cover
Contact Name
Ahmadi Riyanto
Contact Email
medpub@litbang.deptan.go.id
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
ahmadi_puslitbangnak@yahoo.com
Editorial Address
-
Location
Kota bogor,
Jawa barat
INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
ISSN : 08537380     EISSN : 2252696X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
JITV (Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science),  ISSN: 0853-7380 E-ISSN: 2252-696X is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal published by Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD). The aim of this journal is to publish high-quality articles dedicated to all aspects of the latest outstanding developments in the field of animal and veterinary science. It was first published in 1995. The journal has been registered in the CrossRef system with Digital Object Identifier (DOI) prefix 10.14334.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 17 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 3, No 4 (1998)" : 17 Documents clear
Productivity of prolific sheep : Economic analysis Inounu, I.; Soedjana, T.D.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (941.614 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.120

Abstract

The existence of major gene in the Indonesian sheep breeds has been revealed in three different genotypes which are further implied that different levels of feeding and management are necessary to realize the potential benefits for each genotype . The variability in the ewe production as a result of the differences in genotype and management levels were then evaluated by economic analysis . The result shows that improvement in management practices resulted in an increase of production ofindividual breeding ewe (BS). However, since these increases in performance required additional cost for higher input value, as it was indicated in the total production cost, attention must be given toward the decision as to which genotype to raise at what level of feeding management . This study has shown promising results to facilitate the decision makers in that direction, for example, ewes with FecJFFecJ` genotype gained the highest gross margin when they were treated with high level of feeding management. The next best alternative was followed by FecJ FFecJ F genotype. Furthermore, in the situation where low level of feeding management being practiced, ewes carrying the FecJF gene did not show their superiority since they gained lower gross margin compared with the non-carrier ewes. Key words : Prolific sheep, gross margin
The effect of fermentor temperatures and moisture content of substrate on the nutritive value of fermented palm oil sludge Sinurat, A.P.; Purwadaria, T.; Rosida, J.; Surachman, H.; Hamid, H.; Kompiang, P.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (139.387 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.121

Abstract

A series of experiment was designed in order to improve the nutritive value of palm oil sludge (POS) through fermentation. POS was fermented in a fermentor chamber with different temperatures (28 and 32oC) and initial moisture content of the substrate (50,55 and 60%). The nutrient content (crude protein, true protein, in vitro- dry matter and protein digestibility and crude fibre) of the fermented products were evaluated at different stages of the fermentation, i.e.: before incubated (F0), 3 d after aerobic incubation (F3) and 2 d anaerobic incubation after F3 (EN). Cellulase and mannanase activity of the EN products were also measured before and after dried at 60oC. Fermentation at 32oC produced better product (higher nutritive values), although the in vitro dry matter digestibility was not affected by the temperatures. All parameters measured were not significantly influenced by the initial moisture content of the substrate. The nutritive value of unincubated POS (F0) was significantly poorer than the F3 and EN and there was no different in nutrient value between F3 and EN. Soluble nitrogen and in vitro dry matter digestibility were not significantly affected by the stages of the fermentation. Mannanase activity in the EN product was significantly higher when the fermentation was performed at 32oC than those at 28oC and the enzyme activity was reduced after dried (320.7 vs 201.8 U/g DM). The cellulase activity of the fresh/wet fermented product produced at 28oC was significantly higher than those produced at 32oC, but the reverse was occurred in the dry products. It is concluded that fermentation process of palm oil sludge at 32oC and initial moisture content of 50-60% produced better (in vitro) nutritive value. Key words: Palm oil sludge, fermentation, nutritive value
The correlation between mannanase and cellulase activities towards fibre content of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger Purwadaria, T.; Sinurat, A.P.; Haryati, T.; Sutikno, I.; ., Supriyati; Dharma, J.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (769.186 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.122

