Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : 20878273     EISSN : 24606278
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture (JITAA) is a double blind peer-reviewed publication devoted to disseminate all information contributing to the understanding and development of animal agriculture in the tropics by publication of original research papers
Articles 443 Documents
Polymorphism identification of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase1 gene and its correlation with fat content of Saanen goat Darmoatmodjo, L. M. Y. D.; Widodo, W.; Asmara, W.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 43, No 3 (2018): September
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.43.3.211-217

Abstract

Gene markers are often usefull for selection process of cattle on commercial certain phenotypes. Saanen goat has predominance in milk production traits. Milk fat content is one of the commercial traits of milk production. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) gene was involved in the final process of triglyceride synthesis and associated with milk fat content. Single nucleotide subtitution or insertion-deletion in certain sequence of DGAT1 gene could be gene markers for milk fat content. The objective of this study was to identify differences variation in milk fat content among individual Saanen goats, to identify exon 14-16 polymorphism of DGAT1 gene and to examine its correlation between polymorphism and milk fat content on Saanen goats. The methodologies was collection blood and milk samples, DNA isolation from blood, amplification of DGAT1 genes, sequencing, detection of polymorphism of exon 14-16 DGAT1 gene with Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), and examination milk quality on three lactation months using Lactoscan. The average of daily milk production from 70 Saanen goat was 2340±709 mL, 1880±632 mL, 1432±536 mL and average of milk fat content was 3.07±0.52%, 2.53±0.55%, 3.00±0.55% for the first, second and third months of lactation, respectively. The amplicon size of exon 14-16 of DGAT1 gene was ± 350 bp and showed monomorphic pattern from PCR-SSCP. Variation of milk fat content on Saanen goats not caused by polymorphism of exon 14-16 DGAT1 gene.
ANALYSIS OF PIG PROFILES ON SMALL-SCALE PIG FARMERS IN MANOKWARI-WEST PAPUA Iyai, D.A.; Rahayu, B.W.I.; Sumpe, I.; Saragih, D.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 36, No 3 (2011): (September)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.36.3.190-197

Abstract

This study was aimed to determine the profiles of pig farming systems. Participatory situationanalysis was employed to gain data relating to pig profiles in the urban and rural areas of Manokwari.Due to the interests of combining many correlated data, multivariate analysis using Principal ComponentAnalysis (PCA) was performed. Cluster Analysis using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering wasapplied for analysis of merge samples based on similarity in components’ composition across sites.There were various twelve classes of pig profiles in Manokwari. In principal component of the first axiscorrelation of several components shows strong positive relation e.g. in piglets, sows, and total herd size.Status of region in the first axis of PCA (P1) through which pigs were raised had negative correlation,including grower, household member and pig production. In the second axis (P2), negative correlationswere shown in piglets, grower, boars, total herd size and the Pig Production Potential (PPP). Status ofregion has underpinned profiles of pigs. Several farmers were able to manage their farm continuity in asteady composition. Selling pigs was the main aim and few farmers play a role as pure breeder.
AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA Hartono, S.; Widayati, T.W.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 36, No 3 (2011): (September)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.36.3.198-204

Abstract

The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef selfsufficiencyin West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productivecows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari,Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample wasbased on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (<1) year old; one to two (1-2)years old, and more than two (>2) years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data camefrom the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts inWest Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM)and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in WestPapua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull inthe previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with theassumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must beprovided in the previous two (2) years.
EFFECT OF SAPONIN AS DEFAUNATING AGENT ON IN VITRO RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FORAGE AND CONCENTRATE Hanim, C.; Yusiati, L.M.; Alim, S.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 4 (2009): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.34.4.231-235

