Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Mandheling coffee has been a well known specialty coffees for decades and the demand for this coffee is currently increasing. This coffee is characterised by low acidity, heavy-complex body, spicy-little earthy and fruity flavor. Mandheling coffee is produced by smallholder farmers in the highland surrounding Lake TobaNorth Sumatra in an unique way i.e. following de-pulping and 1â2 days sundrying, wet parchment is stored for varying periods up to a few weeks, the parchments are then de-hulled when still wet (40â45% moisture content) then the beans sundried. The handling procedure presumably contributes to the unique cup character of Mandheling coffee. On the other hand the storage of wet pachments may cause mould growth and mycotoxin contamination. This trial was designed to study the influence of storage of wet parchments prior to wet hulling on mould development, OTA contamination and cup Mandheling characteristic of the coffee product. The normal wet process, drying of parchment thoroughly to 12% moisture content was used as the control. Parchment coffees (6 lots) used for this trial were drawn from farmers and collectors in the region. The wet parchments (41.74â53.96% moisture content) were stored for 1 (D1), 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) days in PE sacks in a warehouse in the region. During the storage period, when there was visible mould growth, the parchments were spread on a plastic sheet inside the warehouse, as per common practice to suppress the mould growth. Following storage, the wet parchment was de-hulled and then sun-dried to a moisture content of 12% (MC12%) or dried to a moisture content of 17%, and held in storage for 3 weeks prior to final drying to 12% mc. The ânormal wet processâ i.e. fresh-non stored parchments dried thoroughly to 12%, were used as the control. Parameters measured were visual evaluation, mould infestation, a w, moisture content (MC) on the stored parchment; while for dried beans mould infestation, OTA content and the Mandheling cup character evaluation (done by 4 panelists who were familiar to the coffee) were determined. Some mould species grew during the storage course, with black Aspergillus was the dominant species found in the beans, while A. ochraceusan OTA producer, was found in some samples with low infection rate (0â15.3%). Spreading of coffee inside the warehouse during the day could suppress moulds growth. OTA was found in only 5 samples out of 42 samples with range of 0.17â2.24 ppb, very less than European Union limit. There was no clear trend of storage period on the mould infection rates, OTA content, and the Mandheling cup characters. The high variability of the outcome was likely due to the inhomogenity of parchments used for this trial. The best Mandheling was found in the sample of D1-MC12%-coffee source of lot 1. Key words: Mandheling coffee, storage, wet parchment, mould, ochratoxin A.
Self compatibility cross in cocoa is a useful criterion in utilizing germplasm collection. Evaluation of self-compatibility crosses on cocoa clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI by treating artificial self-pollination. The observed clones were TSH 858, ICS 60, ICS 13, UIT 1, KW 162, KW 165, KW 163, DR 1, DR 2, DRC 16, DRC 15, KKM 22, Na 32, Na 33 and DR 38. Self-compatibility crosses were identified by percentage of fruit set evaluated during 6 consecutive weeks after pollination. The results showed that the percentage of fruit set were significantly different among clones in the range of 0â46.34%. Three groups of compatibility of cocoa clones were identified i.e. first, self-incompatible clones of DR 1, Na 32, Na 33; second, partially self compatible clones of DR 38, TSH 858, ICS 60, ICS 13, UIT 1, KW 162, KW 165, KKM 22; and third, self-compatible clones of DR 2, DRC 16,DRC 15, KW 163. Clones which perform self-incompatible and partially self-compatible furthermore can be used as female parents in the production of hybrids. Key words: self-compatibility, Theobroma cacao, clones.