Abstract

Enzyme (mannanase and cellulase) activities and fibre (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) contents were determined during the fermentation course of palm oil sludge with Aspergillus niger TL (wild type) and A. niger ES I (an asporogenous mutant). The analyses were carried out at the incubation time of 3 and 4 days of aerobic fennentation and at 2 days of anaerobic fermentation afterward. The correlations between mamlanase activity with hemicellulose content and cellulose activity with cellulose content were calculated by linear regression . The activities of matutanase and cellulase are increasing during the aerobic fennentation, while in the anaerobic fennentation the enzyme activities are decreasing due to instability of the enzymes. The enzyme activities of ESI are higher than the TL. The regression coefficient is highly significant for correlation between mamlanase and hemicellulose content of fermented product by ESI (r = 0.83; P<0.01) . While other correlations are not statistically significant (P>0 .05) . Marutanase and cellulase activities were also detected after the fermented product dried at 60°C which indicated the enzymes are quite stable . Key words: Palm oil sludge, fermentation, cellulase, mamlanase, cellulose, hemicellulose, Aspergillus niger
Improving the nutritive value of palm oil sludge by fermentation : The effect of fungi strain, environmental temperature and enzymatic process Pasaribu, T.; Sinurat, A.P.; Purwadaria, T.; ., Supriyati; Rosida, J.; Hamid, H.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.653 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.123

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to improve the nutritive value of palm oil sludge (POS) by fermentation process. Aspergillus niger BPT and NRRL 337 were used into fermenting POS for three days and followed by anaerobic enzymatic process. The experiment was arranged in 2x3 factorial design i.e., enzymatic incubation time (2, 3, and 4 days) and environmental temperature during enzymatic process (room temperature and 40°C). Changes on chemical compositions (crude protein, true protein, ADF and NDF), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and protein digestibility (IVPD) were measured. The results showed that both A. niger BPT and NRRL 337 grew well on POS media with the best result at 3 days. The fermentation process by both strains increased crude protein and true protein of POS. The A. niger NRRL reduced the fiber content (ADF and NDF) more than A. niger BPT the IVDMD and IVPD were not significantly affected by fermentation process without enzymatic process. The IVDMD increased significantly when the fermentation followed by enzymatic process. Overall results showed that the best fermentation of POS was obtained by using A. niger NRRL followed by enzymatic process in room temperature for two days. Key words : Palm oil sludge, fermentation, nutritive value
Protective antibody titre against Newcastle disease in ostriches (Struthio camelus) ., Darminto; Bahri, Sjamsul; Suryana, N.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (160.691 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.124

Abstract

The aim of this study was to define an estimated antibody titre which was considered to be protective against Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection in ostriches. Eighteen young ostriches of 4 days of age were divided into two groups each containing 9 birds. The first group was unvaccinated and the second group was vaccinated against ND virus twice at 4 and 14 days of age. Antibody titres were monitored at 1, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 85 days of age by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. All birds were then challenged with a velogenic strain of ND virus, Ita strain, at 42 days of age. The excretion of the challenge virus were monitored daily after challenge up to the end of this experiment. Several organs such as brain, trachea, lungs and spleen were collected from died birds for re-isolation of the challenged virus. Results indicated that all unvaccinated birds succumbed to the challenged virus, except one bird that survived challenged. In contrast to the unvaccinated birds, all vaccinated birds survived challenged, except two birds with low antibody titres succumbed challenged. All birds with antibody titres of 4 (HI-log2) or greater survived challenged. All challenged birds excreted the challenged virus through out their oropharyngs. Moreover, challenged virus can be successfully re-isolated from most organs of the died birds. This study concludes that : (a) the estimated protective titre against ND in ostriches is 4 (HI-log2), (b) the immune status for ostrich with antibody titre less the 4 (HI-log2) could not be defined, and (c) vaccination against Newcastle disease in ostriches could successfully prevent birds from sick and died of ND, but unable to prevent virus infection and unable to stop carrier status after infection. Key words : Newcastle disease, ostrich, antibody, protective titre
Pathogenicity of local isolates of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serotypes 1, 2, 6, ! 1, 12, and type N in mice and pigs Chotiah, Siti
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (740.36 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.125

