Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
This study aims to determine the anatomy, physiology and morphology of penny fern (Drimoglosum phylloseloides) and its effect on cocoa. Morphological observation of penny fern used microscope to observe the roots, stems, leaves and spores. Physiology of penny fern was observed based on number of stomata and stomatal conductance using stomata printing method, while the amount of chlorophyll based on spectrophotometric method and rate of transpiration used cobalt chloride paper. Penny fern anatomy on cross-sectional and longitudinal in roots, stems and leaves. Penny fern growth was observed based the length of tendrils once a week during rainy and dry season. While the effect of penny fern invasion was observed based on variable leaf area with gravimetric method, the cross-section of attacked cacao branch using microtom and microscope and chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter. Results showed that penny fern is a epiphytic weed which was crassulaceae acid metabolism plants that have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide at night and carry out photosynthesis during the day with closed stomata. Penny ferns reproduce using spores. The growth rate of penny fern 2.18 cm/week during the dry season and while in rainy season 3.89 cm/week. Penny fern leaf contains 0.0212 mg/g chlorophyll. Penny fern stomata density was 18.33/mm 2 with a width of opening stomata at night 26.3 Âµm which caused a veryslow rate of transpiration of 0.69 mm 2 /seconds. The existence penny fern on cocoa decreased leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased crop productivity which was indicated by decreasing in number of flowers, number of small, medium fruit, and large pods. However it had no effect on the number of leaves on one side flush cocoa. Key words: Drimoglosum phylloseloides, weeds, decrease productivity, Theobroma cacao
A small scale cylindrical type cocoa roaster has been designed to improve Indonesian mallholder income and commence utilization of cocoa-base products. Capacity of the roaster was at 15 kg dried cocoa beans. Operating condition of the instrument in terms of temperature and duration of roasting for cocoa powder production has been optimized by using Response Surface Methodology in the range of 110â140 C for the former and 20â60 minute for the latter. Variable of the study were temperature profile, peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder and microbial con tamination. Result of the study showed that cocoa beanâs temperature at the first 2â8 minute roasting was 30â50 C, before increased as high 10 C per minute to the adjusted temperature. Temperature and duration of roasting influenced interactively on peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder. An optimum roasting for cocoa powder preparation was obtained at temperature of 140 C and roasting time of 20 minute. Roasting treatment significantly reduced number of microbe in total plate count, however most probable number (MPN) of coliform in term of Escherichia coli was not detected. Key words : Cocoa bean, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, roasting, small scale cylindrical roaster, sensory properties, Escherichia coli.
Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus)is the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella)and rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus). A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidus)inoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot.
Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus), coconut, Gliricidia sepium, mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidus), Helopeltis spp.
Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in âragi tapeâ (yeast), âragi tempeâ, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks); fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, âragi tapeâ, âragi tempeâ, and fermented milk); temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C); and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours). The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of âfull sour defectâ. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and âfresh luwak coffeeâ as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents
Monthly observation of cocoa flushing, number of cherelle wilt (CW), numberÂ of small, medium and large pods of 6 clones was conducted for two years to studyÂ its dynamics for one year. A study was conducted in Kaliwining ExperimentalÂ Station, 45 m asl. and D rainfall type (according to Schmidt & Ferguson), using ICS 13, ICS 60, TSH 858, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165 clones of 8 years old. Each clone was planted intermittently in separate rows, replicated 6 rows. Correlation and regression analysis were done between variables and with rainfall data. The parallel research was conducted in the similar station to assess the accuracy of production estimation method by identify percentage of small pods (length 1â10 cm), medium (11â15 cm) and large pods (>15 cm) to grow until harvested. The study used 15th years old trees of Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 165, KKM 22, ICS 13 and DR 2 clones. Each clones was replicated 5 times. The result showed that intensive flushing (>50%) occured during January, March, September and November meanwhile no flushing during December and February. Correlation between rainfall and flushing was positive (r=0.27). Effect of clones on flushing frequency was similar but for flushing intensity was significant. KW 165 tended to be the lowest but TSH 858 tend to be the highest. CW occured for a year-round but the height level during May and June. Effect of clones was significant, KW 165 showed highest followed by Sulawesi 2. CW level showed positive correlation with number of medium (r=0.71) and big pods (r=0.55), except showed negative correlation with flushing intensity (r=-0.37) and rainfall (r=-0.51). High pod setting happened during May to November and low pod setting during December to March. In this aspect effect of clones were significant, the productive clones were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165, but ICS 60 was the less. CW level during 1st semester was lower than at 2nd semester and clone effect was significant. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested was similar among both semester. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested were 8â56%; 57â83% and 77â96% respectively depend on the clones. In average, those opportunities were 27%, 72%, and 87% for small, medium and big pods respectively.Key words: flushing, cherelle wilt, pod setting, clones, yield prediction
One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13â14% moisture content (wet basis), 680â685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31â54 kg/h on 5,310â5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91â98% process efficientcy, 19â31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3â1% slips, 50â55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38â44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32â38% lightness was increased, 0.6â12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28â30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.
