Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease
Published by Universitas Airlangga
ISSN : 20851103     EISSN : 23560991
This journal is a peer-reviewed journal established to promote the recognition of emerging and reemerging diseases specifically in Indonesia, South East Asia, other tropical countries and around the world, and to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination. The journal is intended for scientists, clinicians, and professionals in infectious diseases and related sciences. We welcome contributions from infectious disease specialists in academia, industry, clinical practice, public health, and pharmacy, as well as from specialists in economics, social sciences and other disciplines.
Articles 251 Documents
UPDATE MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE COMPLICATION IN PEDIATRIC Soegijanto, Soegeng
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Dengue virus infection is one of the important health problems in Indonesia, although the mortality rate has been decreased but many dengue shock syndrome cases is very difficult to be solving handled. It might be due to nature course of dengue virus infection is very difficult to predict of the earlier time of severity occur. THE AIM To get idea to make update management of dengue complication in pediatric. MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were compiled from Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya in 2009. The diagnosis of all cases was based on criteria WHO 1997 and PCR examination in Institute Tropical Disease for identified serotype of dengue virus infection. The unusual cases of dengue virus infection were treated following the new WHO protocol in 2009. RESULT There were only 3 cases with serotype DEN 1, consisted 2 cases had age 1–4 years and 1 had age 5–14 years. 2 cases showed a severe clinical performance as dengue shock syndrome and 1 case showed as unusual case of dengue virus infection. Three report cases of: a. Dengue hemorrhagic fever grade III which liver involvement and had bilateral pleural effusion; b. Dengue hemorrhagic grade III with liver involvement and encephalopathy; c. Dengue hemorrhagic grade III with liver involvement acute kidney injury, myocardial involvement and encephalopathy. All the patients were treated according to new edition WHO protocol and all of the involving organ recovered along with the improvement of the disease. CONCLUSION Update management of dengue complication pediatric should be learned carefully used for helping unusual cases of dengue virus infection.
PROFILE OF COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN AT SOETOMO HOSPITAL SURABAYA IN 00–00 Setyoningrum, Retno Asih
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
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Background: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most important health problem affecting children all over the world. Clinical findings, laboratory and radiological examination of CAP may largely vary from mild to severe. Objective: To report profile of CAP in children hospitalized at Soetomo Hospital Surabaya in 2007–2008 Methods: This research was a retrospective study. Data of children with primary diagnosis of CAP in 2007–2008 were obtained from medical records of the Department of Child Health Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. The diagnosis CAP was based on WHO criteria (pneumonia clinical syndrome). The clinical features of illness, laboratory and radiological examination were recorded and presented descriptively. Results: During the study period, 438 patients were diagnosed as CAP. More than half (83.4%) patients aged 3 months– 3 year. Beside cough and tachypnea, most common symptom and signs were chest indrawing (76.2%) and fever (23.8%). Leucocytosis (39.6%). Bacteria was found in 8.2%. Accompanying diseases (i.e congenital heart disease, neurological and gastroenterological disorders) were found in 36.4%. One hundred fifty seven patients (35.8%) had malnutrition. Patchy infiltrate was found in 80.8% chest X-ray examination. Mortality was found in 4.3%. Conclusions: Community acquired pneumonia in children still count as a major problem at Soetomo Hospital Surabaya.
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATYPICAL DEPOLARIZATION IN CELLDYN 00 AND THE PRESENCE OF PLASMODIUM SPP IN BLOOD IN Dr. SOETOMO HOSPITAL SURABAYA Nugraha, Jusak
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
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Background: Malaria is a parasitic disease worldwide with a high morbidity and mortality. A rapid and accurate method is needed to detect the presence of malaria parasites in blood. A flagging system atypical depolarization (atypdep) in CBC results from Cell-Dyn 3200 has been related with malaria infection. Materials and Methods: An observational cross sectional approach with 48 samples obtained from inpatients of the Dr.Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Samples were screened by Cell-Dyn 3200 analyzer for atypdep flagging in CBC. Positive samples were later confirmed by microscope to detect malaria parasites. results: From 48 samples with atypdep flagging, 7 samples were malaria positive on peripheral blood smear (13.1%). Most frequent atypdep flagging was seen in malignancy (18.7%), and approximately 54.6% of the samples were not accompanied by fever symptoms. Lekositosis and anemia each were found in 20 samples (41.6%) and thrombocytopenia in 33.3%. conclusion: The presence of atypdep flagging in Cell-Dyn 3200 does not necessarily indicate the existence of malaria or it could be said that atypdep flagging is not always associated with presence of malaria infection. The usage of an atypdep flagging in non-endemic areas such as Surabaya is just an alert sign to evaluate malaria infection rather than a screening method to detect malaria.
