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TSAQAFAH
Tsaqafah adalah jurnal peradaban islam yang diterbitkan oleh Lembaga Penelitian dan Publikasi Universitas Darussalam Gontor dua kali dalam setahun, sebagai sarana pengembangan etos ilmiah. Redaksi menerima artikel karangan ilmiah maupun hasil laporan penelitian yang sesuai dengan sifatnya sebagai jurnal Peradaban Islam.
Articles
155
Articles
Spiritual Healing dalam Tradisi Sufi

Arroisi, Jarman ( Universitas Darussalam Gontor, Ponorogo )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

In this modern era, some people are more often faced with the high social, economic, political, legal problems. As a result, difficult, anxious, and depression continue to overshadow, even inevitable sekes again. Various ways taken to reduce the burden, to healt of life. There are sports, yoga, going to clinic, alternative medicine, and others including counseling to a psychologist. Psychologists receive an order surge over this problem. But as its limitations, the problem never finished, even more so. This study is present to find out the failure of psychologists to solve problems and to find alternative solutions as models. The construction begins from a critical analytical to the human concept that psychologists believe. Then proceed by analyzing the pattern of overcoming the problem. On the basis of in-depth study, found that the psychologists inability is not due to his method, but rather his concept of an incomplete human being. According to him humans have two dimensions jismiyah and nafsiyah, without belief aspects of ruhiyah as its essence. This concepts have implications for counseling that do not touch the essence of the real problem. The psychologists point of view about human beings, and the pattern of unraveling such problems are different from those of the Sufis. To heal the mental healt, most of Sufis such as Robiah al-Adawiyah, Abi Yazid al-Bistami, al-Hallaj and al-Qushyairi prefer the spiritual approach as the therapist. With a spiritual approach, the core content untouched by psychologists has become the right momentum momentum. They can not only finish their souls, but more of that the benefits, even the tranquility and happiness of life.

Pemikiran Teodisi Said Nursi tentang Bencana Alam: Perpaduan Pemikiran al-Ghazali dan al-Rumi

Maftukhin, Maftukhin ( Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Tulungagung )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

This article explores Said Nursi’s concept of theodicy on natural disasters and human misery. The problem of natural disasters and human misery is one of the important themes in the Islamic debate where trust in the Almighty and Most Merciful God occupies a central position in the faith system. The theme is related to the concept of ‘God’s justice’. When Nursi raised the topic, it was known that Bediuzzaman Said Nursi was influenced by two great medieval Islamic thinkers, namely al-Ghazali and al-Rumi. These two thinkers had a major influence on Said Nursi’s thinking on the theodicy problem. Nursi explores natural disasters, misery and human suffering as a matter of theodicy. Nursi argued, it was through suffering that humanity underwent trials and tribulations. Natural disasters and misery that befall on humans are seen by Nursi as a test and trial for human beings. This article finds that Nursi was of the view that these trials and tests have a purpose as a means for developing the spiritual potential and to find a way toward God. Nursi’s point of view of the theodic problem of natural disasters and human misery has a close relationship with that of al-Ghazali and al-Rumi. If al-Ghazali emphasized the aspect of God’s omnipotence, al-Rumi built his teachings on the basis of love. But in Nursi’s hands these two thinkings can be properly combined.

Etika Politik dalam Perspektif al-Mawardi

Diana, Rashda ( Universitas Darussalam Gontor, Ponorogo ) , Masruri, Siswanto ( Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga, Yogyakarta ) , Surwandono, Surwandono ( Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

In this era, political ethics seems to be no longer valid, but it is almost disappeared. The reality shows that politics is a place for fighting of powers and interests, so that there is a general tendency to justify any means to achieve goals. Political pragmatism has corrupted the political ethics of politicians. One of them is money politics applied by many politicians which could not educate people and should become a bad example of politics. Actually, the politicians should be good examples for the people. Therefore, a politician must make political ethics a benchmark of orientation and a normative view to carry out dignified power. The authors tried to explain the thoughts of al-Mawardi, a Muslim thinker who discussed political ethics in depth in order to solve political problems faced by the people today, then the ethical and dignified Islamic politics could possibly be applied. The political ethics described and built by al-Mawardi is ideal rebuild a better political life. In his ethical concept, al-Mawardi always stressed the necessity of a ruler to always obey the ethical and moral values that have been explained in the Qur’an and Sunnah. So, al-Mawardi tried to provide a solution to fix the condition of the people as well as to maintain political stability.