Abstract

Six local isolates of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae of serotypes 1, 2, 6, 11, 12 ; ?,.;d type N isolated from the tonsil of healthy pigs at Kapuk, Jakarta, slaughter house were examined for their pathgb-;ucity for mice and pigs . Forty-two groups of mice, each contains ten mice and twenty-one pigs divided into seven groups were used as experimental animals. Isolates of serotype 1, 2, 6, 11, 12, and type N were pathogen for rnil.e with LDSO of 10", 102.", 10°6 ,103.° , 10 32 and 105A colony forming unit (C .F .U .), respectively. All (100%) pigs inoculated with isolate of serotype 1 and 33.3% pig inoculated with isolate of serotype 2 were induced general urticarial lesions with depression, anorexia and followed by death. One of three (33.3%) pig inoculated with isolate of serotype 6 was induced generalized urticarial lesions without any other clinical signs. Isolates of serotype 6, 11, 12, and type N were capable of inducing localized urticarial lesions in two out ~f three (66.7%), all (100%), two out of three (66.7° n all (100%) pigs, respectively . All pigs in control uninoculated Key words : Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, pathogenicity, mice, pigs
The study of the pathogenicity of Brucella suis field isolate and transmission ability from pig to human Sudibyo, Agus
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (159.569 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.126

Abstract

The aim of this work was to study the pathogenicity of Brucella suis field isolate and its ability to transmit the disease from pig to human. The transmission ability of field isolate of B. suis was studied by using 4 brucellosis negative pigs which were put together with one of the artificially infected pig. The transmission ability of the diseases from pig to human was carried out by collecting blood samples from pigs and from the workers of pig farms and abattoir and tested them with the Rose Bengal Plate Test. The result indicated that field isolate of B. suis biotype 1 was pathogenic for pigs with the ID50 of 500 CFU. The infection was widely distributed into several organs or lymphnodes such as retropharingeal, submaxillaris, femoralis, suprascapularis, supramamaria and the spleen. The transmission of brucellosis from artificially infected pigs to negative pig in the group occurred between 4-6 weeks after they were put together. Brucellosis in the pigs was transmittable and causing brucellosis to workers of pig farms and abattoir. Key words : Brucella suis, pathogenicity, transmission, pig, human
The mucosal and systemic immune responses in chickens orally immunised with Campylobacter jejuni antigen entrapped in poly-lactide-co-glycolide microparticles Noor, Susan Maphilindawati
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (157.249 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.127

Abstract

An oral immunisation in chickens with antigen entrapping in biodegradable microparticles was evaluated in order to achieve optimal antibody responses following oral vaccination. This study was adapted to Campylobacter jejuni antigen in chickens to observe its stimulation both mucosal and systemic immune responses. A group of 5 embryonated chicken eggs was immunised with heat-killed C. jejuni entrapped in poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles at day 17 of incubation deposited into the amniotic fluid. Seven days after hatching the chickens were oral boostered, these was design to as Group A. In the Group B, each embryonated egg was immunised with soluble C. jejuni as in the same as Group A. Immune responses of post vaccination were observed at day-14, the humoral immunity was evaluated with an ELISA and whereas mucosal antibody response was detected by fluorescent histology. The serum IgG and IgA antibody responses, and also the bile and intestinal scrapping IgA antibody responses to campylobacter in Group A were significantly higher than those of the soluble antigen of Group B (P<0.05). Total number of immunoglobulin-containing cells for IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes in the ileum in Group A chickens were also significantly higher than those of Group B (P<0.05) but was not in the duodenum and spleen. Key words : Campylobacter jejuni, poly-lactide-co-glycolide microparticles, oral immunisation, chickens
The development of an “in vivo assay technique” as a tool for measuring protective immune responses of vaccine against myiasis in sheep Partoutomo, S.; ., Sukarsih; Satria, E.; Eisemann, C.H.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.807 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.128