THE MONTHLY CHANGING OF THE LOWEST POPULATION DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN PATIENT AT SOERYA HOSPITAL SIDOARJO IN 00 Soegijanto, Soegeng
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
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Background: Dengue virus infection is one of the important health problems in Indonesia, although the mortality rate has been decreased but many dengue shock syndrome cases is very difficult to be solving handled. To solve this problem, some factor that influence the prevalence of dengue virus infection should be studied. The Aim of Study: To detect some factor that maintain the higher case of dengue virus infection in patient at the Soerya Hospital Sepanjang, Sidoarjo. Material & Method: Study had been done at Soerya Hospital Sepanjang, Sidoarjo since January 1, 2007 until December 31, 2010. All cases suspected dengue virus infection in patient at soerya hospital were diagnosed based on WHO criteria in 1997 and PCR examination in ITD laboratory. The Result: In 2007, 2008, 2009, the monthly observation showed that decreasing cases of dengue virus infection in patient at Soerya Hospital had been found on September, but in 2010 this event had been found on November. Why this event to be change? It is suggested might be due to global warming in the world and the climate going to influence the environment sanitation. Interaction between agent host and environment becoming increase it might be due to the changing of climate can influence the growing population Aedes Aegyptie and Aedes Albopictus promoting to increase vector for transmit dengue virus infection. It is prominent in sub urban area, with have many peoples don’t aware with the bad environment sanitation. And many peoples showed very dynamic for living until the idea good environment do not be thought. By this condition the monthly population dengue virus infection in patient at hospital are going to maintain higher more than six months than usually. On the year 2007, 2008, 2009 the lowest cases found on September. In 2010, the lowest cases had been found on November. The Conclusion: Global warming, increasing sub urban area which have many peoples don’t aware with the bad environment sanitation and have highly dynamic peoples for getting some money for their life, could influence the higher cases dengue virus infection in patient at hospital more than 6 months.
THE CHANGING CLINICAL PERFORMANCE OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN THE YEAR 2009 Soegijanto, Soegeng; Susilowati, Helen; Mulyanto, Kris Cahyo; Hendrianto, Eryk; Yamanaka, Atushi
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
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Background: Dengue (DEN) virus, the most important arthropod-borne human pathogen, represents a serious public health threat. DEN virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of the domestic mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and circulates in nature as four distinct serological types DEN-1 to 4). The aim of Study: To identify Dengue Virus Serotype I which showed mild clinical performance in fiveyears before and afterward showed severe clinical performance. Material and Method: Prospective and analytic observational study had been done in Dr. Soetomo Hospital and the ethical clearance was conduct on January 01, 2009. The population of this research is all cases of dengue virus infection. Diagnosis were done based on WHO 1997. All of these cases were examined for IgM & IgG anti Dengue Virus and then were followed by PCR examination to identify Dengue Virus serotype. Result and Discussion: DEN 2 was predominant virus serotype with produced a spectrum clinical illness from asymptomatic, mild illness to classic dengue fever (DF) to the most severe form of illness (DHF). But DEN 1 usually showed mild illness. Helen at al (2009–2010) epidemiologic study of Dengue Virus Infection in Health Centre Surabaya and Mother and Child Health Soerya Sidoarjo found many cases of Dengue Hemorrhagic Feverwere caused by DEN 1 Genotype IV. Amor (2009) study in Dr. Soetomo Hospital found DEN 1 showed severe clinical performance of primary Dengue Virus Infection as Dengue Shock Syndrome two cases and one unusual case.Conclusion: The epidemiologic study of Dengue Virus Infection in Surabaya and Sidoarjo; in the year 2009 found changing predominant Dengue Virus Serotype from Dengue Virus II to Dengue Virus 1 Genotype IV which showed a severe clinical performance coincident with primary infection.