AndisolsÂ are characterizedÂ byÂ dominanceÂ ofÂ amorphousÂ mineralsÂ which form strong and stable bonding with organic matter, therefore Andisols always contain high organic matter. For that reason, organic fertilizer is generally not appliedÂ onÂ Andisols,Â becauseÂ itÂ isÂ assumedÂ thatÂ itÂ willÂ notÂ giveÂ Â anyÂ positive effectÂ onÂ growthÂ orÂ yield.Â TheÂ experimentÂ wasÂ aimedÂ toÂ evaluateÂ responseÂ of mature Kartika 1Â Arabica coffee variety (seven years old) cultivated onÂ Andisols applied with organic matter derived from cow dung manure. The experiment was carried out at AndungsariÂ Experimental Station located in Bondowoso District, EastÂ Java. Elevation of the site was 1,150 m asl., with rainfall type of C (Schmidt &Â Fergusson).Â TheÂ experimentÂ wasÂ Â Â arrangedÂ accordingÂ toÂ completely randomizedÂ blockÂ designÂ withÂ fourÂ replicationsÂ toÂ evaluateÂ effectÂ ofÂ ninecombinationÂ treatmentsÂ ofÂ applicationÂ ratesÂ atÂ Â applicationÂ depthsÂ ofÂ 50,Â 100, and 150 cm. TheÂ range of organic fertilizers rates wereÂ 0 - 13.5 kg/tree/year. The experiment revealed that cow dung manure applications on Arabica coffee cultivatedÂ onÂ AndisolsÂ significantlyÂ increasedÂ yieldÂ atÂ theÂ averageÂ ofÂ 33% comparedÂ toÂ theÂ untreatedÂ crop.Â NoÂ significantÂ effectÂ ofÂ theÂ treatmentÂ onvariables of leaf water deficit and soil moisture content during dry season and rootÂ density.Â AtÂ rangeÂ ofÂ applicationÂ depthsÂ ofÂ 50Â -Â 150Â cm,Â theÂ deeperÂ the organic matter applications, the higher the yield will be.Key words: Andisols, Arabica coffee, organic matter, cow dung manure
A research to evaluate the difference of damage levels caused by two species nematodes, Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae on Arabica and Robusta coffee which were planted in the same endemic area have been conducted at Kalibendo (700 m asl. climate type B) and Blawan coffee estate (1200 m asl., climate type D) for two years. The results showed that in the medium highland (700 m asl.) R. similis attacked Arabica coffee with necrotic root scale higher than surface Robusta coffee. Distribution of R. similis population in the 50 cm depth below soil surface was likely with their root distribution. On the other hand P. coffeae in 30 cm depth below soil therefore their resistance to R. similis was more likely due to the escape reason, as result of their different distribution population of those species in different depth. Key words : Radopholus similis, Pratylenchus coffeae, Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, distribution population.
Studies on the field trapping of coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) have been conducted to evaluate trap color, trap design and lures (attractant substances). The trials were conducted in a Robusta coffee plantation in East Java during August to December 2004. The trap color evaluated were red, orange, yellow, green and blue, set up in the coffee plantation using a four funnels trap. The traps installed on wood poles at a height of 175 cm above ground and placed among coffee trees. Observations were conducted every day for a week. Result of the study showed that the red and blue color traps captured CBB significantly higher than the others. During a week, the red color captured 1694 CBB adults while the blue one captured 1619 CBB adults. Peak number of captured CBB of the red and blue trapping occurred on the third day with the number of CBB of 416 and 395, respectively. In the evaluation of trapping design, four types of trapping were tried at the same location. The types of trapping were single funnel red trapping, four funnel red trapping, bottle trap with two straight opposite holes, and bottle trapping with two-zigzag holes. Bottle trapping was made of plastic bottle of 1.5-litre capacity, provided with two holes at its opposite wall. Setting up of the trapping in the field and the observation time were in the same way with the trial in trapping color evaluation. Results obtained indicated that the bottle trapping with two straight opposite holes captured the highest number of CBB followed by four funnel red trapping i.e. 547 and 69 per week, respectively. The peak number of trapped CBB occurred at the third day, as at the color trials. Furthermore, four lures have been evaluated int order to obtain the most effective substances for CBB trapping. Substances of A, B, C and D were set up in a coffee plantation using two types of trapping, four funnel red trapping and bottle trapping with two straight opposite holes. The results showed that the substances of B, C and D captured higher CBB adult than A. Nevertheless, this results was not fully convincing since the number of CBB trapped was low, which was due to low population of the CBB during the last trial. Key words: Coffee, trapping, coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, trap color, trap desain, lure
An experiment of foliar application of potassium on cocoa has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember to study its effectiveness on the flowering and fruiting of cocoa. The experiment was arranged according to factorial design of 2 factors with environmental design of randomized complete blocks. The first factor was soil application of potassium fertilization in two levels, i.e. without fertilizer and with K-fertilizer as KCl. The second factor was application of potassium from two sources, i.e. KCl and KNO 3 , with 3 levels, i.e. without fertilizer (sprayed with water only), K-fertilizer as KCl and K-fertilizer as KNO 3. The experiment was done in 4 replicates. Parameters observed included newly formed flowers, new young fruits and the fresh-developing fruits. The results showed that foliar application of fertilizer was more effective than soil application and plant response was better in increasing new flower formation. On the other hand, the effect of soil application of fertilizer was slow. Foliar application of potassium followed by soil application of potassium fertilizer was more effective in the form of KNO 3 rather than in the form of KCl in increasing new flower formation. The dosage of foliar application of potassium could not significantly increase new young fruit formation. On the other hand, the dosage of soil application of potassium could increase new young fruit formation significantly. Key words: foliar application, kalium, flower, young fruit, cocoa.
