cover
Contact Name
Ahmadi Riyanto
Contact Email
medpub@litbang.deptan.go.id
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
ahmadi_puslitbangnak@yahoo.com
Editorial Address
-
Location
Kota bogor,
Jawa barat
INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
ISSN : 08537380     EISSN : 2252696X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
JITV (Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science),  ISSN: 0853-7380 E-ISSN: 2252-696X is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal published by Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD). The aim of this journal is to publish high-quality articles dedicated to all aspects of the latest outstanding developments in the field of animal and veterinary science. It was first published in 1995. The journal has been registered in the CrossRef system with Digital Object Identifier (DOI) prefix 10.14334.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 10 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008" : 10 Documents clear
Degradability of mulberry (Morus alba) and rice bran in the rumen of sheep fed different diets Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z.A; Liang, J.B
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (157.052 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.570

Abstract

The experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of dry matter (DM) and protein of mulberry and rice bran when incubated in nylon bag in the rumen at different incubation times and different rumen environments of rumen-cannulated adult sheep. Three different rumen conditions were created by feeding the three rumen-cannulated sheep with urea-treated rice straw as basal diet and offered with three supplemental treatment diets on different source of energy and nitrogen. Mulberry, urea and rice bran were used as source of fermentable energy and protein. Treatments consisted of control diet mulberry and molasses (T0); 50% mulberry was replaced by rice bran and urea (T1); and 100% of mulberry was replaced with rice bran and urea (T2). The diets were formulated in iso protein and iso energy. Supplemental diets were offered at 1.2% BW. The study was conducted in three periods. For each period, the sheep was offered with one of three supplemental treatment diets. The nylon bags each, contains sample of either mulberrry or rice bran were incubated in the rumen of sheep at different incubation times in reverse order (48, 24, 12, 9, 6, and 3h). Degradation characteristic data were obtained by analyzing degradability data with the equation of p = a+b(1-e-ct) using Neway computer package. Data of degradation characteristic, degradability of DM and CP, DMI, rumen NH3-N and pH were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a SAS software package. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI) and rumen pH were not significantly different between diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than that of T0. However, the rumen ammonia concentration was higher than that of critical value for rumen microbial synthesis (>5mg/100ml). The rate (c value) of DM degradability of mulberry and rice bran was affected by diet treaments, where T2 diet resulted in lower c of mulberry and rice bran. Only CP degradability of mulberry on the other hand was affected by diet treatments. But, both CP mulberry and rice bran had high degradability (>80% after 24 hs incubation) in all diet treatments. It is concluded that the three diets of this study were capable of creating the optimum condition for rumen fermentation. Supplementation of mulberry or urea-rice bran mixture had similar effect on protein degradability of rice bran. On the other hand, the rate of protein degradability of mulberry was reduced when it was incubated in the rumen of sheep fed urea rice bran mix supplement.       Key Words: Mulberry, Rice Bran, Rumen Degradability, Sheep
Genetic diversity of Lombok chickens based on D-loop mitochondrial DNA sequences Arifin Zein, M. Syamsul; Sulandari, Sri
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (65.558 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.575

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement (D)-loop sequences were used to study the genetic diversity and relationship of Lombok chickens. A total of 45 individuals were sampled. The D-loop segment was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences of the 785 nucleotides were used for analysis. Twelve haplotypes were identified from 25 polymorphic sites with polymorphism between nucleotides 200 and 400 contributing to 80% of the variation. Fu’s Fs value was - 8.768 (all samples, P = 0), indicating high genetic diversity and population expansion, a conclusion supported by a neighbor– joining analysis of the haplotypes. Nucleotides diversity of the Lombok chicken were 0.00221 and haplotype diversity were 0.654 + 0.08. The dominant haplotype found among the Lombok chickens was haplotype B (62%) and genetic distances value ranged from 0.001 to 0.017.     Key Words: Mtdna, D-Loop, Genetic Diversity, Haplotype, Lombok Chicken
Acetoanaerobium noterae bacteria addition in the diet on methane production and performance of sheep Thalib, Amlius; Widiawati, Yeni
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (120.535 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.571

