cover
Filter by Year
KALIMAH
ISSN : -     EISSN : -
Articles
82
Articles
Hermeneutika al-Qur’an “Mazhab Yogya” Telaah atas Teori Ma’nā-cum-Maghzā dalam Penafsiran al-Qur’an

Setiawan, Asep ( Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (520.302 KB)

Abstract

This article tries to discuss the discourse of the necessity of the application of the hermeneutic method in Qur’anic studies with the theory of interpretation ma’nā-cum-maghzā offered by Muslim scholars in Yogyakarta. In conclusion, the efforts of the initiators of the hermeneutic of the Qur’an to make hermeneutics be one approach and partners in the study of the Qur’an is an effort that needs to be appreciated, and the goal is to develop Islamic Studies (particularly the study of the Quran). The interpretation of the Qur’an with the theory ma’nā-cum-maghzā , is a method of interpretation of the results of elaboration. If this theory is applied in the interpretation of the Qur’an, it will produce a relative interpretation, or tentative interpretation, and dynamic one that always demands a change in accordance with the age, social and cultural backgrounds. Its implication is no final interpretation. So, Muslims will not ever understand absolutely the truth of the content in Qur’an, because it is dynamic and constantly changing. However, taking into account the assumptions and implications, hermeneutics is not appropriate to be applied in the study of the Qur’an. If it applied to interpret the Qur’an, then it will lead to confusions and doubts. This is because it departed from skepticism and relativism, equating the Qur’anic text as plain texts, requiring uncertainty meanings and relative-tentative interpretations.

Pengalaman Spiritual menurut Psikologi Transpersonal (Kajian Kritis Ilmu Tasawuf)

Ryandi, Ryandi ( Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam (STAI) al-Hikmah Medan, Sumatera Utara )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (486.926 KB)

Abstract

This study attempts to critically explore Transpersonal Psychology views on the nature of spiritual experience. The exponents of this kind of psychology claimed their concept as an integration between science and religion as well as it was can be universally accepted by all religions. Since this study reveals religious issues especially religious experience that in Islam is often said to be a sufi experience, then the approach of this study is sufism. From this study we found that the Transpersonal Psychology view is really problematic both epistemologically and theologically. Epistemologically, their assumptions are a priory i.e. they are not purely and intensely resulted by scientific research, but based on the premise of perennial philosophy which recognizes the transcendent unity of religions. Theologically, their assumptions lead to the refutation of religious doctrine. It yields a contemplative spiritual practice that ignores religious teaching. As a result, the spiritual knowledge is more subjective i.e. based on human ego, which finally leads to spiritual narcissism. It is really different from the sufis, which base their spirituality on religion, and subjectively affirm their experience to syariah. Psychologically, the sufi who has reached a spiritual state, his soul was in an existential consciousness on the level of faqr, that is a feeling of indebtedness to Allah. It causes the totality of servitude to Allah, not narcissism.

Integrasi Keilmuan; Isu Mutakhir Filsafat Ilmu

Muslih, Mohammad ( Universitas Darussalam (UNIDA) Gontor, Ponorogo )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (555.851 KB)

Abstract

The issue of integration of science, in fact, is not only interesting to follow as a scientific discourse, but even more is viewed within the framework of the philosophy of science. The establishment of the Islamic universities after the long process of conversion, cannot be denied, making the issue more than just a discourse, but it has become a scientific building. Of course, it is not necessarily noticed, which one is better, or which one is correct, but should be noticed as an option, as the result of the dialectic of the initiators’’ mind with the social, Islamic, and scientific environment surrounding them, as well as precipitated thought which could be formulated. Philosophical that appears is the possibility of the science-based on religion becoming scientific. If it is according to its history, the study of the Philosophy of Science is related to two issues, they are the scientific criteria and the development of science, then the discourse of integration of science, requires the Philosophy of Science to notice it as the latest issues, associated with the possibility of the birth of new scientific tradition and scientific culture, even with the advent of methodology, scientific activity, scientific work and new products of science, which are in a religious context, which puts religion as an integral part of a scientific building.

Konsep Makrifat menurut Ibnu Athaillah al-Sakandari

Mudin, Moh. Isom ( Universitas Darussalam (UNIDA) Gontor )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (476.04 KB)

Abstract

This paper discusses about the concept of makrifat and its relevance to the spiritual in modern era. Sufi’s makrifat is not the result of speculative reasoning, but the result of direct testimony. Therefore, the problem to be answered about the essence and experience of divinity has always been a mystery. By analyzing critically, this study resulted in the finding that the concept of makrifat according to Ibnu Ata Allah is the essence of tauhid that combines Islam, Iman and Ihsan. He has explored the aspects of ‘jadzab’ in reaching makrifat. The spiritual experiences toward the essence of divinity which is not represented in the form of witnessing the absolute oneness (syuhūd al-aḥadiyyah) became the main characteristic of his makrifat. This condition is contrary to the ideology of modern materialism that nullify the spiritual and assume that the physical world is the essence of everythings. Thus, according to Ibnu Ata Allah, makrifat has found a great momentum wherein it reach this level, ‘ārif must look at the world on Allah’s will. Besides that, an ārif will see at the absolute oneness (syuhūd al-aḥadiyah) which is outside the scope of human reasoning when they get the level of wusṣūl in makrifat form. The view that be felt by ‘ārif bi Allāh give their psychological side affects. They felt fanā, jam`, ghaibah, sakr and another more perfect condition. The testimony and their spiritual condition affecting their vision on the world. Where they watched fi`l by fi`l, ṣifah by s}ifah also dzāt by dzāt .