‘Irfâniy as Epistemology Method Sufism Based on Conscience

Prasetyo, Yogi ( University of Muhammadiyah Ponorogo ) , Absori, Absori ( University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

This article aims to explain ‘irfâniy as a method for human beings to acquire knowledge through the intuition of conscience as did the Sufis through the path of Sufism in the teachings of Islam. Man as a battle creature given the highest degree by God, in addition to the sense and sense, also given the conscience to feel things that are not real in concrete and something that is outside the logic. ‘Irfâniy as a method of knowledge epistemology can lead man to a spiritual life close to God. The inner nature of the knowledge of ‘irfâniy has led man to an immaterial life which is sublime in the true life of the world. The path of Sufism’s life which is done by the ‘irfâniy method is able to place the life of ma‘rifat for man, that is, the highest level of life associated with a very close relationship with God. There are several steps that must be taken by humans to achieve ‘irfâniy knowledge, starting from the preparation stage, acceptance, formation and disclosure. Therefore, the subjective nature of ‘irfâniy knowledge, then the quality of knowledge depends on the human ability to perform by the mind. ‘Irfâniy as a form of human inner knowledge is influenced by the empirical and logical experience and spiritual life of the deity of man, so that knowledge ‘irfâniy is direct, whole, fixed and comprehensive. Humans with ‘irfâniy method can reach God truth that is absolute and essential.

Konsep Fitrah dalam Psikologi Islam

Al Afify, Muhammad Faiz ( Pondok Pesantren Modern Darussalam, Bandung Barat )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

Human beings and the complexity they have will never run out to be studied and discussed. So, one of interesting topics of psychology to discuss is concept of ‘fitrah’. The most essential identity of human beings is ‘fitrah’. This issue is more interesting if it is viewed through two perspectives: modern psychology and Islamic psychology. Both kinds of psychology have denied each other. The basis of modern psychology which is separated from element of divinity, makes the conception of ‘fitrah’ dichotomist-secularistic, this is the opposite of Islamic psychology. According to Islam, human beings consist of bodies and rûḥ. Obviously, the two aspects have a specific purpose. At least, Allah states that the purpose of human creation consists of two things, worshipping Him and becoming His khalîfah on this earth. So, the paradigm of Islamic psychology is absolutely related to the element of divinity. God remains the highest subject and influences the paradigm of Islamic psychology which is being tawḥîdiy. For various natural structures they have and the purpose of their creation, human beings are considered to have goodness potency and could do good things. However, external influences still allow them to do evil doings or bad things. This paper discusses this concept of ‘fitrah’ using Islam as a paradigm. The author tries to explain the concept of man as a creature created by fitrah, its physical and psychological structure, and the purpose of human creation and its implications for the psychology paradigm of Islam.

Spiritualitas Sosial Tarekat Naqsabandiyah: Kajian terhadap Prinsip Khalwat Dar Anjuman

Abdullah, Fuady

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

When looking at the teachings of sufism, the journey to seek spirituality is often colored by reproducing dzikr and doing seclusion. This gives the view that the spirituality in sufism rely heavily on individualism and the release of any social bonds. Hence, followers of sufism should put a distance between them and their surrounding community and even their family to avoid negative influences during their self-purification. From here, a later view emerges that the teachings of sufism tend to be distant and indifferent to any social, cultural, economic, and political issues and do not have a positive contribution to the welfare of society. This vie w is not in accordance with the views of some followers of sufism. This view can be refuted by proposing one of the main concepts in the Naqshbaniyyah order, namely the principle of khalwat dar anjuman (seclusion in the crowd). By examining some of the writings that became the reference of this order to understand its meaning, it can be found that the concept is interpreted in various ways and has a wide spectrum of applications. From the watchfulness of dzikr which signifies the pressence of the heart with God even when in crowded places until the obligation of a sufi to interact actively with his society. Spirituality and social activism are not contradictory, but they fill and support each other. It can be seen later that this teaching can offer a concept to be a model of social spiritual life that is compatible to be applied in modern times to achieve and maintain one’s spirituality and at the same time to contribute to the benefit of those around him.