Abstract

A study on utilization of Acetoanaerobium noterae to decrease enteric methane production through feeding trial using sheep has been conducted. Animals used were young, male composite breed sheep with an initial liveweight of 19.1 kg. Twenty four animals were randomly distributed into 3 groups of dietary treatment and each group consisted of 8 animals. The diet fed to the animals were elephant grass (ad libitum) and the commercial concentrate containing 16% crude protein (200 g head–1 day–1). The treatments were (I). Control (K); (II). K + Cultural Preparate of A. noterae (SKAn); and (III). K + SKAn + Aksapon SR (as defaunator). Feeding trials was conducted for 12 weeks. The measurements observed were feed consumption, body weight gain, dry matter digestibility, rumen ecosystem, and enteric methane production. In vivo dry matter digestibility was measured by collecting the faeces and urine of the animals kept in metabolism cages for 7 days effective period. The results showed that effectivity of A. noterae action as methanogenesis inhibitor was improved when it was combined with defaunator. Compared to control treatment, the treatments of SKAn with and without Aksapon SR could significantly improve (P<0.05) daily gain (increased by 21 and 32%); feed conversion ratio (decreased by 20 and 26%); enteric methane production (decreased by 15 and 20%); and the effect of SKAn on percentage composition of acetic acid in the rumen was obvious when the SKAn was combined with Aksapon SR. It is concluded that SKAn with and without Aksapon SR can be used as methanogenesis inhibitor on ruminant animals.   Kata Kunci: Acetoanaerobium noterae, Methane, Methanogenesis Inhibitor, Sheep
Efficacy of concentration of egg yolk in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma on frozen semen quality of Saanen bucks Tambing, Surya Natal; Sutama, I-K; Sariubang, M
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (65.991 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.576

Abstract

Bucks semen is easily damaged compared to bull semen during cryopreservation process. Consequently, frozen semen quality decrease especially motility, live sperm, intact plasma membrane, and intact acrosomal cap after thawing. Objectives of this research was to evaluate the effect of egg yolk concentration in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma in maintaing frozen semen quality of Saanen buck. Four heads of Saanen buck of 2-4 years old were used in this experiment. Semen was collected once a week using artificial vagina. Experimental design applied was factorial complete random desing 2x2, viz. A factor was seminal plasma (A1 = with seminal plasma and A2 = without seminal plasma), and B factor was concentration of egg yolk (B1 = 10% and B2 = 20%). Duncan test were applied to identity differences between treatment. Result of these study indicated that the mean percentage of motility (M), live sperm (LS), sperm with intact plasma membrane (IPM) and intact acrosomal cap (IAC) after dilution and equilibration were not significantly different (P>0.05) in all treatment. After thawing, the mean percentage of M, LS sperm with IPM and IAC in A1 treatment (41.43, 51.52, 56.63 and 50.35% respectively) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than A2 treatment (37.14; 48.67; 52.31 and 45.09% respectively). Likewise, the mean percentage of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC in B2 treatment (41.79; 51.32; 55.78 and 49.50% respectively) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than B1 treatment (36.79, 48.86; 53.16 and 45.94% respectively). There were a significant interaction between factors of seminal plasma and concentration egg yolk in Tris extender, where the increase of egg yolk concentration from 10% to 20% in unwashed seminal plasma treatment caused increase in percentages of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC. On the other hand in washed seminal plasma treatment there were a trend of decreasing frozen semen quality. It is concluded that the combination of 20% egg yolk in Tris extender with seminal plasma is effective in maintaining frozen semen quality of Saanen bucks. Key Words: Saanen Bucks, Semen Quality, Egg Yolk, Seminal Plasma
Comparison of external genetic of Wareng and Kampung Chicken, observed from introgression rate and genetic variability Sartika, T; Wati, D.K; Iman Rahayu, H.S; Iskandar, S
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (145.18 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.572

Abstract

Wareng and Kampung chicken are Indonesian native chicken that have good potential to be dual purpose chicken. Information on these chickens has not hast’n widely published so that their genetic potential is unknown. The purpose of this  research is to collect basic data of the external genetic characteristic from Wareng and Kampung chickens consisting feather color, feather pattern, feather feature, feather shine, shank color and comb shape; to identify rate of introgression imported breed (Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn and Barred Plymouth Rock), the purity and genetic variability of Wareng and Kampung chickens. This study was carried out at the Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor. Materials used were 361 of Wareng chickens (313 females, 48 males) and 439 of Kampung chickens (352 females, 87 males). Data were analyzed using formulas to identify gene frequency, rate of introgression of purity native gene frequency and the genetic variability. The result showed that the control of gene constitution on external characteristic of Wareng chicken was I_ E_ bb S_ Id_ pp and ii e+ _bb ss idid pp on Kampung chicken. Wareng chicken own constitution of gene the same as with White Leghorn (II EE SS BB IdId pp). Wareng Chicken is not containing frequency of original gene of Indonesian local chicken (Kampung). The level of influence value (rate of introgression) from Europe and American chicken for Wareng chicken was of equal to 84% and 25% to Kampung chicken. So that the purity for Wareng chicken was 16% and 75% was for Kampung chicken. The variability genetic of Kampung chickens (39%) higher than Wareng chicken (16%).     Key Words: Wareng Chicken, Kampung Chicken, External Genetic, Introgression Rate
Evaluation of group of Alpinia galanga n-hexane-Extract against Candida albicans by bioautography and thin layer chromatography Kusumaningtyas, Eni; Sukmawati, Lusi; Astuti, Estie
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (163.492 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.577

