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The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research
Published by Universitas Brawijaya
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Core Subject : Science,
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Articles 154 Documents
Characteristic of New Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent: Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husks under Base Treated Condition Putri, Afrida Kurnia; Ding, Wang-Hsien; Kuo, Han-Wen
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.100

Abstract

A characterization of activated carbon (ACs) prepared from rice husks (RHs) under base treated condition as a new sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) to extract 4-nonylphenol isomers (4-NPs) in water samples has been done. The ACs prepared from RHs usually exhibits low specific surface area due to its high ash content, but in case of its application for SPE, there are other factors need to be considered, such as the existence of functional groups inside the sorbent, that can enhance interaction of non-polar sorbent with analyte in the water matrices. In this case, silanol groups from ash content may affect the extraction efficiency for 4-NPs. The ACs made from RHs were chemically impregnated with ZnCl2 and carbonized at 800oC. To investigate the role of silica, three types of ACs were prepared, i.e., untreated ACs (AC–Si, contain silica), base treated ACs (AC–B–Si, remain some silica inside), and ACs made by base treated RHs (AC–B, no silica), the surface area obtained from these treatments were 1352 m2/g, 1666 m2/g, and 1712m2/g respectively.  ACs made by base treatment has the highest surface area (related to BET), which indicat that silica removal process promotes the formation of open pore system on ACs and enhances the surface area of ACs. However, extraction efficiency measured by GC-MS in SPE process showed the reversal trends (i.e., AC–Si= 32.08%, AC–B–Si= 82.63%, AC–B=51.78%), among them the AC–B–Si sorbent reveal the best performance in SPE process. It is indicated that although silica usually exhibits low specific surface area, but control presence of silica as a polar functional group has a positive influence in the interaction between non-polar sorbent and 4-NPs.
Study of Ascorbic Acid as Iron(III) Reducing Agent for Spectrophotometric Iron Speciation Elmagirbi, Antesar; Sulistyarti, Hermin; Atikah, Atikah
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.101

Abstract

The study of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for iron(III) has been investigated in order to obtain an alternative carcinogenic reducing agent, hydroxylamine, used in spectrophotometric standard method based on the formation of a red-orange complex of Fe(II)-o-phenanthroline. The study was optimised with regards to ascorbic acid concentration as well as pH solution. The results showed that ascorbic acid showed maximum capacity as reducing agent of iron(III) under concentration of 4.46.10-4 M and pH solution of 1-4.Under these conditions, ascorbic acid reduced iron(III) proportionally and performed similarly to that of hydroxylamine.  The method gave result to linear calibration over the range of 0.2-2 mg/L withhigh accuracy of 97 % and relative standard deviation of less than 2 %. This method was successfully applied to assay iron speciation in water samples.
The Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of the Light and Heavy Tar Resulted from Coconut Shell Pyrolysis Hasanah, Uswatun; Setiaji, Bambang; Triyono, Triyono; Anwar, Chairil
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.102

Abstract

The tar resulted from pyrolysis of coconut shell is a waste. It is important to be clarified their chemical composition and physical properties in order to find out their feasibility as source of a fuel. This research was resulted two immiscible organic fractions, and these were further determined their physical properties such as water composition by using ASTM D-95 methods, ash composition (ASTM D-482), flash point C.O.C (ASTM D-92), kinematics of viscosity (ASTM D-445), and caloric valued using bomb calorimetric. In addition, tar composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The result provided oil which was categorized as light and heavy bio-oils. The light bio-oil has specific gravity 0.99, ash content 0.01%, kinematics viscosity 25.5 cSt, flash point <27 oC, pH 3 and heating value 10304 kcal/kg. On the other hand, heavy bio- oils gave specific gravity 1.13, ash 0.46%, kinematics viscosity 185 cSt, flash point 134 oC, pH 2.5 and heating value 6210 kcal/kg. Moreover, the light bio-oil contained 79 compounds which was composed of phenol 16.4%, hydrocarbon 12.4%, phenolic 27.6%, other oxygenated compounds 53.6%, and acetic acid 3%, meanwhile the heavy bio-oils contained of 18 compounds which was consisted of phenol 31.2%, lauric acid 6.0%, phenolic 27.6%, and other oxygenated compounds 35.3%, respectively. With this result, it was clarify that these bio-oils could not be used directly as a fuel for motor nor diesel machinery.
Ozone Determination: A Comparison of Quantitative Analysis Methods Tjahjanto, Rachmat Triandi; Galuh R., Dhesy; Wardhani, Sri
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.103

