (ACC / Threonin ) which become (AGG / Arginine). Simultaneous mutation at two nucleotides at one codon has never been reported in Indonesia before and this phenomenon is important for leprosy control policy.
BRADYCARDIA AND TACHYCARDIA DETECTION SYSTEM WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK METHOD S, Delima Ayu; Arisgraha, Franky; Apsari, Retna
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Heart disease is one disease with high mortality rate in the world. Based on WHO records from 112 countries at 2004, the rate is 29% of all deaths each year. Medical devices are necessary to diagnose ones health as an indication of a disease. Nowadays, Indonesia still imports medical devices, for the diagnosis of heart failure, from abroad. This research aims to assist the monitoring of cardiac patients with bradycardia and tachycardia appearances of message condition patient’s heart rate at the same time. The results were displayed with the output of bradycardia condition of the heart rate (heart rate less than 60 beats per minute) or tachycardia (heart rate over 100 beats per minute). The system displayed the data read from the heart to the PC embedded system to monitor the condition of the patients under decisions based on backpropagation neural network. Classification system could be performed quite well, training data and by testing the 10 pieces, the optimal weight gain was 1727 iteration, the learning rate was 0.1122, and the error was below 0.001 (0.0009997).
THE PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY FROM XYLO-OLIGOSACCHARIDE OF CORNCOB (ZEA MAYS) HYDROLYSIS PRODUCT WITH ENDO-β-XYLANASE ENZYME Yamani, Laura Navika; Kristanti, Alfinda Novi; Puspaningsih, Ni Nyoman
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Xylo-oligosaccharide derived from corncob hemicellulose has been reported to possess antioxidant activity. In order to assess the effective scavenging of xylo-oligosaccharide, we conducted in vitro studies based on self-made xylo-oligosaccharide with DPPH (2,2diphenyl-1-picrilhydrazil) method. Xylo-oligosaccharide was prepared with enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzyme used for hemicellulose hydrolysis was endo-β-xylanase enzyme from PC-01 isolated bactrerium. PC-01 isolated bacterium used in this study was Pacet hot spring which was isolated from East Java. Endo-β-xylanase enzyme is an extracelluler enzyme. There was about 0.199 U/mL after purification and dialysis process. Hydrolisis product of hemicellulose A and B from corncob were analyzed with TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). This analysis showed that hydrolysis product of hemicellulose B had a lot of xylo-oligosaccharide hydrolysis product of hemicellulose than Xylo-oligosaccharide hydrolysis product of hemicelluloses A. Xylo-olygosaccharide was analyzed as on antioxidant activity. Xylo-oligosaccharide hydrolysis product ofhemicellulose B (IC = 48.96) has higher antioxidant activity than Xylo-oligosaccharide hydrolysis product of hemicellulose A (IC 50 50 = 92.302). The toxicity of xylo-oligosaccharide can be calculated by the value of LC 50 (Lethality concentration). LC of xylooligosaccharide derived from corncob hemicellulose was 400 ppm so that xylo-oligosaccharide has anti tumor activity because xylooligosaccharide has LC 50 < 1000 ppm.
HEPATITIS B SEROLOGY PROFILES ON CHILDREN AGED 1–13 YEARS OLD IN SUMENEP, MADURA Putera, Edward M; Marcia, Dian; Firdarini, Itja; Amin, Mochamad; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Purwono, Priyo B; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) which was acquired during perinatal or childhood would promote hepatocellular carcinoma with even higher percentage than that which was acquired during adult age. That is why HBV represents a serious public health threat for children. HBV vaccination has been integrated into national expanded programme on immunization (EPI) since 1997. The aimof they study is to investigate the prevalence of HBV among children who were born after 1997 in Sumenep. Material and Methods: a total of 102 children who were born after 1997 were enrolled in this study. All children were admitted in the Emergency Room and Pediatric Ward of dr. H. Moh Anwar General Hospital for some reasons. Written informed consents were obtained from parents/guardians of all the children. Study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committees. All of these cases were examined for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (Anti-HBs), and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (Anti-HBc). Result and Discussion: Overall, 6 (5.88%) of 102 samples were positive for HBsAg, 51 (50.00%) of 102 samples were positive for anti-HBs, and 49 (48.04%) of 102 samples were positive for anti-HBc. All the children were born after 1997. Conclusion: HBsAg rate is still high even after universal vaccination program, acquired protective antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen were sufficient, but there is a suspicion for occult hepatitis B infections (OBI). A further study to confirm OBI is needed.
EVALUATION ON THE NUMBER OF CD4 T CELLS AND ANTIRETROVIRAL SIDE EFFECTS IN PATIENTS WITH AIDS Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Normalina, Irine; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Abstract

Antiretroviral drug discovery has encouraged a revolution in the care of people living with HIV, although it has not been able to cure diseases and to increase the challenge in terms of drug side effects. Side effects of antiretroviral drugs are fairly common occurrences in HIV patients and generally occur within the first three months after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, although long-term side effects are also often found afterwards. This study aims to evaluate the number of CD4 T-cells in patients with AIDS before and after getting on ARV therapy and side effects arising during the taking of ARVs. Samples were collected from 10 patients infected by HIV/AIDS in a clinic in Surabaya. This study is an analytical survey. Data collection was conducted using secondary data obtained from the medical record card status on HIV paients in a clinic in Surabaya. Data results showed that the side effects that often occur in people with AIDS are appetite loss (90%), headache (80%), insomnia (80%) and nausea (70%). While many combinations of antiretroviral drugs have side effects such as a combination of AZT +3 TC + EFV, d4T +3 TC + followed by EFV and AZT +3 TC + NVP. The present study shows that combination antiretroviral therapy gives good results to the increased number of CD4 T-cellsin patients living with HIV, as shown by the tendency of an increase in the number of CD4 T-cells in 8 out of 10 AIDS patients who received a antiretroviral therapy.
ETHNIC AND ATOPIC DERMATITIS: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED IN ASIAN POPULATION? Prakoeswa, Cita
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, with relapsing remitting course. Management of AD is challenging due to the complexities of this disease. Two hypotheses concerning the mechanism of AD have been proposed. One holds that the primary defect resides in an immunologic disturbance that causes Ig E-mediated sensitization, with epithelial barrier dysfunction regarded as a consequence of the local inflammation. The others propose that an intrinsic defect in the epithelial cells leads to the barrierdysfunction; the immunologic aspects is considered to be an epiphenomenon. Many studies support that AD is a complex trait which has interactions between genes and environmental factors contributing to disease manifestation, but the result of replicate association between genetic markers and AD is inconsistence. An important factor contributing to this inconsistency is related to population diversity. It is possible that certain genetic markers might contribute to increase the risk in certain ethnic population but not in others, either because of the differences in frequencies of the risk alleles and the specific genes interaction. There is limited information about the role of ethnicity in Asian population. The overall purpose of this review is to present an update on ethnicity approach of AD in Asian population. Research on prevalence, risk factor, innate and adaptive immune response genes, skin barrier dysfunction genes and geneenvironmentinteraction such as epigenetic, is discussed. It is generally approved that the ethnicity of study subject is a key factor in interpreting genetic polymorphism studies. Therefore, discussion of some current areas of research about polymorphism are presented, including filaggrin (FLG) gene and CD14 C-159TSNP. Addressing the issues described above may improve our understanding of AD pathogenesis that has implications for the clinical management of AD.

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