Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)
ISSN : 02150212     EISSN : 24069574
Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Articles 62 Documents
Early Yield and Economical Study of Pogostemon Cablinas Intercrop in Young Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.) Prawoto, Adi; Sholeh N.P, M
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Pogostemon cablinis an important source of volatile oil for pharmaceutical and cosmetical products. Agronomical aspect of this commodity needs open ecosystem, but for certain level of shading, this crop may yield economically. A study to evaluate the effect of P. cablinintercropped on young cocoa farm, had been conducted during 2005, in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) 45 m above sea level, D climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson), and on low gley humic soil. The experiment was arranged in factorial and the field design was split plot replicated three times. The main plot was no shade tree, shade of Leucaena glauca and Areca catechuwhile the subsplots were fertilizer dose (per ha/year), i.e. (P0) without fertilizer; (P1) 140 kg Urea, 35 kg SP-36, 70 kg KCl; (P2) 280 kg Urea, 70 kg SP-36,140 kg KCl; and (P3) 560 kg Urea, 140 kg SP-36, 280 kg KCl. The result showed that P. cablin cultivation without shading gave better growth and yield than the shading treatment; meanwhile Leucaenashading showed better growth and early yield than the A. catechushading. Fertilizer rate of P1 produced highest leaf weight and oil yield, although P3 possessed the highest growth variables of plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and chlorophyll content. For the dry weight biomass variable, highest yield was obtained from no shade tree and P1 treatment. Using chromatography gas analysis, retention time of patchouly alcohol is 15—18 minutes, it was found that the content was influenced by shading treatment, i.e. 25.15% in monoculture, 28.73% in Leucaena and 25.21% in A. catechutreatment. For the oil viscosity variable, the monoculture treatment showed the highest value (23.21 centipoise), followed by A. catechu(11.60 centipoise) and Leucaenatreatment (8.65 centipoise). Intercropping of P. cablinwith young cacao did not show negative effect on young cacao growth. This study demonstrated that pre-cropping ofP. cablinin young cacao provided opportunity to farmers to have additional income, the benefit cost ratio (B/C) for Leucaenatreatment 1.00–1.35 depend on dose of fertilizer, while for A. catechutreatment gave no profit (B/C 0.59–1.03 depend on fertilizer dose). Meanwhile, P. cablinmonoculture cultivation gave B/C 1.44–2.71. Key Words: Pogostemon cablin, Theobroma cacao,Leucaena glauca, Areca catechu, intercropping, patchouly alcohol, B/C ratio, fertilizer.
Performance of Some Promising Genotypes of Fine-flavour Cocoa Selected at Penataran Estate, East Java Sari, Indah Anita; Susilo, Agung Wahyu
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Prelimanary selection at Panataran Estate, East Java found five genotypes of promising fine flavor cocoa (PNT 12, PT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B) which had high yielding potency and estimated tolerant to VSD valuation of superior characters in each accession was important as base to be developed in multilocation test. The research was conducted in Penataran Estate, PTPN XII using single plot design and consisted of five fine flavor cocoa genotypes (PNT 12, PNT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B) and two genotypes as control (DR 2 and DRC 16). Each genotype consisted 33 plants (seven years old). Yield potential, score of VSD resistance, yield quality and morphology of stomata characters were observed. The analysis results showed that PNT 16 and PNT 12 had the highest of yield potential (1.46 and 1.10 kg/plant/year) respectively. PNT 16 also showed VSD scoring value low and stable on two years observation (2012-2013). Increasing pod number in 2013 was caused by recovery of the plant from VSD attack. Number of stomata on young leaf (flush) on PNT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B was lower than DR 2. Size of stomata qualitatively was different in each number. Characters of yield quality as pod lengh, pod weight, and pod girth on five promising clones were not as significantly different compared to control. Five fine flavor cocoa promising genotypes had white bean percentage more than 80 percent. Character of dry weight per bean on five fine flavour cocoa promising genotypes showed smaller than DR 2 but were not significantly different compared to DRC 16.
Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor Erdiansyah, Novie Pranata; Sumirat, Ucu; -, Priyono
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute). There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha) not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield
Relationship Between Pod Characteristics of Some Cocoa Clones (T. cacaoL.) and Their Resistance Response to Cocoa Pod Borer Wahyu Susilo, Agung; Mangoendidjojo, Woerjono; ., Witjaksono
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Characteristic study on CPB resistance had been carried out by characterizing mesocarp layer of cocoa pod where egg laying and larva penetration are carried out. For this study, 4 clones were selected which performed different response to CPB, namely resistant clones of KW 514 and ARDACIAR 10, moderately resistant clone of KW 411 and the susceptible clone of RCC 72. Pod samples were classified as young and mature were detached from cocoa collection at the experimental station of Kaliwining, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. Characterization was conducted based on microchemical method at the Microtechnique Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University to identify trichome appearance at upper layer of pod, distributed granules of tannin through mesocarp and lignification of the sclerotic. It was characterized that the trichome density performing resistant in which the resistant and moderately resistant clones had more number of trichome density than of the susceptible one. The distributed granules of tannin at young pod showed significant difference among those clones that indicate resistant characteristics. The number of distributed granules of tannin was higher of those the resistant and moderatly resistant clones than of the susceptible clones that were formed both at furrow and at ridge of pod. However, the granules of tannin were distributed more at ridge than at furrow where furrow were preferred by CPB for egg laying. The characteristic differences between the resistant and moderately resistant clones were identified based on the intensity of lignification at sclerotic tissue. The lignified tissue of the resistant clones perform more intensive and more compact than of the moderately resistant clones. Tissue of young pod of the moderately resistant and susceptible clones was not yet lignified. Thickness of lignified tissue at the furrow of resistant clone was higher than of the moderately resistant and susceptible clones. Key words : Theobroma cocoa L.,cocoa pod borer, resistant, mesocarp, sclerotic, trichome, tannin.
Effectiveness of Biopesticide Derived fromCassia spectabilis and Nicotiana tabacum Leaves Against the Main Insect Pests of Coffee and Its Effect On Other Arthropods Wiryadiputra, Soekadar
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

An experiment on the effectiveness of biopesticide made of ramayana (Cassia spectabilis) and tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) it called as Casnic, on Hypothenemus hampeiand Planococcus citriand its effect on the arthropods population fauna in coffee plantation had been conducted in Pest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Researh Institute and Bangelan Plantation in Malang. The treatment consisted of three level concentrations of botanical pesticide(15 ml, 30 ml, and 60 ml/lof water), Beauveria bassiana(at a dose 100 g spore per ha), metidation spraying (2 ml formulation per litre of water) and two control treatments (with and without soap). The field experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The results showed that botanical pesticide at the concentration of 30.0 ml stock solution per litre of water and applied four times with monthly interval was effective in controlling coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee mealy bug (Planococcus citri). The effectiveness was not significantly different compared to metidation and Beauveria bassianaat the dose of 0.8 l and 100 g formulation per ha per application. Application of the botanical pesticide did not show negative effect on the usefull predatory insects and other arthropods population in coffee ecosystem. Key words : Botanical pesticide, Cassia spectabilis, Nicotiana tabacum, Coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, Planococcus citri, Arthropods.
Performance of Some Arabica Coffee Local Varieties from Gayo Highland Hulupi, Retno; Nugroho, Dwi; ., Yusianto
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Recently, most of coffee farmers at Gayo highland (Aceh) are planting various of local varieties, namely Timtim Aceh, Borbor, P 88, BP 542A and Ateng Super. Those varieties have been planted to replace S line and Catimor Jaluk varieties which were damaged by leaf rust and root disease. Research on the performance of those varieties was to investigate superior characteristics of each variety and moreover as based to choose the best one as released variety for Gayo Highland. Research finding revealed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were well adapted to Gayo highland conditions with yielding ability 0.956 ton/ha and 0.909 ton/ha, respectively. Although the highest yield was obtained by Ateng Super variety (1.76 ton/ha green coffee), but not stable, therefore it could not be categorized as superior variety. The previous two varieties also had good cup quality (by standard assesment of Specialty Coffee Association of America), then it could contribute Gayo coffee specialty product. The resistance test for leaf rust disease in the field plantation, showed all varieties demonstrated varying in their resistance. BP 542A variety was the most resistant type, whereas Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were moderately. However all varieties become more susceptible if planted at lower altitude, less than 1,000 m asl. The resistance test to coffee berry borer and parasitic nematode showed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were ranked into almost resistant to resistant. Based on all result of the superior characteristics testing, Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were the best one, and it could be proposed to be released as Arabica coffee varieties that suitable at Gayo highland. Key words: Arabica coffee, Gayo highland, local varieties, variety performance, cup quality, yielding, resistant to leaf rust disease
Effect of Storage Period on the Viability of Bare Root Cocoa Seedlings Rahardjo, Pudji
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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An experiment to study the storage of bare root cocoa seedling may be used as an alternative technology to transport of cocoa seedling. The storage period were 2, 3 and 4 days using: Randomize Complete Design and 4 replications. Each replication was used 25 seedlings. The results showed that bare cacao seedling storage for 2, 3 and 4 days decreased wet weight 1—2 g, and leaf number 2—4. Seedling viability percentage for 2, 3 and 4 days storage was 90.00; 97.50 and 75.00% respectively.Key words :Bare root, cocoa seedling, storage, viability.