Abstract

Alpinia galanga has been used for centuries as a remedy for human diseases because it contains of therapeutic compounds. The objectives of this study was to define groups of the antifungal compounds of Alpinia galangal n-hexane-extract. Alpinia galanga was extracted by maceration method and the compounds were analyzed by phytochemical analysis. The extract was run on the thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate silica gel GF254 with dichloromethane and toluene. Bioautography was conducted to determine antifungal compounds against Candida albicans. Active compounds on the previous step were identified by running extract on TLC plate and sprayed with Vanilin sulphuric acid and Liebermann-Burchard I. The results of phytochemical analysis showed that Alpinia galanga n-hexane-extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoid, tannins and aromatic oil. Bioautogram revealed that there was one inhibition zone against Candida albicans. The active compounds in the inhibition zone were in Rf value 0.75 and 0.89. One out of the two compounds was identified as a compound from terpenoid group.     Key Words: Compound, Extract, Alpinia galanga, Candida albicans
Physico-chemical properties and metabolizable energi value of protein concentrate from palm kernel meal in broiler. Ramli, Nahrowi; ., Yatno; Hasjmy, A.D; ., Sumiati; ., Rismawati; Estiana, R
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (57.759 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.568

Abstract

Protein concentrate from palm kernel meal (BIS PRO) was produced using combination method of grinding and ethanol extraction. The experiment was conducted to evaluate physico-chemical properties and metabolizable energy value of BIS PRO in broiler. The metabolizable energy experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design using 19 broilers Ross strain with average body weight of 1.79 ± 0.11 kg. The treatment diets were: R1(90 % basal diet + 10% palm kernel meal), R2 (90% basal diet + 10% BIS PRO) and R3 (90% basal diet + 10% soybean meal).The result showed that BIS PRO had higher specific density (0.723 g/ml), compacted specific density (0.885 g/ml), specific gravity (1.596 g/ml), and angle of repose (28.320) compared to those of palm kernel meal and soybean meal. Total solubility of BIS PRO (70.22%) were higher than that of the others. BIS PRO had metabolizable energy of 1.94 – 2.66 time higher compared to metabolizable energy of palm kernel meal, but there was no difference compared to metabolizable energy of soybean meal. It is concluded that BIS PRO has physicochemical properties and metabolizable value better than that of palm kernel meal and were equal to that of soybean meal.   Key Words: Physico-Chemical Characteristics, Protein Concentrate, Palm Kernel Meal, Metabolizable Energy, Broiler
Effect of isoflavone-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn) and vitamin E in the ration on testosterone level and total permatogenic cell in seminiferous tubules of rat ., Astuti; Muchtadi, D; Astawan, M; Purwantara, B; Wresdiyati, T
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (246.724 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.573

Abstract

The objective of this experiment are to evaluate the effects of isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn) and vitamin E on testosterone level of male rats and total spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of rat testes as animal model. Diet was given as isonitrogen and isocaloric with 15% of dietary protein. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups and treated with isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E in different combination. Isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour (3mg/day) was given by oral administration, whereas Zn and vitamin E were mixed wih the basic diet. The treatment was done for 2 month. Results indicated that complete treatment of isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E on male rats increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells in comparison with single treatment and the other combination. The best results showed in the group that given isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour with diet containing both Zn and vitamin E i.e; testosteron level 3.49 ± 0.31 ng/ml; while the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids, and total spermatogenic cells were 37.56 ± 4.48, 67 ± 4.72, 287.11 ± 31.75, 227.22 ± 29.78, and 618.89 ± 47.38, respectively. It was concluded that synergic interaction between isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells of rat testes.       Key Words: Isoflavone-Riched Soybean Flour, Zn, Vitamin E, Testosterone, Spermatogenic Cells
Response of sheep to supplementation of Probio-catalytic in the diets Haryanto, B; ., Supriyati; Jarmani, S.N
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (72.861 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.569