Peran Epistemologi Ilmu Pengetahuan dalam Membangun Peradaban

Mudzakir, Mudzakir ( Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Kudus, Jawa Tengah )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (486.686 KB)

Abstract

The formation of a culture in a society, which is based only on one of the scientific dimensions, such as an idea that science is value-free, or that religion is merely a fata morgana, will result in incomplete culture, or even destroy the culture itself. It, on this matter, lies the responsibility of scientists together with other stakeholders to build the nation’s culture. With their expertise, scientists should choose and determine a strategy to integrate moral dimension into scientific ontology, epistemology and axiology. Ontologically, Islam recognizes the existence and truth of āyāt al-kauniyyah as well as āyāt al-qauliyyah and integrates the existence of the two based on faith. Furthermore, the development of the products of Islamic thoughts based on this philosophy form a paradigm system of metaphysical realism based on fundamental concept of tawḥīd (oneness) of the existence of Allah s.w.t., minds and the universe (monism). In the oneness of existence (tawhḥīd), what is meant by science needs a consistent formula in light of the feature of existential oneness. The nature of science seen in this light tends to trigger another scientific activity, i.e. the procedure of finding and developing sciences in religion, within which Allah SWT as a focal point of the thinking framework as well as a reference to the whole existential structure.

Modernisasi dan Perubahan Sosial dalam Lintasan Sejarah Islam

Bakri, Syamsul ( Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Surakarta )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (456.403 KB)

Abstract

This paper describes about the modernization of Islam in the history. Modernization is the inevitable cosmic necessity, so that the Islamic world is forced by history to be able to response and to adapt to the dynamics of modernity. As a real impact, the process has created intellectuals and activists of Islam that involve in the acts of social movements. They tried to face the challenges of the modernity. Islam is not moving in the empty space. However, Islam appears in the middle of the people who need answers to the modernity that increases progressively. This fact is clearly the starting point of the importance of the dynamic religious understanding. In this context, ijtihad will be the only way to keep the conservation doctrine, and at the same time is able to follow the rhythm of modernity. The role of thinkers and activists of Islamic reform is very significant in making products of ijtihad to bring the Muslims facing social change as a result of modernization. Islam is a spirit of change, and then it creates social change while still having roots of theology and Islamic traditions. The modernization which is born from the womb of Western civilization has awakened the Muslims to aware the importance of Islam as a part of the social system. Islam has a strength and a great potential to build the nation. Therefore, Muslims should be agents of change to have social mobility.

Nazariyat Ibnu Bajah ‘an al-Nafs

Ma’afi, Rif’at Husnul ( Universitas Darussalam (UNIDA) Gontor, Ponorogo ) , Nebukadnezar, Faiq ( Universitas Darussalam (UNIDA) Gontor, Ponorogo )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (574.993 KB)

Abstract

The soul is one of the central issues focused on by prominent Muslim philosophers due to its crucial role in constructing thoughts, acts, and human behaviour. One of these eminent philosopher was Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Yahya bin Bajah or who is more commonly known as Ibnu Bajah. Although he discussed the soul at great length, he did not explicitly define what it is, such as what other philosophers had tried to do. However, Ibnu Bajah expressed what is known about the soul by the improvements of al-Jism al-‘Ali (the Automatic Body), which has 4 kinds of strengths: to consume, to sense, to move, and to talk. Man with these in one word herit strengths are able to direct his body to grow and live in order to fulfill his physical needs, and at the same time pursue and attain information, knowledge, and understanding. It is important to acknowledge that the human mind reaches its perfection with the aid of rational knowledge. The rational knowledge enables them to understand the matter essentially, and when man may attain ultimate happiness. Therefore human perfection is the combination and interrelation between the active mind and rational view working together. This correlation will be attained gradually, with knowledge representing rational objects from material objects, then transcending it to relate with the active mind. Human knowledge then begins from the sense of representation of the object physically, abstracting its representation by the power of imagination, interpreting the meaning in the mind from the senses. Thus if will deliver humans to the right knowledge of himself and the active mind.