Abstract

nin level in fermentation medium (0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg/ml), and many kinds of feed (king grass,rice bran, and king grass:rice bran, 60:40 w/w) on protozoa numbers, ammonia concentration, microbialprotein, pH and cellullase activity. Each treatment was consisted of three replicates. Fermentation wasdone in syringe and used in vitro gas production medium. The data obtained were analyzed by varianceanalysis using factorial design (4x3). The differences between mean values were analyzed by Duncan’snew multiple range test (DMRT). The result showed that protozoa numbers decreased 17.22, 42.73 and49.57% (P<0.01) for 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/ml saponin, respectively from 8.19×103/ml in the control. Theaddition of 0.1 mg/l saponin increased ammonia concentration from 33.04 mg/100 ml (without saponin)to 37.12 mg/100 ml (P<0,01), whereas the addition of 0.2 and 0.3 mg/ml saponin decreased ammoniaconcentrations by 1.69 and 16.50% (P<0.01) compared to the control. Microbial protein, cellullaseactivity and pH were not affected neither by saponin nor kind of feed. Protozoal numbers and ammoniaconcentration in the rumen were lower (P<0.01) with king grass as substrat than that with rice bran, orking grass: rice bran. In general, no interactions between saponin and kind of feed were observed, exceptfor ammonia concentration. It can be concluded that level of 0.2 mg/ml saponin have antimicrobialproperties, particularly in suppressing protozoa, which may prove beneficial to ruminal fermentation andmay lead to lower ruminal ammonia concentration, but it did not have negative effect on pH, microbialprotein and cellullase activity. King grass as a substrate decreases protozoa numbers and ammoniaconcentration.
UTILISING Zn AND Cu PRODUCT IN THE CORN MEAL SUBSTRATE AT Saccharomyces cerevisiae BIOPROCESS AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION ON INTERNAL QUALITY OF BROILER Widjastuti, T.; Abun, A.; Destian, A.; Darana, S.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 4 (2009): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.34.4.236-240

Abstract

This research was conducted to find out the effect and optimal percentage of adding Zn and Cuproteinat supplement product of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the ration on internalquality of the broiler. The experiment used 125 broiler day old chicken with a Completely RandomizedDesign. The ration treatments were R0 (control), R1 (99% R0 + 1% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat), R2(98% R0 + 2% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat), R3 (97% R0 + 3% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat) andR4 (96% R0 + 4% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat) where each treatment was repeated five times andeach replication consisted of five broiler chicks. Variable analysis were body cut weight, carcasspercentage, liver relative weight, and the content of cholesterol broiler meat. Conclusion of the researchshowed that by using 3% of Zn and Cu proteinat supplement substrat in the ration gave the best internalquality of broiler, increased body cut weight, carcass percentage, otherwise liver relative weight and thecontent of cholesterol broiler meat were normal.
THE USE OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN IDENTIFYING AND INTEGRATING VARIABLES RELATED TO FORAGE QUALITY AND METHANE PRODUCTION Jayanegara, A.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Becker, K.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 4 (2009): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.34.4.241-247

Abstract

This research was aimed to explore the use of multivariate statistics i.e. principal componentanalysis (PCA) in identifying and integrating variables related to forage quality and ruminal methaneproduction, and in classifying forage species into both characteristics. Seventeen plants were used as adatabase for the above mentioned purposes. Plant samples were determined for their chemicalcomposition, cumulative gas production (represents the nutrient degradation) and methane productionafter 24 hours of fermentation period using the Hohenheim gas test. The results showed that the PCAcould clearly identify factors related to forage quality and methane production and separated them intodifferent principal components (PC). The obtained PC1 was related to methane production andsubstantially influenced positively by crude protein, NDF, ADF (positive), total phenols, total tannins,condensed tannins and tannin activity (negative). On the other hand, the obtained PC2 was related tocumulative gas production (forage quality) and substantially influenced by crude protein (positive),NDF, ADF and condensed tannins (negative). Classification and screening of forages that have highquality and low methane production are possible using the PCA technique. Rhenum undulatum,Peltiphyllum peltatum and Rhus typhina were found to have such desired characteristics.
PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PERFOMANCES OF ACIDIFIED FISH MEAL MADE BY DIPPING INTO EXTRACT SOLUTION OF SAUERKRAUT Sulistiyanto, B.; Nugroho, K.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 4 (2009): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.34.4.248-252

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of soaking time into extract solution ofSauerkraut on physic and microbial performances of acidified fish meal. Sauerkraut extract (LPS'ssollution) was made by fermentation of wastes vegetable market for 6 days. The LPS-extract was used toacidify " ikan rucah" by the method of dipping for 0, 4 and 8 hours. Changes in pH, the total number ofbacteria, fungi and proteolytic bacteria, moisture content, odor, colour and texture were parametersobserved. Results of experiment showed that total bacteria, fungi and proteolytic bacteria of acidifiedfish meal significantly influenced by soaking time (p <0.05). No significantly effect was shown to thephysically performance. LPS-extract in the soaking effectively reduced content of total bacteria, fungiand proteolytic's bacteria in fish meal.
AMINO ACID PROFILE OF EARTHWORM AND EARTHWORM MEAL (Lumbricus rubellus) FOR ANIMAL FEEDSTUFF Istiqomah, L.; Sofyan, A.; Damayanti, E.; Julendra, H.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 4 (2009): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.34.4.253-257