Abstract

An “in vivo assay technique” is urgently needed for measuring protective immune effects of a myiasis vaccine in sheep. Such a technique is being developed simultaneously with the development of a vaccine against myiasis caused by the screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana under a collaborative project undertaken by Balitvet, ITB and CSIRO (Australia) and funded by ACIAR. Experiments were conducted in naive sheep. C. bezziana larvae were allowed to develop on abraded skin in aluminium rings which had been attached to the sheep by means of a glue (Aibon) on the day prior to infection. Rings were arranged on clipped areas close to the mid line of the sheep’s back, two rings on the right side and two rings on the left. Four trials were performed, involving studies on the effects of including wet sponges in the rings to maintain humidity (Trial 1); the effects of sponge and blended meat as counting and transferring media during infection (Trial 2); the effects of the repellants citronella, eucalyptus oil and neem extract in assisting the recovery of larvae (Trial 3); and the effects of the reducing the infective dose from 50 to 25 1st instar larvae/ring and using a fine brush for counting and transferring larvae instead of using a forceps as in the previous groups (Trial 4) on the larval recovery rates (LRR). The results indicated that the inclusion of wet sponges in the rings, the use of sponge and blended meat as counting and transferring media during infection, and the application of repellants all increased the LRR to some extent; however, variations among individual rings remained high. On the other hand, the reduction of infective dose of larvae from 50 to 25 1st instar larvae/ring and using a fine brush for counting and transferring larvae sharply increased the LRR while substantially decreasing the coefficient variations. Key words : Myiasis, Chrysomya bezziana, larval recovery rate
Anthelmintic effect of Zingiber purpureum infuse and extract on adult worms of Haemonchus contortus in vitro ., Beriajaya; Murtiadi, T.B.; Herawaty, Murti
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (151.719 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i4.129

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine anthelmintic effect of “bangle” (Zingiber purpureum) on adult worms of Haemonchus contortus in vitro. Bangle were washed and cut into small pieces, and then put into oven with temperature of not more than 50oC for 4 days. Furthermore, it was grained with a mesh of 0.75 mm into a form of powder. Infuse was made by mixing a powder of “bangle” with 100 ml distill water on beaker glass and then heat on water bath for 30 minutes at temperature of 90oC. It was made at a concentration (w/v) of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Extract was made by percolation with methanol until filtrate produced, and this filtrate was condensed with rotapavor at 48oC with rotated at 200 rpm. Extract were made into a concentration (w/v) of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%. Ten adult worms of H. contortus in Petri-dish were dipped with infuse or extract at each concentration with 5 replication. Observations were made every 30 minutes for a period of 6 hours to determine whether the adult worms were still alive or death. Faeces from donor of sheep artificially infected with H. contortus were cultured in vermiculite with infuse or extract used to keep humidity. Each treatment was repeated 5 times. Observations were made at the end of experiment to calculate on the total number infective larvae. The results showed that infuse or extract of “bangle” have anthelmintic effect on H. contortus. The form of extract showed a better effect compared with infuse at a concentration of 0.5% and 2.5% respectively. The increase of concentration will result in a better effect. Key words : Haemonchus contortus, Zingiber purpureum, “bangle”