Identification of Physiological Race Nematode, Radopholus similisCobb. that Attack Coffee Trees Hulupi, Retno
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Physiological races of Radopholus similis Cobb., the burrowing nematode that attack coffee trees have never been reported yet, while two physiological races have been identified, i.e. banana and citrus races. Banana and citrus are commonly used as the shading trees or crop diversification in coffee plantation. Therefore, both races have to be analyzed whether the same as the race that attacking the coffee plants. Research to investigate the physiological race of R. similis Cobb. had been conducted in the screen house at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete design with three replications, while cross inoculation tests were used as race identification method, by using three isolates from banana, citrus and Arabica coffee as the control. Tested host plants were banana Cavendish, ‘Ambon Kuning’ and ‘Raja’ varieties, rootstock of citrus Siam from Kintamani and Arabica coffee Kartika 1 variety. The expression of virulence of three nematode isolates against banana, citrus or arabica coffee tested to be considered as favorable host, while the most virulent isolate attacked coffee could be decided as physiological race of coffee. Results showed that banana isolate penetrated and attacked the roos of arabica coffee. The isolate of R. similis from citrus could not attack both coffee and banana varieties. Therefore, the physiological race of coffee was considered similar with the banana race. It was possible that the physiological race was specific race but it could attacke banana as other favorable host, however, it could not be proven in this results. Based on this results, the use of Musa sp.as intercrop or shade tree in coffee plantation has more risk to nematode attack than that of Citrus sp. Key words: physiological race, Radopholus similis, coffee, banana, citrus, nematode.
Analysis of Cutting Growth Characteristics in Robusta Coffee(Coffea canephora Pierre.) Sumirat, Ucu; Yuliasmara, Fitria; ., Priyono
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Development of Robusta coffee clones needs special characteristics for rootstock. This research was aimed to study the characteristics of cutting growth of Robusta coffee as influenced by genetic factor. The research was conducted at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using 269 progenies originated from reciprocal crossing populations among three parentals, namely BP 409, BP 961, and Q 121. BP 308 an easy cutting-propagated genotype was used as control. The research was arranged in three replications of randomized completely block design with 10 cuttings per replication. Each cutting was single planted in plastic polybag of 15 cm x 25 cm without any growth-regulator treatment. Cluster analysis procedure showed root growth characteristics which could be divided into three groups namely easy (85.3%, 3.82 and 6.68 cm), moderate (57.6%, 1.73 and 4.01 cm) and difficult (25.1%, 0.58 dan 1.44 cm) based on proportion of rooted cuttings, number of primary root and length of root, respectively. On the other side, growth of sprout showed good homogenous characteristic, mainly indicated by proportion of sprouted cuttings which generally achieved up to 98% in average. Study on shoot-root ratio of cuttings resulted in two groups of progenies, namely the first which tended to be dominant on sprout growth and the second which tended to balance their root and sprout growth. Based on proportion of sprouted cuttings which almost achieved up to 100% and various proportion of rooted cutting, it could be indicated that growth of cuttings was started and dominated by the growth of sprout. Key words: Coffee canephora, progeny, genetic variation, cutting, rooting, sprouting
Optimizing of a Horizontal Cylinder Type Cocoa Roaster for Dried Cocoa Cotyledon Roasting Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Mulato, Sri; Suharyanto, Edi
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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The secondary process of cocoa is one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. One the other hand, the development for secondary cocoa process requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale business. Cocoa roaster is a basic equipment to produce good and competitive secondary cocoa products for chocolate industry. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has, therefore, designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type roaster for drying cocoa cotyledon. The cylinder has 405 mm diameter, 520 mm long and is rotated by a 1 HP (0.75 kW), 220 V, single phase and 1400 rpm electric motor. Assisted with a gear reducer, the final cylinder rotation is adjusted at approximately 6 rpm. The heat for roasting process is generated from kerosene burner. At the end of roasting, the roasted beans are cooled down by ambient air inside a cooling platform by natural air flow. The raw material used in this optimizing test was dried fine cocoa cotyledon. Field tests showed that the optimum performance of the roaster was 7 kg dried fine cocoa cotyledon loaded with roasting temperature 120 oC and 25.57 kg/h optimum capacity. The organoleptic test showed that score of aromatic, flavour, acidity, bitterness, astringency and burnt were 4.8, 5.2, 5.4, 5.2, 4.8 and 0.8 with 10 scale, also 4.2 with 5 scale for likely. The roasting time was 15—25 minutes to get 2.5—3% final water content depend on roasting temperature and cocoa cotyledon loaded. Key words: cocoa, roasting, horizontal cylinder, quality.