Abstract

biotic and catalytic supplement, on the productive performances of sheep fed Pennisetum purpuphoides (King grass). The concentrate was made of rice bran, molasses-coated palm kernel cake, minerals and salt. Probio-catalytic supplements were added either at 0.5% or 1.0% of the concentrate. The probiotic in the probio-catalytic supplements was either Probion (produced by Balitnak) and assigned as probio-catalytic supplement A, or a mixture of rumen microbes of buffaloes which was assigned as probio-catalytic B. The catalytic supplement consisted of gelatinized sago, Zn, Co, urea and sulfur. Twenty heads of male young sheep with an average liveweight of 18.8 ± 1.7 kg were divided into 4 groups based on the bodyweight and allocated to 5 feeding treatments. The treatments were (1) Control (without probio-catalytic supplement), (2) R1 addition of probio-catalytic supplement A at 0.5%, (3) R2 addition of probio-catalytic supplement A at 1.0%, (4) R3 addition of probio-catalytic supplement B at 0.5%, and (5) R4 addition of probio-catalytic supplement B at 1.0%. The experiment was carried out by a randomized block design. A four-week adaptation period was then followed by a 12-week feed intake data collection and growth trial. An intake and digestibility study of the feed was carried out for 7 days. Rumen fluids were taken for analysis of pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids and microbial population. Results indicated a significantly greater weight gain in the group received R1 than that of the other treatments. Feed dry matter intakes were less in the groups supplemented with probio-catalytic resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. The pH and concentration of ammonia of rumen fluid were not significantly different among treatments. While the acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were not different among treatments, the butyric acid was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the groups received R3 and R4, whereas those received R2 and R3 was not significantly different than that of the control group. The molar proportion of volatile fatty acid components was within the normal values. Based on the results of the present experiment, it was concluded that addition of probio-catalytic supplement A at 0.5% was advantageous and it could be suggested to be included in the diet to improve the productive performance of sheep.     Key Words: Probio-Catalytic Supplement, Productive Performance, Sheep
Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences Sulandari, Sri; Arifin Zein, M. Syamsul; Sartika, Tike
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (219.112 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i4.574

Abstract

The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced for a total of 335 individuals from Indonesian native chicken. The individuals were drawn from sixteen populations of native chicken and three individuals of green jungle fowls (Gallus varius). Indonesian native chicken populations were: Pelung Sembawa, PL (n = 18), Pelung Cianjur, PLC (n = 29) and Arab Silver, ARS (n=30), Cemani, CM (n = 32), Gaok, GA (n = 7), Kedu Hitam, KDH (n = 11), Wareng, T & TW (n = 10), Cemani, CMP (n = 2), Kedu, KD (n=26), Kedu Putih, KDP (n = 15), Sentul Jatiwangi, STJ (n = 27), Ayam Kate, KT (n = 29), Ayam Sentul, STC (n = 15), Arab Golden, ARG (n = 26), Ayam Merawang, MR (n = 28), Kedu Putih Jatiwangi, KDPJ (n=6) and Kapas, KPS (n = 21). Green jungle fowls were: two individuals from Flores island (FL5 and FL57) and one individual (BD42) from Sumbawa island. The sequences of the first 530 nucleotides were used for analysis. Eighty two haplotypes were identified from 78 polymorphic sites for the 335 individuals. Seventy nine haplotypes were identified in native chicken from 57 polymorphic sites while three were of jungle fowls. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian native chicken can be grouped into five clades (Clade I, II, IIIc, IIId and IV) of the previously identified seven clades (Clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId and IV) in Asian domestic chicken. Haplotypes CM10 and CM32 fall to a different category while STC12 is also on its own. Interestingly STC12 clusters together with Gallus gallus gallus (GenBank accession No. SULANDARI et al. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences 296 AB007720). When CM10 (same as CM14), CM32 and STC12 were removed, 77 haplotypes of domestic chicken were identified from 53 polymorphic sites. All the green jungle fowls are clustered to one clade of their own. The clades of domestic chicken are: Clade I which has three haplotypes, Clade II has 52 haplotypes, Clade IIIc has one haplotype (represented by ARS30), Clade IIId has nine haplotypes while Clade IV has eleven haplotypes. The phylogenetic relationship between chicken populations has no link to the geographic locations. Analysis of molecular variance showed that the genetic variation within populations was 67.42% while 32.58% accounted for the genetic differentiation between populations. Key Words: Native Chiken, Green Jungle Fowls, D-Loop DNA Mitochondria, HV-1, Clade, Haplotype, Phylogenetic, Genetic Variation