Coffee consumers request a good quality of green coffee to get a good coffee cup taste. Defective beans e.g. black bean, brown bean and broken bean are associated to low coffee quality which give negative effects to final taste. To meet the standard export requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is generally carried out manually. The method gives better product, so the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, improving the manual sorting by providing machine for grading of green coffee is good alternative to reduce the grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table conveyor type grading machine in order to improve the performance of the manual grading productivity and consistent quality and to reduce the grading cost. The conveyor belt has a dimension of 5700 mm of length, 610 mm of width and 6 mm of thickness. The rotating of belt conveyor powered by an electro motor 3 HP, 3 phase and 1420 rpm. The result showed that the optimum capacity of grading machine was 390 kg/hour reached when the speed 16 rpm and 3 kg/m 2 of green beans on belt conveyor with productivity 1870 kg/man-day compared to the productivity full manually process 743 kg/man-day. Percentage of product in outlet 1 was 4.2% as broken beans, 0.26% as brown beans, 0.68% as one hole in beans and 0.61% as more than one hole in beans. Percentage of product in outlet 2 was 39.54% as broken beans, 4.23% as brown beans 7.19% as black beans, 4.47% as one hole in beans and 4.43% as more than one hole in beans. Cost of grading process per kg of green coffee is Rp20,-. Key words : Coffee, Grading, Conveyor table, Quality
Flowering character and flowering intensity can be used to estimate productivity and it is important for supporting breeding activity especially for pollination program. This research was aimed to study the stability of character of flushing, flowering and fruiting on different cocoa clones (genetic). The research was done at Kaliwining Research Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember. There were 21 clones; KW 422, KW 426, KW 427, KW 425, KW 523, KW 062, KW 084, KW 094, KW 162, KW 163, KW 165, KW 219, KW 235, KW 236, KW 265, KW 005, KW 292, KW 570, KW 514, KW 516, and KW 617. Flowering intencity, fruiting, and flushing were observed. The result of the study showed that KW 084 was the most stable clone for fruiting. KW 235 had high pod number in April. KW 426, KW 427, KW 523, and Sulawesi 2 had high pod number in March and June. KW 219 and KW 516 had the lowest pod number. Low pod number did not occur in March until June. Flowering and flushing on all genotypes showed the stability value with IPCA value nearly zero. KW 094 showed high flowering intensity in October. High flushing intensity occurred in January and July, the lower one in April and August. Key words: Stability analysis, flushing, flowering, fruiting, cocoa clones
Observation on the seasonal variations of hydrological condition and turgidity of selected Robusta coffee clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. The aim was to evaluate the effect of hydrological variation on the coffee plants and the degree of soil moisture effect on plant performance. Experimental site overlays on alluvial plain, + 45 m a.s.l., 8o 15â South with D rainfall type. Observation was conducted by survey method at the experimental plots of organic fertilizer and nitogen treatments on selected Robusta coffee clones derived from rooted cuttings, i.e. BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Observation was only conducted at the experimental blocks of organic matter trials of 20 l/tree/year at nitrogen (Urea) application of locally recommanded rate during the subsequent years of 1999 to 2001. Parameters observed included plant turgidity and soil moisture content of three different depths, i.e. 0â20, 20â40 and 40â60 cm and the weather. Observation was carried out in five replicates designed as blocks of barn manure treatment and N-fertilizer of recommended rate as basal fertilizer. The results showed that meteorological condition and soil moisture of experimental site through the years have seasonal patterns following the seasonal pattern of rainfall. Compared to other meteorological characteristics, relative humidity dominantly determined evaporation and plant turgidity. Plant turgi-dity was not only determined by soil moisture condition, but also atmospheric demand. When relative humidity (RH) was relatively high, plant turgidity was relatively stable although soil moisture of surface layers was very low, and the reversal when soil moisture content was high plant turgidity was controlled by atmospheric demand (relative humidity). With a 3â4 dry month period, relative turgidity of the coffee plants was relatively stable above 82%, except when soil moisture of 60 cm surface layer was below 25% (w/w) and or atmospheric demand was relatively high (RH 85%). Soil moisture contents of deeper soil layers seemed to have greater impact on the plant turgidity and the deeper the soil layers the narrower the seasonal variation of their soil moisture contents. Selected different clones originated from rooted cuttings showed different response to water stress and could be put in order from the most sensitive to water stress as follows BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Barn manure application could significantly increase soil moisture content but its influence could not significantly increase plant turgidity.Key words : Seasonal variation, atmospheric condition, soil moisture, plant turgidity, Robusta coffee clones.
The existence of ground cover crop, such as Arachis pintoiin cocoa farm may enhance physical, chemistry and biological fertility of soil. Nevertheless, the presence of those cover crops potentially increase the competition with main crop in various means. The primary objective of this study was to investigate kinds of competition raised when cocoa plants cultivated with ground cover crop of A. pintoi. This study consisted of three experiments. The first experiment aimed to study possible allelopatic competition using root exudates solution of A. Pintoi as well as Leucaena leucocephalaand Adenanthera microsperma as check for being used for watering cocoa plants. The second experiment aimed to study the competition between A. pintoiand cocoa plants in field condition with 1) cover crop fully overlay ground surrounding cocoa basal trunk, 2) no cover crop overlay ground surrounding cocoa basal trunk in a distance of 40 cm in diameter, and 3) no cover crop as check. Third experiment aimed to study the competition between A. pintoiand cocoa plants in limited growth medium (pot), using 10 cm stolon shoots each 4, 2 and 0 shoots per pot. Results showed that A. Pintoidid not produce alleopatic exudates to restrict cocoa growth. Population of A. Pintoi had negative effect on cocoa plant growth in the field by reducing fresh trunk weight and dry root weight, even greater negative effect found in cocoa plant grown in limited growth medium by also reducing dry leaf and trunk weight and leaf area. Key words: Theobroma cacao, Arachis pintoi, allelopathy, competition, denantheramicrosperma, Leucaena leucocephala