‘Uluww al-Isnad dalam Periwayatan Hadis Abu Muhammad al-Husain bin Mas‘ud al-Baghawi

Askar, Romlah Abubakar ( Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Darunnajah, Jakarta ) , Yapono, Abdurrahim ( Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Darunnajah, Jakarta )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (932.955 KB)

Abstract

Abu Muhammad al-Husayn Ibnu Mas’ud al-Baghawi (450-516H) was one of the leading scholars in Tafsir (Quran exegesis), hadith (prophetic tradition), and fiqh (Islamic legal jurisprudence) in his era. He was categorized as muta’akhirūn (scholars who came later on) and was instrumental in the development of these three disciplines. In the field of exegesis, he was among the scholars who used al-Ma’tsūr, (commentary stylist), relying on the verses of the Qur’an, hadith, and the statements from the followers of the tabi’īn (the followers of the followers). This can be found in his recorded work Ma’ālim al Tanzīl. In the field of hadith, he preserved the narration method and presenting a new approach by merging some patterns of hadith narration from several books of hadith in his work known as ṭarīqah al-Jam’u (combination [amalgamation] method). This pattern will not occur unless there is the existence of other transmission lines as a second chain of narration used to produce ‘uluww al-Isnād (the noble sanad) or nuzūl al-Isnād (descent sanad). It is recorded in his works: al-Jam’u baina al-Ṣaḥīḥain, Sharḥ al-Sunnah and Maṣābiḥ al-Sunnah. In the field of Jurisprudence, he was amongst those mujtahidin from the Shafiee school of thought, recorded in his Majmū’ ‘al-Fatāwā, al-Kifāyah fī al-Furū’ and Kitāb al-Tahdzīb. This paper aims to examine one of al-Baghawi’s skills in sanad collection which is the uluww al-isnād and nuzūl al-isnād, recorded from his two works Ma’ālim al-Tanzīl and Syarḥ al-Sunnah. The quantitative, qualitative and comparative approach has been used in this study to give an authentic description of the terms ‘uluww al-isnād, nuzūl al-isnād from al-Baghawi. Studies have found there are many examples of uluww al-Isnād and nuzūl al-isnāds contained in the patterns of al-Baghawi’s chain of narration towards the Ṣaḥīḥayn of al-Bukhari and Muslim as the mustakhrij (the validator of both).

Aliran Batiniah; Dulu dan Sekarang

Hasib, Kholili ( Dosen Institut Agama Islam Darullughah Wadda’wah Bangil )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (411.206 KB)

Abstract

Batiniah is a particular faith that believes the most important quality in everything spirituality (batin), not physically (zahir). Batin is the essence and nature (hakikat), whereas zahir is unreal sightings. This faith goes into several sects that form their own beliefs. Its influence gets into the sects of Shi’ism philosophy, Ibahiyah, and others. In it development of faith gives influence to the teaching of syncretism, pluralism, and abortion of beliefs to sharia obligations. Finally, some famous scholars paid attention to their teachings. For example Imam al-Ghazali who wrote a special note of criticism against this sect in his book Faḍāiḥ al-Bāṭiniyyah. He explained that the characteristics of Batiniah is to deny the literal meaning of the Qur’an and Hadith. In addition, Imam Abu al-Fadl Qadi Iyad, in al-Syifā bi Ta’r īfi Ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafa, explained that Batiniah, are those who believes that sharia and a large part of the message brought by the Prophets did not correspond to their inner meaning. This doctrine actually is a mixture of the teachings of Neo-Platonism, Aristotelian philosophy, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Islam. So that Batiniah can be said as the faith of syncretism comes into the sects of Islam. Although it has grown and divided since it’s beginning, the basic beliefs are still consistent, that the batin is real and zahir is not real. Thus it tends to trust dualism, the essentials of everything is batin, not the zahir.

Pengaruh Orientalis terhadap Liberalisasi Pemikiran Islam

Tammam, Abbas Mansur ( Program Pascasarja Universitas Ibn Khaldun Bogor )

KALIMAH Vol 14, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin, Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (329.737 KB)

Abstract

The liberalization of Islamic thought, which is considered and proclaimed as “renewal of Islamic thought,” did not come from the core concepts of Islam, it came from the outside of Islamic concepts (read: Western). Initially, the Western-Christian liberalism is an extension of the sophism, with ever implicated in Greece. Among the important figures is Heraclitus, Democritos and Protagoras. Although they received fierce opposition from Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, but liberalism got a new fresh air in the heyday of the Roman. This sophism trend, later gave birth to the relativism of truth, which is also the spirit of liberalism itself. Worse, liberalism was brought to Islam, the emergence of which can be traced to the Arabian Peninsula, Albania, and Syria. While in Egypt, Sultan Abdul Hamid II gave a note that a few Egyptian stunned with Western ideas, taking liberalism as a way of salvation. By using justifications of Qur’anic verses and hadiths, interpreted unilaterally, the liberalist thought was a tajdid to Islamic thought. The spirit (power) of liberalism is in the distribution process of using old methods, that is the tradition of orientalism, misionarism, and imperialism. The basis of liberalist support can be traced to some of the states concerned with it, such as the United States, Britain and France. Finally, this simple article will briefly try to uncover how this all happened.