Page 1 of 1 | Total Record : 10


Filter by Year

2008 2008


Filter By Issues
All Issue Vol 24, No 3 (2019): SEPTEMBER 2019 Vol 24, No 2 (2019): JUNE 2019 Vol 24, No 2 (2019): JUNE 2019 Vol 24, No 1 (2019): MARCH 2019 Vol 23, No 4 (2018): DECEMBER 2018 Vol 23, No 3 (2018): SEPTEMBER 2018 Vol 23, No 2 (2018): JUNE 2018 Vol 23, No 1 (2018): MARCH 2018 Vol 22, No 4 (2017): DECEMBER 2017 Vol 22, No 3 (2017): SEPTEMBER 2017 Vol 22, No 2 (2017): JUNE 2017 Vol 22, No 1 (2017): MARCH 2017 Vol 21, No 4 (2016): DECEMBER 2016 Vol 21, No 3 (2016): SEPTEMBER 2016 Vol 21, No 2 (2016): JUNE 2016 Vol 21, No 1 (2016): MARCH 2016 Vol 20, No 4 (2015): DECEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 3 (2015): SEPTEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 2 (2015): JUNE 2015 Vol 20, No 1 (2015): MARCH 2015 Vol 20, No 4 (2015): DECEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 3 (2015): SEPTEMBER 2015 Vol 20, No 2 (2015): JUNE 2015 Vol 20, No 1 (2015): MARCH 2015 Vol 20, No 1 (2015) Vol 19, No 3 (2014): SEPTEMBER 2014 Vol 19, No 2 (2014): JUNE 2014 Vol 19, No 4 (2014): DECEMBER 2014 Vol 19, No 4 (2014) Vol 19, No 3 (2014): SEPTEMBER 2014 Vol 19, No 3 (2014) Vol 19, No 2 (2014): JUNE 2014 Vol 19, No 2 (2014) Vol 19, No 1 (2014): MARCH 2014 Vol 19, No 1 (2014) Vol 18, No 4 (2013): DECEMBER 2013 Vol 18, No 4 (2013) Vol 18, No 3 (2013): SEPTEMBER 2013 Vol 18, No 3 (2013) Vol 18, No 2 (2013): JUNE 2013 Vol 18, No 2 (2013) Vol 18, No 1 (2013): MARCH 2013 Vol 18, No 1 (2013) Vol 17, No 4 (2012): DECEMBER 2012 Vol 17, No 4 (2012) Vol 17, No 3 (2012): SEPTEMBER 2012 Vol 17, No 3 (2012) Vol 17, No 2 (2012): JUNE 2012 Vol 17, No 2 (2012) Vol 17, No 1 (2012): MARCH 2012 Vol 17, No 1 (2012) Vol 16, No 4 (2011): DECEMBER 2011 Vol 16, No 4 (2011) Vol 16, No 3 (2011): SEPTEMBER 2011 Vol 16, No 3 (2011) Vol 16, No 2 (2011): JUNE 2011 Vol 16, No 2 (2011) Vol 16, No 1 (2011): MARCH 2011 Vol 16, No 1 (2011) Vol 15, No 4 (2010): DECEMBER 2010 Vol 15, No 4 (2010) Vol 15, No 3 (2010): SEPTEMBER 2010 Vol 15, No 3 (2010) Vol 15, No 2 (2010): JUNE 2010 Vol 15, No 2 (2010) Vol 15, No 1 (2010): MARCH 2010 Vol 15, No 1 (2010) Vol 14, No 4 (2009): DECEMBER 2009 Vol 14, No 4 (2009) Vol 14, No 3 (2009): SEPTEMBER 2009 Vol 14, No 3 (2009) Vol 14, No 2 (2009): JUNE 2009 Vol 14, No 2 (2009) Vol 14, No 1 (2009): MARCH 2009 Vol 14, No 1 (2009) Vol 13, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008 Vol 13, No 4 (2008) Vol 13, No 3 (2008): SEPTEMBER 2008 Vol 13, No 3 (2008) Vol 13, No 2 (2008): JUNE 2008 Vol 13, No 2 (2008) Vol 13, No 1 (2008): MARCH 2008 Vol 13, No 1 (2008) Vol 12, No 4 (2007): DECEMBER 2007 Vol 12, No 4 (2007) Vol 12, No 3 (2007): SEPTEMBER 2007 Vol 12, No 3 (2007) Vol 12, No 2 (2007): JUNE 