Page 1 of 2 | Total Record : 17


Filter by Year

1998 1998


Filter By Issues
All Issue Vol 24, No 3 (2019): SEPTEMBER 2019 Vol 24, No 2 (2019): JUNE 2019 Vol 24, No 2 (2019): JUNE 2019 Vol 24, No 1 (2019): MARCH 2019 Vol 23, No 4 (2018): DECEMBER 2018 Vol 23, No 3 (2018): SEPTEMBER 2018 Vol 23, No 2 (2018): JUNE 2018 Vol 23, No 1 (2018): MARCH 2018 Vol 22, No 4 (2017): DECEMBER 2017 Vol 22, No 3 (2017): SEPTEMBER 2017 Vol 22, No 2 (2017): JUNE 2017 Vol 22, No 1 (2017): MARCH 2017 Vol 21, No 4 (2016): DECEMBER 2016 Vol 21, No 3 (2016): SEPTEMBER 2016 Vol 21, No 2 (2016): JUNE 2016 Vol 21, No 1 (2016): MARCH 2016 Vol 20, No 4 (2015): DECEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 3 (2015): SEPTEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 2 (2015): JUNE 2015 Vol 20, No 1 (2015): MARCH 2015 Vol 20, No 4 (2015): DECEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 3 (2015): SEPTEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 2 (2015): JUNE 2015 Vol 20, No 1 (2015): MARCH 2015 Vol 20, No 1 (2015) Vol 19, No 3 (2014): SEPTEMBER 2014 Vol 19, No 2 (2014): JUNE 2014 Vol 19, No 4 (2014): DECEMBER 2014 Vol 19, No 4 (2014) Vol 19, No 3 (2014): SEPTEMBER 2014 Vol 19, No 3 (2014) Vol 19, No 2 (2014): JUNE 2014 Vol 19, No 2 (2014) Vol 19, No 1 (2014): MARCH 2014 Vol 19, No 1 (2014) Vol 18, No 4 (2013): DECEMBER 2013 Vol 18, No 4 (2013) Vol 18, No 3 (2013): SEPTEMBER 2013 Vol 18, No 3 (2013) Vol 18, No 2 (2013): JUNE 2013 Vol 18, No 2 (2013) Vol 18, No 1 (2013): MARCH 2013 Vol 18, No 1 (2013) Vol 17, No 4 (2012): DECEMBER 2012 Vol 17, No 4 (2012) Vol 17, No 3 (2012): SEPTEMBER 2012 Vol 17, No 3 (2012) Vol 17, No 2 (2012): JUNE 2012 Vol 17, No 2 (2012) Vol 17, No 1 (2012): MARCH 2012 Vol 17, No 1 (2012) Vol 16, No 4 (2011): DECEMBER 2011 Vol 16, No 4 (2011) Vol 16, No 3 (2011): SEPTEMBER 2011 Vol 16, No 3 (2011) Vol 16, No 2 (2011): JUNE 2011 Vol 16, No 2 (2011) Vol 16, No 1 (2011): MARCH 2011 Vol 16, No 1 (2011) Vol 15, No 4 (2010): DECEMBER 2010 Vol 15, No 4 (2010) Vol 15, No 3 (2010): SEPTEMBER 2010 Vol 15, No 3 (2010) Vol 15, No 2 (2010): JUNE 2010 Vol 15, No 2 (2010) Vol 15, No 1 (2010): MARCH 2010 Vol 15, No 1 (2010) Vol 14, No 4 (2009): DECEMBER 2009 Vol 14, No 4 (2009) Vol 14, No 3 (2009): SEPTEMBER 2009 Vol 14, No 3 (2009) Vol 14, No 2 (2009): JUNE 2009 Vol 14, No 2 (2009) Vol 14, No 1 (2009): MARCH 2009 Vol 14, No 1 (2009) Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008 Vol 13, No 4 (2008) Vol 13, No 3 (2008): SEPTEMBER 2008 Vol 13, No 3 (2008) Vol 13, No 2 (2008): JUNE 2008 Vol 13, No 2 (2008) Vol 13, No 1 (2008): MARCH 2008 Vol 13, No 1 (2008) Vol 12, No 4 (2007): DECEMBER 2007 Vol 12, No 4 (2007) Vol 12, No 3 (2007): SEPTEMBER 2007 Vol 12, No 3 (2007) Vol 12, No 2 (2007): JUNE 2007 Vol 12, No 2 (2007) Vol 12, No 1 (2007): MARCH 2007 Vol 12, No 1 (2007) Vol 11, No 4 (2006): DECEMBER 2006 Vol 11, No 4 (2006) Vol 11, No 3 (2006): SEPTEMBER 2006 Vol 11, No 3 (2006) Vol 11, No 2 (2006): JUNE 2006 Vol 11, No 2 (2006) Vol 11, No 1 (2006) Vol 10, No 4 (2005): DECEMBER 2005 Vol 10, No 4 (2005): DECEMBER 2005 Vol 10, No 4 (2005) Vol 10, No 3 (2005): SEPTEMBER 2005 Vol 10, No 3 (2005) Vol 10, No 2 (2005): JUNE 2005 Vol 10, No 2 (2005) Vol 10, No 1 (2005): MARCH 2005 Vol 10, No 1 (2005) Vol 9, No 4 (2004): DECEMBER 2004 Vol 9, No 4 (2004) Vol 9, No 3 (2004): SEPTEMBER 2004 Vol 9, No 3 (2004) Vol 9, No 2 (2004): JUNE 2004 Vol 9, No 2 (2004) Vol 9, No 1 (2004): MARCH 2004 Vol 9, No 1 (2004) Vol 8, No 4 (2003): DECEMBER 2003 Vol 8, No 4 (2003) Vol 8, No 3 (2003): SEPTEMBER 2003 Vol 8, No 3 (2003) Vol 8, No 2 (2003): JUNE 2003 Vol 8, No 2 (2003) Vol 8, No 1 (2003): MARCH 2003 Vol 8, No 1 (2003) Vol 7, No 4 (2002): DECEMBER 2002 Vol 7, No 4 (2002) Vol 7, No 3 (2002): SEPTEMBER 2002 Vol 7, No 3 (2002) Vol 7, No 2 (2002): JUNE 2002 Vol 7, No 2 (2002) Vol 7, No 1 (2002): MARCH 2002 Vol 7, No 1 (2002) Vol 6, No 4 (2001): DECEMBER 2001 Vol 6, No 2 (2001): JUNE 2001 Vol 6, No 1 (2001): MARCH 2001 Vol 6, No 4 (2001): DECEMBER 2001 Vol 6, No 4 (2001) Vol 6, No 3 (2001): SEPTEMBER 2001 Vol 6, No 3 (2001) Vol 6, No 2 (2001): JUNE 2001 Vol 6, No 2 (2001) Vol 6, No 1 (2001): MARCH 2001 Vol 6, No 1 (2001) Vol 5, No 4 (2000): DECEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 3 (2000): SEPTEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 2 (2000): JUNE 2000 Vol 5, No 1 (2000): MARCH 2000 Vol 5, No 4 (2000): DECEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 4 (2000) Vol 5, No 3 (2000): SEPTEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 3 (2000) Vol 5, No 2 (2000): JUNE 2000 Vol 5, No 2 (2000) Vol 5, No 1 (2000): MARCH 2000 Vol 5, No 1 (2000) Vol 4, No 4 (1999): DECEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 3 (1999): SEPTEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 2 (1999): JUNE 1999 Vol 4, No 1 (1999): MARCH 1999 Vol 4, No 4 (1999): DECEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 4 (1999) Vol 4, No 3 (1999): SEPTEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 3 (1999) Vol 4, No 2 (1999): JUNE 1999 Vol 4, No 2 (1999) Vol 4, No 1 (1999): MARCH 1999 Vol 4, No 1 (1999) Vol 3, No 4 (1998) Vol 3, No 3 (1998) Vol 3, No 2 (1998) Vol 3, No 1 (1998) Vol 2, No 4 (1998) Vol 3, No 4 (1998) Vol 3, No 3 (1998) Vol 3, No 2 (1998) Vol 3, No 1 (1998) Vol 2, No 4 (1998) Vol 2, No 3 (1997) Vol 2, No 3 (1997) Vol 2, No 2 (1996) Vol 2, No 1 (1996) Vol 2, No 2 (1996) Vol 2, No 1 (1996) Vol 1, No 3 (1995) Vol 1, No 2 (1995) Vol 1, No 1 (1995) Vol 1, No 3 (1995) Vol 1, No 2 (1995) Vol 1, No 1 (1995) More Issue