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Ahmadi Riyanto
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INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
ISSN : 08537380     EISSN : 2252696X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
JITV (Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science),  ISSN: 0853-7380 E-ISSN: 2252-696X is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal published by Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD). The aim of this journal is to publish high-quality articles dedicated to all aspects of the latest outstanding developments in the field of animal and veterinary science. It was first published in 1995. The journal has been registered in the CrossRef system with Digital Object Identifier (DOI) prefix 10.14334.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 22 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 12, No 2 (2007)" : 22 Documents clear
Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes from termite extract, elephant faecal solution and buffalo ruminal fluid to increase in vitro digestibility of King Grass Prabowo, Agung; Padmowijoto, Soemitro; Bachruddin, Zaenal; Syukur, Abdul
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.547

Abstract

Cellulose is a compound of plant cell walls which is difficult to be degraded because it composed of glucose monomers linked by β-(1.4)-bound. It will be hydrolysed by cellulase enzyme secreted by cellulolytic microbes. The effective digestion of cellulose needs high activity of cellulase enzyme. This research aims to increase in vitro king grass digestibility utilizing mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid. Twelve syringes contained gas test media were randomly divided into four treatments based on sources of microbe (SM), namely: S (SM: cattle ruminal fluid [S]), RGK (SM: mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid [RGK], with composition 1 : 1 : 1), S-RGK (SM: S + RGK, with composition 1:1), and TM (without given treatment microbe). Digestibility was measured using gas test method. Average of gas production treatment of S-RGK (70.2 + 0.6 ml) was higher and significantly different (P<0.01) compared to treatment of S (60.3 + 0.8 ml), RGK (40.8 + 2.3 ml), and TM (13.3 + 2.0 ml). Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid (RGK) that combined with microbes of cattle ruminal fluid (S) could increase in vitro digestibility of king grass. Key Words: Cellulolytic Microbe, Termite Extract, Elephant Faecal, Buffalo Ruminal Fluid
Improving nutrient values of solid heavy phase for corn substitute in poultry diet Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; Bintang, I.A.K; Pasaribu, T
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.545

Abstract

Solid heavy phase (SHP), a by product material of palm oil factory obtained by ceramic filtration from liquid waste could be produced approximately 2 million tons/year. The by product has a potential for substituting corn in poultry feed. A series of experiment was carried out to improve nutrient value of the SHP in order to obtain a feedstuff that can substitute corn in poultry feed. The SHP was processed by either fermentation or enzymatic process. The product was then dried and analysed for its nutrient values. Fermentation process was carried out by altering the dry matter of the substrate (40 or 50%), while enzymatic process was carried out by altering the dose and kind of enzymes used. The process that produced best nutrient values was considered for producing materials for a feeding trial. In this trial, the products were used in diet formulation to substitute 25 or 50% of the corn included in the control diet. The results showed that the fermentation processed could be conducted with dry matter of substrate at either 40 or 50%. The fermentation process significantly improved the nutrient values of the SHP as shown by decreasing the crude fibre and increasing the crude protein, amino acids and the ME value. The results also showed that the Balitnak enzyme (BS4) was optimum when added at 10 ml/kg dry matter SHP, while the commercial enzyme (EK) was optimum at level of 2 g /kg dry matter SHP. Results of feeding trial showed that 25% of corn in layer diet could be substituted with dried SHP or SHP + enzymes. This substitution tended to improve performances (egg production, egg weight and FCR) of the laying hens. Substitution of 25 or 50% corn with the fermented SHP tends to reduce the performance of the layinghens. Similar trend also occurred when 50% of the corn was substituted with the enzymaticly processed SHP. Key Words: Solid Heavy Phase, Palm Oil Waste, Fermentation, Enzymes, Laying Hens
Comparison fermentation kinetics (in vitro) of grass and shrub legume leaves: The pattern of VFA concentration, estimated CH4 and microbial biomass production Widiawati, Y; Thalib, A
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.546

Abstract

In the process of fermentation, rumen microbes normally convert major fractions of carbohydrates and proteins in a feed to useful end-products (i.e. VFA, microbial protein and B-vitamins) and some waste products (i.e. CH4 and CO2). The pattern of these end-products depend largely on the fraction contained in the feed eaten by the animal. Two types of feeds, namely grass and shrub legume, leucaena have different fraction proportions. Grass contains more fibre but less protein compared to shrub legumes. Thus in the rumen they might be fermented to produce different pattern of end products. The experiment was conducted in order to examine the pattern of VFA, CH4 and microbial protein products of the two types of feeds when fermented in the rumen. In vitro method was used to determine the pattern of these end products. Results showed that the grass produced more total VFA/mg organic matter degraded (0.0229 mM/mg vs 0.0075 mM/mg) and CH4 gas  (0.20 mole/mg  vs 0.09 mole/mg) but less propionate in partial and less microbial protein (2646 g vs 2656 g ) compared to the legume. Approximately 32% less CH4 (per mg OM degraded) would be produced from leucaena compared to that produced from grass, which mean that there will be less energy loss as CH4 thus more energy for animal production. Key Words: Grass, Shrub Legume, Volatile Fatty Acids, CH4, Microbial Protein
The effects of microwave radiation on rumen degradation characteristics of barley straw cut at two different stages of maturity Natsir, Asmuddin
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.548