Abstract

A comparison of ozone quantitative analysis methods by using spectrophotometric and volumetric method has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine the better method by considering the effect of reagent concentration and volume on the measured ozone concentration. Ozone which was analyzed in this research was synthesized from air, then it is used to ozonize methyl orange and potassium iodide solutions at different concentration and volume. Ozonation was held for 20 minutes with 363 mL/minutes air flow rates. The concentrations of ozonized methyl orange and potassium iodide solutions was analyzed by spectrophotometric and volumetric method, respectively. The result of this research shows that concentration and volume of reagent having an effect on the measured ozone concentration. Based on the results of both methods, it can be concluded that volumetric method is better than spectrophotometric method.
The Coated-Wire Ion Selective Electrode (CWISE) of Chromate Using PVC-Membrane Based on Chitosan as A Carrier Kurniasih, Dedeh; Atikah, Atikah; Sulistyarti, Hermin
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.104

Abstract

A coated-wire ion selective electrode (CWISE) based on chitosan as a carrier for detection of chromate, was developed. CWISE has easy measurement for field analysis, good selectivity and sensitivity. The CWISE’s membrane consist of mixture an active material of chitosan, aliquat 336-chromate, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and dioctylphtalate (DOP) as plasticizer = 4:0.5:35:60.5 (% w/w) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent (1:3 w/v). The electrode exhibited a good Nernstian slope of 29.77±0.03 mV/decade and a linear concentration range from 10-6 to 10-1 M for chromate. The limit of detection was 1.862 x 10-6 M. It had response time of 20 – 40 sec, and could be used for 49 days. This chromate selective-electrode was found more selective towards the chromate ion than other anions, useable in pH range of 5.0 – 9.0 and temperature of 20 – 50 oC. It was applied as an electrode for direct determination of chromate in water samples and their result compared to standard spectrophotometric method.
The Effect of Carbon Organic Total and Salinity on The Discharge of Heavy Metals Pb and Cu in Lapindo Mud into The Aloo River Juniawan, Alvin; Rumhayati, Barlah; Ismuyanto, Bambang
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.105

Abstract

The research attempts to examine the effect of waters salinity and carbon organic total in the Lapindo Mud on the fluctuation of heavy metals Cu and Pb in the waters of Aloo Rivers. Sample is taken from Lapindo Mud from four different locations. Result of the characterization of Lapindo Mud shows that the clay and dust contents are 34-35 % and 39-46 %. Lapindo Mud texture is clay loam. The organic matter in Lapindo Mud is not surely increasing the concentration of heavy metal because there is oxide compound with great contribution to the increase of heavy metal concentration in Lapindo Mud. Result of TOC analysis indicates that the organic carbon ranges from 54.7 % to 55.47 %, Pb rate ranges from 0.27-0.34 mg/L, and Cu rate ranges from 0.83-1.31 mg/L. Indeed, Pb has higher metal flux in salt water at AL from 5x10-5 mg/cm2.hour to 9x10-5 mg/cm2.hour. Cu has higher metal flux in freshwater at SA1 2.3x10-6mg/cm2.hour to 8.71x10-5mg/cm2.hour
Renewable Oil Extracted from Indonesian Srikaya’s (Annona squamosa sp.) Seed: Another Potent Source for Biodiesel Masruri, Masruri; Sharma, Mukesh; Warsito, Warsito; Adi, Prasetyo
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2012.001.01.106

Abstract

This study looks at the wastes derived from Indonesian fruit as prospect for biofuels. This report investigates the chemical composition of Srikaya (Annona squamosal sp.) seed, which is disposed as waste products from traditional markets. The seeds were extracted with various extraction methods and the oil obtained was analysed by means of gas chromatography (GC/FID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), infra-red spectrometry and ultra-violet-visible spectrometry. It was found 2 h extraction using soxhlet apparatus with diethyl ether as solvent gave the optimum time extraction. Moreover, five major components were isolated from i.e.: ethyl hexadecanoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, ethyl octadecanoate, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl hexadecanoate, octadec-9-enaldehyde, and unknown compound, respectively.
Production and Characterization of Bacillus firmus pectinase Roosdiana, Anna; Prasetyawan, Sasangka; Mahdi, Chanif; Sutrisno, Sutrisno
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2013.002.01.111