The Utilization of Achatina fulica Mucus in Alginate Membrane as Wound Healing Accelerator and Anti- Infection Material Rahmawati, Fatkhunisa; Mayasari, Dita Ayu; Adhitioso, Satrio; Putra, Alfian Pramudita; Kuntjoro, Eko Budi; Widiyanti, Prihartini
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 1 (2014)
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Wound should be covered with bandage that is called wound dressing. Most people use synthetic materials such as gauze dressing. Gauze has high absorption of NaCl, which is often used to cleanse the wound. However, discomfort and pain arise since the gauze becomes sticky on the wound. Therefore, we need other alternatives instead of gauze to cover wound. One such alternative is the alginate membrane. This study used alginate membrane with mixture of mucous of the snail Achatina fulica, which contain proteins such as proline, serine asparagine, glycosaminoglycan, hydroxylysine, trionin and so forth, to activate the growth factor. Alginatepowder and carboxymethl cellulose (CMC) was dissolved in distilled water mixed with mucus of the snail Achatina fulica in four variations (4:0; 4:1, 4:2, 4:3) through a magnetic stirrer, and casted on a baking sheet covered with sterile gauze. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) test showed that the glycosaminoglycan content was found on the mucous of Achatina fulica. This was indicated by the appearance of peak at 325–350 second. The most optimum alginate and mucus composition was in ratio of 4:2. This ratio resulted in a wound dressing that was still able to absorb the exudate and optimally accelerated wound healing.
UPDATE MANAGEMENT DENGUE SHOCK SYNDROME IN PEDIATRIC CASES Soegijanto, Soegeng; Chilvia, Eva
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
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Background: Since 1968 Dengue Virus Infection has been found in Indonesia, especially at Surabaya and Jakarta city. Firstly management of dengue virus infection very difficult to improve, therefore the higher mortality nearly 41,4% had been found but on the following years in five decades the mortality rates was becoming to decrease until 1,27% on 2011. Aim: To find the new management of Dengue Shock Syndrome to reach the lower fatality rate below 1%. Method: Until now to manage Dengue Shock Syndrome is very difficult, some cases can be improved but the other lost due to the late coming in the hospital and not involved in criteria diagnosis base on WHO 1997. To solve this problem WHO 2009 had made new criteria diagnosis Dengue Virus Infection focusing on early detection of severe Dengue Virus Infection especially Dengue Shock Syndrome. Result: On 2011 WHO had made an integrated criteria diagnosis base on WHO 2009 and WHO 1997. These criteria was focusing in Update management of Dengue Shock Syndrome in Pediatric Cases. Based on this action, this paper will improve clinical management to reach the lower mortality of Dengue Shock Syndrome in Community until CFR < 1%. Conclusion: By using integrated criteria of WHO 2009 and 1997, update management of Dengue Shock Syndrome in Pediatric cases, can improve clinical management to reach the lower mortality in community until CFR < 1%.
LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSE TO Mycobacterium leprae ANTIGENS IN REVERSAL REACTION STATE OF LEPROSY An in vitro study of Lymphocyte Stimulation Index using MTT method Iskandar, Fanny; Yusuf, Irawan; Arif, Mansur; Agusni, Indropo
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
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Reversal Reaction (RR) in Leprosy is a sudden inflammatory episode in the chronic course of the disease due to rapid change of cellular immunological status. The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro results of Lymphocyte Stimulation Index (LSI) RR leprosy derived lymphocytes after challenged with M.leprae antigens. Twenty three Borderline Leprosy with RR and 11 BorderlineLeprosy patients without RR were included in the study. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were separated from peripheral blood of these patients using Ficol-Hypaque column and cultured in laboratory. Using the colorimetric tetrazole (MTT) method these lymphocytes were challenged with PHA, Dharmendra antigen (1/100 and 1/10 dilutions), LAM (50 and 100 nanograms). Stimulation Index were calculated and superanatans were collected for measuring the IFN-γ and IL-10 production (ELISA). All of lymphocytesfrom RR patients showed higher Stimulation Index after challenged with the five M.leprae antigens compared to lymphocytes from non RR patients (p <0.05) . IFN-γ and IL-10 also increased but not significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that lymphocytes of leprosy patients during RR state are more sensitive to antigenic stimuli compared to non-RR leprosy patients. Further extended studies areneeded to determine the “cut off” value of lymphocyte Stimulation Index that is useful for clinicians in the field in the prediction of RR before starting anti leprotic treatment.
EFFECT OF CYNAMMYLDEHYDE FROM CINNAMON EXTRACT AS A NATURAL PRESERVATIVE ALTERNATIVE TO THE GROWTH OF Staphylococcus aureus BACTERIA Winias, Saka
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
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Food is one of the best media for the microorganism to live and grow. Therefore, food is often broken because it has been contaminated by the microorganism. In industry country, approximately 30% of population infected by food borne disease. Food borne disease is caused of phatogen bacteria food borne. Staphylococus aureus is a kind of bacteria that can make food rotten and also it is a phatogen bacteria cause food born disease, no forming spora, positive gram bacteria and the food substance which is contaminated by Staphylococus aureus will cause poisoned becaused of enterotoxin which is heat resisting. Essential oil is antimicrobial and anti bacterial that the most effective, it can inhibit the growing of microba and bacteria. One of the example of essential oil is Cinnamon.sp oil. Cinnamon oil is antimcroba agent for bacteri and fungi because it contain cynammyldehyde and cynammyl alcohol and also eugenol. The aim of this study is to understand the antimcrobacterial potential of cynammyldehyde from cinnamon extract to Staphylococus aureus. This study is laboratory experimantal research. Essential oil from Cinnamon by destilation, then redistilation was done to get cynammyldehyde from cinnamon. Cynammyldehyde was tested to Staphylococus aureus. Test method was done as dilution in the form. From this result, it show that cynammyldehide from cinnamon extract has ability in inhibit the Staphylococus aureus growth. We can conclude that Cynammaldehyde from cinnamon extract has antibacterial effect especially for positive gram bacteria that is Staphylococcus aureus. The optimum inhibiting effort is 0.09%.
ANALYSIS OF HIV SUBTYPES AND CLINICAL STAGING OF HIV DISEASE/AIDS IN EAST JAVA Ismail, Yulia; Soetjipto, Soetjipto; Wasito, Eddy; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) known to cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) disease are divided into several subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K) and Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF). Different characteristics of subtype of the virus and its interaction with the host can affect the severity of the disease. This study was to analyze HIV-1 subtypes circulatingin HIV/AIDS patients from the East Java region descriptively and to analyze its relationship with clinical stadiums of HIV/AIDS. Information from this research was expected to complement the data of mocular epidemiology of HIV in Indonesia. This study utilited blood plasma from patients who had been tested to be HIV positive who sected treatment to or were reffered to the Intermediate Care Unit of Infectious Disease (UPIPI) Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya from various area representing the East Java regions. Plasma was separated from blood samples by centrifugation for use in the the molecular biology examination including RNA extraction, nested PCR using specific primer for HIV gp120 env gene region, DNA purifying, DNA sequencing, and homology and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the HIV gp120 env gene, it was found that the most dominant subtypes in East Java were in one group of Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF) that is CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B which was also found in Southeast Asia. In the phylogenetic tree, most of HIV samples (30 samples) are in the same branch with CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B, except for one sample (HIV40) which is in the same branch with subtype B. HIV subtypes are associated with clinical stadiums (disease severity) since samples from different stages of HIV disease have the same subtype.

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