Abstract

A common approach for improving the nutritive value of low quality roughages and crop by-products is by pre-treatment or processing either physical, chemical, or biological treatments. Microwave radiation is one type of physical treatment that could be used to treat low quality roughages. Research was carried out to investigate  the effects of microwave radiation on the rumen degradation characteristics of barley straw obtained from two different stages of maturity. The experiment was run factorially based on completely randomized block design. The first factor was stage of maturity, straw cut during the soft elongation time (C1) and during the harvest time (C2). The second factor was levels of microwave radiation times (MWRT) (T0 = control, without MWR; T1 = MWR for 1 minute, T2 = MWR for 2 minutes). The results indicated nutritive values of barley straw obtained from C1 sampling time were significantly better than that obtained from the C2 sampling time in terms of a higher rumen degradation rate and a much greater total potential rumen degradability. In contrast, MWR did not have significant effects on the rate of degradation and total potential degradability of straw in the rumen. Key Words: Microwave Radiation, Barley Straw, Rumen Degradability
Viability of bovine demi embryo after splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo derived from in vitro embryo production Imron, M; Boediono, A; Supriatna, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.549

Abstract

In vivo embryo production was limited by number of donor, wide variability respond due to superovulation program and also immunoactifity of superovulation hormone (FSH). Splitting technology could be an alternative to increase the number of transferrable embryos into recipien cows. Splitting is done with cutting embryo becoming two equal pieces (called demi embrio) base on ICM orientation.  The objective of this research was to determine the viability of demi embryo obtained from embryo splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo. The results showed that demi embryos which performed blastocoel reexpansion 3 hours after embryo splitting using fresh and frozen thawed embryos were 76.9 and 76.2% respectively. Base on existention of inner cell mass (ICM), the number of demi embryos developed with ICM from fresh and frozen thawed embryos were not significantly different (90.6 and 85.7% respectively. The cell number of demi embryo from fresh embryos splitting was not different compared with those from frozen thawed embryos (36.1 and 35.9 respectively). These finding indicated that embryo splitting can be applied to frozen thawed embryos with certain condition as well as fresh embryos. Key Words: In Vitro Embryo, Splitting, Demi Embryo, Cell Number
Variation on DNA microsatellite of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in Baturaden Dairy Cattle Breeding Center Sumantri, C; Anggraeni, A; Farajallah, A; Perwitasari, D
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.550

Abstract

Eight microsatellite loci of which the locations were three on chromosome 6 (BTA6) namely CSN 3, BM 143 and BM 415; two on chromosome 9 (BTA9) namely ETH 225 and BM 4208; and three on chromosome 10 (BTA10) namely BP 31, BM 1237 and BM 888 were used to investigate genotypic variation of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cows in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. Research activities were carried out through some steps involving blood collection, DNA isolation, amplification on DNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separation by electrophoresis with silver staining. Frequency and heterozygosity of genes under consideration were calculated. The results showed that the eight microsatellite loci exhibited a total number of 33 alleles. Locations of those alleles were five in BM 143 and BM 4208 loci; four in BM 415, CSN 3, ETH 225, BM 1237, BM 888 loci; and three in BP 31 locus. A number of 14 out of 33 alleles might be specific alleles for HF dairy cattle in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. The lowest heterozygosity per locus (ĥ) was 0.6151 for BM 415 whilst the highest one was 0.7301 for BM 888. Additionally, the average heterozygosity for all loci (Ĥ) detected in this study was 0.6768. The genotype BB on locus BM 143 and AC on locus CSN-3 significantly affected (P<0.05) the estimated breeding value of milk yield of HF cows in this location. Key Words: Holstein-Friesian Cows, DNA Microsatellite, Allele, EBV of Milk Yield
Quality of canine epididymal spermatozoa during storage at 4C Setiadi, M.A; ., Yulnawati; Suprayogi, A
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.551