A research to get inheritance of Arabica coffee resistance to Radopholus similisnematode was done in screen house and laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, also at endemic area of coffee plantation, using F1, F1 R and F2 crossing between BP 542 A(resistant) x Andungsari 1 (susceptible) with their reciprocal, and BP 542 A x Kartika 1. The purpose of this study that was conducted at seedling stage is to formulate a Strategy for Arabica coffee breeding to get resistant varieties to nematode. As the variables of resistance were weight of seedling biomass, percent of root weight deviation, number of root nematodes, number of soil nematodes, reproduction and percent of necrotic root. Using discriminant analysis and fastclus, those data variables were analyzed for genetic of resistance with Statistical Analysis System programme version 8. Genetic study on the inheritance of resistance to R. similiswas started with evaluation of homozigosity of BP 542 A was resistant parent. The result showed that BP 542 A was heterozygous. Therefore, segregation test could not be suggested with segregation pattern principals as Mendel proposed. Segregation test on BP 542 A showed that it was heterozygote and the resistance was controlled by single gene with complete dominant effect, so the progeny segregated in 75% resistant and 25% susceptible. The result of the test showed the absence of maternal effect for root weight deviation and percentage of necrotic root variables, which meant that no cytoplasmic inheritance was involved. Based on the test of segregation ratio, almost all of the resistance was not appropriate for monogenic and or digenic segregation pattern as expected due to non allelic gene interaction that caused epistasis.
Key words: Inheritance, resistance, Arabica coffee, Radopholus similis.
Since 2001 to 2005, cocoa bean price is high, this condition accelerates farmers to plant and enlarger their cocoa areas. The impact of this euphoria is the possibility that the planting area will be more marginal, i.e. high water table or soil with continuously high water content. This study was to evaluate cocoa planting materials tolerant to those condition. The experiment was conducted in glass house of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using RCBD, replicated 3 times. The treatments were factorial 10 x 4. The propelegitimate seedlings of 10 clones were the first factor, i.e. KW 165, KW 162, DR 2, DRC 16, GC 7, ICS 13, ICS 60, KW 163, Sca 12, and TSH 858. The second factor were soil water content, that were 100% (field capacity = control), 125%, 150%, and 175%. Watering method was gravimetric, once a month the volume was corrected by wet weight of the seedlings. The study was terminated after 5 month old. The result showed that growth of stem diameter, root dry weight and leaf number still normal until soil water content 25% above field capacity. At that condition, seedling dry weight dropped 13% below control, whereas at 175% treatment the decreasing of seedling dry weight was 34% below control. According to seedling and root dry weights, and chlorophyll content, by using cluster analysis it could be obtained a group of seedlings tolerant to high soil water content, i.e. DRC 16, GC 7, and ICS 60. Meanwhile, a group of seedlings susceptible to high water content, i.e. KW 165, KW 163, and DR 2. Stem diameter and chlorophyl content was good indicator for water logging tolerance reaction for cocoa seedling, its correlation to seedling dry weight were positive and tight. Key words: Theobroma cacao, seedlings, waterlogging, growth, chlorophyll.
Cocoa pod borer is one of the most difficult pests to be controlled, hence it becomes serious threat for sustainable cocoa plantation. The objective of the research is to investigate several factors influencing adoption of innovation technology in pest control by using regression model analysis. The research was carried out in Polewali Mamasa and Mamuju regency, West Sulawesi during February March 2006 using survey method. Number of respondents interviewed in the research was 80 people which was selected by using purposive sampling method. The result shows that CPB in West Sulawesi decreased cocoa productivity 50% (10â90%), caused by less of farmers coordination in controlling CPB and the slowness of technology adoption. Factors which influence farmers knowledge are provision of field school, farmers income and simplicity of the technology. Factors which influence farmers attitude are farmers income knowledge, cultivated cocoa area, provision farmers group and number of family members. Factors which influence farmer action in PsPSP technology adoption is farmer attitude, farmer income, cultivated cocoa area and availability of extension workers in that area. Governmentâs involvement in accelerating adoption of innovation technology, especially in preparing capable extension workers and provision of subsidized credit for the farmers is inevitable. Key words: cocoa pod borer, adoption of technology, sustainable cacao plantation, Governmentâs involvement, West Sulawesi
Coffee berry borer [CBB, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr.)] is the mainÂ pest on coffee causing a significant losses. Distribution pattern of the pest isÂ not known deeply until now, especially in Indonesia. The data of distributionÂ pattern of pest is very important in constructing the strategy of integrated pestÂ management, especially to determine a sampling method for monitoring of theÂ pest. This experiment aimed to reveal the distribution pattern of CBB both spatiallyÂ and vertically. The experiment was conducted on Arabica and Robusta coffee,Â located in Kalibendo estate in Banyuwangi East Java. A plot with 400 (20 x 20)Â of coffee trees were observed for infestation and population of CBB, at four branches on south, north, east and west directions for each tree. Collected data were analyzed to obtain the value of mean, variance (=s2), variance/mean relationship (=I), index of Morisita (=IÎ´), coefficient of Green (=Cx) and k exponent of Negative Binomial. Results of the experiment revealed that spatial distribution pattern of CBB, both on Arabica an Robusta coffee, as well as for infestation and population parameters, was fit with aggregated or clumped distribution. For vertical distribution, it inclined that CBB infestation and population in the lower part of coffee tree was higher than in central and upper part of coffee tree. Plenty of infested coffee berries leaved on soil surface may result in higher infestation and population in the lower part.Key words: Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, spatial distribution, vertical distribution.