Abstract

Earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) has become one of natural material that could be used asfeed additive. Powdering method of earthworm was done by using formic acid addition. The study wascarried out (1) to evaluate the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal, (2) tocalculate the value of essential amino acid index (EAAI) of both materials. A modified EAAI equationwas developed from the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal. The resultshowed that essential amino acid of earthworm was dominated by histidine (0.63% of dry matter basis),meanwhile the earthworm meal was dominated by isoleucine (1.98% of dry matter basis). The nonessential amino acid of earthworm and earthworm meal was dominated by glutamic acid (1.52% and3.60% of dry matter basis respectively). The value of essential amino acid index obtained fromearthworm meal was higher (58.67%) than those from earthworm (21.23%). It is concluded thatpowdering method of earthworm by using formic acid addition had higher amino acid balance thanearthworm.
IN VITRO FERMENTABILITY, DEGRADABILITY AND MICROBIAL BIOMASS PRODUCT OF COMPLETE RATION CONTAINING A COMBINATION OF FIELD GRASS, CONCENTRATE AND NUTRIENT RICH SUPPLEMENT Wahyuni, D.S.; Tjakradidjaja, A.S.; Suharyono, S.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 4 (2009): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The objective of this experiment was to obtain an optimum combination between field grass,concentrate and Nutrient Rich Supplement (NRS) based on in vitro study using Hohenheim gas test. Theexperimental diets were: R1 (control diet = 70% field grass + 30% concentrate), R2 (70% field grass +25% concentrate + 5% NRS), R3 (70% field grass + 20% concentrate + 10% NRS) and R4 (70% fieldgrass + 15% concentrate + 15% NRS). A randomized block design with four treatments and fourreplications was carried out. Buffalo rumen fluid was taken in different time and was used as block orreplication. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Significant differences amongtreatments were determined by contrast orthogonal. The results showed that total gas production andtotal VFA concentration were highest (P&lt;0.05) in R4 among the treatments. Addition of 15% NRS incomplete ration (R4) increased NH3 concentration 10.34%. Addition of 10% NRS and 15% NRS incomplete ration (R3 and R4) improved the microbial biomass product compared to control and 5% NRSin complete ration (R1 and R2). Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradability weresignificantly higher (P&lt;0.01) in 10% NRS and 5% NRS in complete ration (R3 and R2) compared tocontrol and 15% NRS in complete ration (R1 and R4). It was concluded that combination between 70%field grass, 20% concentrate and 10% NRS in complete ration (R3) was more optimal for improving gasproduction, total VFA, NH3 concentration, microbial biomass product, dry matter degradability andorganic matter degradability, compared to control ration.
PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE INTRACELLULER PHYTASE FROM RECOMBINANT BACTERIA pEAS1AMP Nuhriawangsa, A.M.P.; Bachruddin, Z.; Sajidan, S.; Wibowo, A.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 4 (2009): (December)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.34.4.265-271

Abstract

This research was aimed at producing a crude intracellular phytase characterized from recombinantbacteria. The recombinant bacteria (pEAS1AMP) was produced by way of transforming pET-22b(+)+pEAS1 into competent E. coli BL21 and E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Crude intracellular phytaseproduction was induced using 1,5 mM Isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranosid (IPTG). Recombinantbacteria product and enzyme activity test followed the Sajidan method. E. coli BL21(+)pEAS1 and E.coli BL21 (DE3)(+)pEAS1 recombinant bacteria showed growth after 20 hours and 10 hours oftransformation. Phytase activity of E. coli BL21 (DE3)(+)+pEAS1 showed higher than those of E. coliBL21(+)+pEAS1. Crude intracellular phytase of pEAS1AMP recombinant bacteria has an optimumactivity at pH 5, 40oC, incubation period of 60 minutes, substrate concentration of 2%, molecular weight(MW) of 47.3 kDa, Km = 15.91 υM and Vm = 2.41 υM/second. Mg2+ acts as a cofactor but Fe3+ (10-4M) acts as an inhibitor.

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