2007 Vol 12, No 2 (2007) Vol 12, No 1 (2007): MARCH 2007 Vol 12, No 1 (2007) Vol 11, No 4 (2006): DECEMBER 2006 Vol 11, No 4 (2006) Vol 11, No 3 (2006): SEPTEMBER 2006 Vol 11, No 3 (2006) Vol 11, No 2 (2006): JUNE 2006 Vol 11, No 2 (2006) Vol 11, No 1 (2006) Vol 10, No 4 (2005): DECEMBER 2005 Vol 10, No 4 (2005): DECEMBER 2005 Vol 10, No 4 (2005) Vol 10, No 3 (2005): SEPTEMBER 2005 Vol 10, No 3 (2005) Vol 10, No 2 (2005): JUNE 2005 Vol 10, No 2 (2005) Vol 10, No 1 (2005): MARCH 2005 Vol 10, No 1 (2005) Vol 9, No 4 (2004): DECEMBER 2004 Vol 9, No 4 (2004) Vol 9, No 3 (2004): SEPTEMBER 2004 Vol 9, No 3 (2004) Vol 9, No 2 (2004): JUNE 2004 Vol 9, No 2 (2004) Vol 9, No 1 (2004): MARCH 2004 Vol 9, No 1 (2004) Vol 8, No 4 (2003): DECEMBER 2003 Vol 8, No 4 (2003) Vol 8, No 3 (2003): SEPTEMBER 2003 Vol 8, No 3 (2003) Vol 8, No 2 (2003): JUNE 2003 Vol 8, No 2 (2003) Vol 8, No 1 (2003): MARCH 2003 Vol 8, No 1 (2003) Vol 7, No 4 (2002): DECEMBER 2002 Vol 7, No 4 (2002) Vol 7, No 3 (2002): SEPTEMBER 2002 Vol 7, No 3 (2002) Vol 7, No 2 (2002): JUNE 2002 Vol 7, No 2 (2002) Vol 7, No 1 (2002): MARCH 2002 Vol 7, No 1 (2002) Vol 6, No 4 (2001): DECEMBER 2001 Vol 6, No 2 (2001): JUNE 2001 Vol 6, No 1 (2001): MARCH 2001 Vol 6, No 4 (2001): DECEMBER 2001 Vol 6, No 4 (2001) Vol 6, No 3 (2001): SEPTEMBER 2001 Vol 6, No 3 (2001) Vol 6, No 2 (2001): JUNE 2001 Vol 6, No 2 (2001) Vol 6, No 1 (2001): MARCH 2001 Vol 6, No 1 (2001) Vol 5, No 4 (2000): DECEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 3 (2000): SEPTEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 2 (2000): JUNE 2000 Vol 5, No 1 (2000): MARCH 2000 Vol 5, No 4 (2000): DECEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 4 (2000) Vol 5, No 3 (2000): SEPTEMBER 2000 Vol 5, No 3 (2000) Vol 5, No 2 (2000): JUNE 2000 Vol 5, No 2 (2000) Vol 5, No 1 (2000): MARCH 2000 Vol 5, No 1 (2000) Vol 4, No 4 (1999): DECEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 3 (1999): SEPTEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 2 (1999): JUNE 1999 Vol 4, No 1 (1999): MARCH 1999 Vol 4, No 4 (1999): DECEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 4 (1999) Vol 4, No 3 (1999): SEPTEMBER 1999 Vol 4, No 3 (1999) Vol 4, No 2 (1999): JUNE 1999 Vol 4, No 2 (1999) Vol 4, No 1 (1999): MARCH 1999 Vol 4, No 1 (1999) Vol 3, No 4 (1998) Vol 3, No 3 (1998) Vol 3, No 2 (1998) Vol 3, No 1 (1998) Vol 2, No 4 (1998) Vol 3, No 4 (1998) Vol 3, No 3 (1998) Vol 3, No 2 (1998) Vol 3, No 1 (1998) Vol 2, No 4 (1998) Vol 2, No 3 (1997) Vol 2, No 3 (1997) Vol 2, No 2 (1996) Vol 2, No 1 (1996) Vol 2, No 2 (1996) Vol 2, No 1 (1996) Vol 1, No 3 (1995) Vol 1, No 2 (1995) Vol 1, No 1 (1995) Vol 1, No 3 (1995) Vol 1, No 2 (1995) Vol 1, No 1 (1995) More Issue