Abstract

The aim of this present study was to investigate the quality of canine epididymal spermatozoa during storage at 4°C. Spermatozoa was collected by flushing technique with physiological saline (NaCl 0.9% w/v) and diluted in modified Tris based extender containing 20% (v/v) of egg yolk for three days. The result showed that mean concentration of spermatozoa from cauda epididymal was 95.29.106 spz/ml. The percentage of progressive motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on time of collection was 70.71% and 72.85%, respectively. Quality of epididymal spermatozoa was decreased significantly (P<0,05) during storage at 4°C. The percentage of progressive motility during storage were 70.71% on day 0 (H-0, after diluted), 60.71% (H-1), 45.71% (H-2), and 33.57% (H-3). The percentage of membrane integrity during storage were 72.85, 68.88, 61.06 and 47.47% on H-0, H-1, H-2 and H-3, respectivelly. In conclusion, quality of canine epididymal spermatozoa was decreased during three days of storage at 4°C. Key Words: Epididymal Sperm, Storage, Canine
Stallion semen cryopreservation using different cryoprotective agents on the skim milk trehalosa extender Arifiantini, R.I; Supriatna, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.552

Abstract

Cryoprotective agents (CPAs), protect the sperm during cryopreservation. There are two general classes of CPAs, at first penetrating cryoprotectants, these pass through the sperm membrane and act both intracellular and extracellularly, and the second non-penetrating cryoprotectants, these act only extracellularly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of different CPAs namely glycerol (G), combination of ethylene glycol with glycerol (EG) and dimethilformamide (DMF) using skim milk trehalosa extender. The semen collected from 3 stallions using artificial vagina twice aweeks. The semen was evaluated, centrifugated and diluted in skim milk extender supplemented with 50 mM trehalose and three different CPAs with the concentration of sperm were 200x106 ml-1. Extended semen was then packed into minitub 0.3 ml and equilibrated at 4oC for 2 hours, freeze in the liquid nitrogen vapor for 10 minutes and stored in liquid nitrogen container -196oC. After 24 hours, the semen was thawed at 37oC for 30 second. Results of this experiment indicated that the percentage of motile and viable sperm in skim trehalosa extender using DMF and glycerol better than combination of ethylene glycol and glycerol.   Key Words: Cryopreservation, Stallion Sperm, Cryoprotectant
Rescuing genetic material of unexpectedly die animal Said, Syahruddin; Saili, Takdir
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.553

Abstract

Rat cauda epididymides were kept in 1.5-ml centrifuge tubes containing 1 ml milli-Q water or physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) and stored and freezed at -196ºC without cryoprotectant for up to 7 days. After thawing of the cauda epididymis, all spermatozoa were non-motile immediately after collection. All oocytes injected with sperm heads (nuclei) of spermatozoa collected from frozen-thawed cauda epididymis in saline were activated (100%) and gradually decreased (P<0.05) in cauda epididymis frozen in milli-Q water at -196°C (86%), and in control (69%). In activated oocytes, a large proportion of sperm heads had transformed into male pronuclear formation (66-78%). When 1-cell embryos were cultured for 120 h, 7% developed to blastocyst stages. These results indicate that genetic materials of species (at least in the rat) that had unexpectedly die can be saved by a simple method. Key words: ICSI, Sperm Heads, Piezo-Injection, Frozen, Rat
Characterisation of enzymatic activities of H5N1 influenza virus Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.554

Abstract

One of the two glycoproteins projected from the surface of the influenza virus is identified as neuraminidase. This enzyme enables the virus to spread in the host, and therefore it plays vital roles in the viral pathogenicity. From the viewpoint of disease control, neuraminidase is used as the target for the development of anti-flu drugs, and for the development of diagnostic test to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Since the roles of the enzyme are very important, information regarding the characteristics and the procedure to measure its activity, which is the purpose of this study, is essential. The optimum incubation time of the neuraminidase-substrate (fetuin) reaction and the optimum pH of the buffer were determined. The stability of the enzyme against heating, supplementation or chelating of calcium ion, and b-propiolactone treatment were analysed. This study showed that neuraminidase from H5N1-influenza virus was, in regards to the characteristics investigated in this study, was comparable to that from Clostridium perfringens. The optimum incubation time for the viral and Clostridial neuraminidases were 60 and 30 minutes, respectively; whereas, the optimum pH for both neuraminidase was 6-7. At pH 8, both neuraminidase were inactive. Supplementation of calcium ion tended to increase activity but chelating of the cation did not have any observable effects. Treatment with 0.2% b-propiolactone for 6 hours reduced the activity, whereas heating at 60°C for 60 minutes abolished all activity. Since inactivation by b-propiolactone is partially only, neuraminidase assay could be performed safely in ordinary laboratories using b-propiolactone-treated-influenza virus, rather than the life virus. The thermolabile nature of the enzyme will complicate any attempt to purify the enzyme. Key Words: H5N1, Neuraminidase, Stability, Thiobarbituric Assay

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