Abstract

Pectinase is enzyme which functions to hydrolyze pectin become D-galacturonic acid unit. This enzyme is potential in various industries, especially in fruit juice industry.  Pectinase can be derived from various microorganisms resulting in different pectinase character. The aims of this research were to determine the optimum condition of pectinase production and to characterize the resulted pectinase including optimum condition of pectinase activity and the influence of metal ion.  The optimum condition of pectinase production was carried out by growing Bacillus firmus on basal media containing pectin as inducer at various  pH (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) oC and fermentation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36) hours. while the optimum pectinase activity was done at various pH ( 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 ), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) oC and reaction time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) minutes. The influence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ at 2-10 mM to pectinase activity were also investigated. The result showed that optimum condition of pectinase production occurred at pH7-8, temperature 40-50 oC and fermentation time 18hours, while the optimum condition of pectinase activity was pH 7, temperature 50 oC and reaction time 30 minutes. The existence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ ions  affected significantly to pectinase activity.  Mg2+ acted as non competitive inhibitor; however K+ and Zn2+ acted as un competitive inhibitor.
Synthesis Organonitrogen Compounds from Patchouli Alcohol Through Ritter Reaction with Acetonitrile and Its Toxicity to Artemia salina Leach. Nisyak, Khoirun; Rahman, Mohammad Farid; Sutrisno, Sutrisno
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2013.002.01.113

Abstract

Patchouli oil contains a compound with biological activities to human body called the patchouli alcohol that can be further developed in medical field. This research aimed to synthesize organonitrogen compound from patchouli alcohol through Ritter reaction with acetonitrile and discover its toxicity towards Artemia salina Leach. The isolation of patchouli alcohol from patchouli oil using fractional distillation under reduced pressure method. The synthesis of organonitrogen compound is done at room temperature with the mol ratio of patchouli alcohol: acetonitrile: sulfuric acid is 1:1,5:4 for 24 hours. The result showed that the amount of patchouli alcohol produced from fractional distillation is 65,25%. The main product yielded from the synthesis between patchouli alcohol and acetonitrile through Ritter reaction is 36,93 % of N-(4,8a,9,9-tetramethyl decahydro-1,6-methanonaphtalene-1-yl) acetamide. Starting material used have LC50 of 77,39 ppm. The product of synthesis have higher toxicity level than starting material, which have LC50 value is 10,39 ppm with the potential as medical compounds.
Extraction of Pb2+ using Silica from Rice Husks Ash (RHA) – Chitosan as Solid Phase Widwiastuti, Hanandayu; Mulyasuryani, Ani; Sabarudin, Akhmad
The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jpacr.2013.002.01.114

Abstract

The existence of lead (Pb) compounds in waters can be caused of waste pollution from industrial activities such as dye and battery industries. Lead has toxic characteristic and is able to causing deseases. The levels of Cr(VI) can be decreased by methods such as electroplating, oxidation, reduction, and membrane separation. But this methods require high cost and produce a lot of waste. Furthermore, those methods cannot determine the small concentration of Pb2+. Therefore, solid phase extraction is used because it’s a simple method and can be used to preconcentrate Pb2+ ion.The aim of this study is to create solid phase from nature material as an alternative method to determine Pb2+ in water samples. The solid phase is silica from rice husks ash (RHA) that was modified using chitosan. To achieve that aim, the optimization of silica : chitosan composition was done. The influence of Pb2+ concentration and citric acid concentration was studied to obtain optimum recovery of Pb2+. Interaction between Pb2+ ion and solid phase silica – chitosan could be estimated based on the result.The result showed the optimum composition of silica : chitosan is 65% silica : 35% chitosan with Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) 0.00455 mek/g. Mass Adsorbed Pb2+for 1 g silica : chitosan 65% is 9.715 mg/g. Optimum recovery of Pb2+ on solid phase extraction is reached at concentration of Pb2+ 10 ppm and citric acid concentration 0.05 M (88.25 % and 81.18 %). This result showed that solid phase extraction using silica – chitosan can be used as an alternative method to determine Pb2+ in water.

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