Keterasingan Manusia menurut Karl Marx

Marandika, Derajat Fitra ( Institut Pemikiran Islam & Pembangunan Insan (PIMPIN), Bandung )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

Alienation is one of the important concepts of Karl Marx in criticizing capitalism. Marx wanted to create a classless socialist society by the alienation concept. Actually, the concept has captivated various groups, including a number of Muslim thinkers. They use Marxism as a theoretical framework to solve people’s problems today. According to them, Islamic theoretical framework is being irrelevant to solve contemporary problems. In fact, both capitalism and Marx’s socialism were born out of a secular Western paradigm which contradict the principles of Islamic teachings. Muslims must be critical and beware toward the concepts or ideas of Marxism. A Muslim should understand and believe that the best way to solve the problems is not to rely on Marxism, but by understanding and practicing Islamic teachings consistently and comprehensively. Muslims should view the reality integrally with tawhîd framework. It means they should not view the reality secularly or in dichotomy, or deny divine values, or separate two things which are interconnected. The teachings of Marxism regarding alienation refer to the construction of thoughts which are reductionist, atheistic, and contain contradictions that cannot be justified by common sense. Marx’s conception stands on the materialism-dialectics principle. So that, this paper will discuss it further to reveals how the framework of Marxism concerning human alienation. Then, it can be clear description how extent its relevance toward Islamic Worldview.

Pengembangan Al-Ghazali’s Sufism Happiness Inventory (ASHI):Sebuah Pengukuran Kebahagiaan Sufi

Marwing, Arman ( Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Tulungagung )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

Happiness is the universal concept that is widely studied in psychology based on the perspective and value of Western society by using a variety of selfreport methods. But, there is still a limited number of research trying to present and develop the concept of happiness of Eastern society who are noted with spiritual aspects, particulary the sufis. This article is a study about Al-Ghazali’s Sufism Happiness Inventory (ASHI), which is a measure of valid and reliable happiness for Sufis aged 20-60 years. It was piloted project and developed to measure four happiness aspects i.e. consciousness of self, consciousness of Allah, consciousness of the world, and consciousness of the hereafter. The result of validity test obtained by 30 respondents confirmed ASHI’s poin validity and r value (Corrected Item-Total Correlation) was 0,361-0,646 with 27 valid items. Futhermore, The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was 0,837, which confirmed the scale’s internal consistency reliability. Therefore, ASHI could be used to measure the effect of psychoterapy and its influence to happiness of sufi.

شهود الأحدية عند ابن عطاء الله؛ مفهومها ولواحقها ودورها في تأسيس ميتافيزيقا العلوم الكونية

Mudin, Moh Isom ( Universitas Darussalam Gontor, Ponorogo )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

This paper will analyse the concept of “Syuhûd al-Aḥadiyah” according to Ibn Athaillah al-Sakandary and its urgency as a basic assumption of Islamic science. The background of this paper starts from a problem of modern western science which is not value-free as it holds metaphysical assumptions that are not suitable with Islamic worldview. The author will use the philosophical approach of SMN. al-Attas, that he offers the structure of Sufi`s metaphysics as a basis for Islamic science. Then, “Syuhûd al-Aḥadiyah” can replace the metaphysical structure of modern science. According to Ibn Athaillah, the Sufis who have reached the degree of makrifat will witness to the absolute oneness of Allah SWT, and it will have implications for the view of reality, both absolute reality that God has, and the relative reality that nature has. This nature comes from nothing, and then it exists through the ‘îjâd’ process. Furthermore, it also exists by the ‘intervention of God’, namely ‘imdâd’ process. This nature is also a manifestation of God’s attributes. This Sufi metaphysical view is very important to be used as a part of the basic assumption of Islamic science vis a vis modern science that it views the nature as independent, eternal, self-governing, and has no relation to reality or it considered as the only reality. This assumption has its implications for the positive method which considers experimentation as the only method of attaining the truth. Therefore, the discussion of the relationship of “Syuhûd al-Ah adiyah” finds its urgency as the basic assumption of Islamic science.

Analisis Hubungan Islam, Spritualitas, dan Perubahan Sosial

Indra, Indra ( Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Sumatera Utara )

TSAQAFAH Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Islam and Spirituality
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

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Abstract

Modernization has brought changes in all fields, including social field. Mankind cannot avoid the changes brought by this modernization, whether the changes are positive or negative. The problem is that the negative impacts have reduced Muslims spirituality. Modern life makes Muslims far from their religion or God. In addition, social relations between humans become loosened, and brotherhood between them fades. Modernization has indeed created a crisis of the meaning of life, spiritual emptiness, and the exclusion of religion in human life. Religion is only placed in private life and may not enter public spaces. In fact, spiritual life is believed to be able to bring and control the pattern of one’s life in a good direction. The value of spirituality is proven to be a weapon in dealing with this change, as well as a modifying factor. In Islam, the doctrine of morals (akhlâq) is a reflection of the concept of spirituality. Morals (akhlâq) are the essence of Islam and becoming medium of achieving happiness. This article will discuss the issues between the relationship, influence, and the role of religious spiritual life in social change.