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Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)
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Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Articles
62
Articles
Performance of Some Promising Genotypes of Fine-flavour Cocoa Selected at Penataran Estate, East Java

Sari, Indah Anita ( ICCRI ) , Susilo, Agung Wahyu ( ICCRI )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Prelimanary selection at Panataran Estate, East Java found five genotypes of promising fine flavor cocoa (PNT 12, PT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B) which had high yielding potency and estimated tolerant to VSD valuation of superior characters in each accession was important as base to be developed in multilocation test. The research was conducted in Penataran Estate, PTPN XII using single plot design and consisted of five fine flavor cocoa genotypes (PNT 12, PNT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B) and two genotypes as control (DR 2 and DRC 16). Each genotype consisted 33 plants (seven years old). Yield potential, score of VSD resistance, yield quality and morphology of stomata characters were observed. The analysis results showed that PNT 16 and PNT 12 had the highest of yield potential (1.46 and 1.10 kg/plant/year) respectively. PNT 16 also showed VSD scoring value low and stable on two years observation (2012-2013). Increasing pod number in 2013 was caused by recovery of the plant from VSD attack. Number of stomata on young leaf (flush) on PNT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B was lower than DR 2. Size of stomata qualitatively was different in each number. Characters of yield quality as pod lengh, pod weight, and pod girth on five promising clones were not as significantly different compared to control. Five fine flavor cocoa promising genotypes had white bean percentage more than 80 percent. Character of dry weight per bean on five fine flavour cocoa promising genotypes showed smaller than DR 2 but were not significantly different compared to DRC 16.

Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

Erdiansyah, Novie Pranata ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia Indonesia ) , Sumirat, Ucu ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia Indonesia ) , -, Priyono ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute). There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha) not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield

Optimation of Temperature and Duration of Cocoa Beans Roasting in a CylindricalRoaster

Jati, Misnwai ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Widyotomo, Sukrisno ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Sewed, Awad ( Universitas Brawijaya ) , ., Sugiyono ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 3 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

A small scale cylindrical type cocoa roaster has been designed to improve Indonesian mallholder income and commence utilization of cocoa-base products. Capacity of the roaster was at 15 kg dried cocoa beans. Operating condition of the instrument in terms of temperature and duration of roasting for cocoa powder production has been optimized by using Response Surface Methodology in the range of 110–140 C for the former and 20–60 minute for the latter. Variable of the study were temperature profile, peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder and microbial con tamination. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean’s temperature at the first 2–8 minute roasting was 30–50 C, before increased as high 10 C per minute to the adjusted temperature. Temperature and duration of roasting influenced interactively on peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder. An optimum roasting for cocoa powder preparation was obtained at temperature of 140 C and roasting time of 20 minute. Roasting treatment significantly reduced number of microbe in total plate count, however most probable number (MPN) of coliform in term of Escherichia coli was not detected. Key words : Cocoa bean, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, roasting, small scale cylindrical roaster, sensory properties, Escherichia coli.

Pattern of Flushing, Cherelle Wilt, and Accuracy of Yield Forecasting of Some Cocoa Clones

Prawoto, Adi ( Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Monthly observation of cocoa flushing, number of cherelle wilt (CW), number of small, medium and large pods of 6 clones was conducted for two years to study its dynamics for one year. A study was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, 45 m asl. and D rainfall type (according to Schmidt & Ferguson), using ICS 13, ICS 60, TSH 858, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165 clones of 8 years old. Each clone was planted intermittently in separate rows, replicated 6 rows. Correlation and regression analysis were done between variables and with rainfall data. The parallel research was conducted in the similar station to assess the accuracy of production estimation method by identify percentage of small pods (length 1—10 cm), medium (11—15 cm) and large pods (>15 cm) to grow until harvested. The study used 15th years old trees of Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 165, KKM 22, ICS 13 and DR 2 clones. Each clones was replicated 5 times. The result showed that intensive flushing (>50%) occured during January, March, September and November meanwhile no flushing during December and February. Correlation between rainfall and flushing was positive (r=0.27). Effect of clones on flushing frequency was similar but for flushing intensity was significant. KW 165 tended to be the lowest but TSH 858 tend to be the highest. CW occured for a year-round but the height level during May and June. Effect of clones was significant, KW 165 showed highest followed by Sulawesi 2. CW level showed positive correlation with number of medium (r=0.71) and big pods (r=0.55), except showed negative correlation with flushing intensity (r=-0.37) and rainfall (r=-0.51). High pod setting happened during May to November and low pod setting during December to March. In this aspect effect of clones were significant, the productive clones were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165, but ICS 60 was the less. CW level during 1st semester was lower than at 2nd semester and clone effect was significant. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested was similar among both semester. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested were 8—56%; 57—83% and 77—96% respectively depend on the clones. In average, those opportunities were 27%, 72%, and 87% for small, medium and big pods respectively.Key words: flushing, cherelle wilt, pod setting, clones, yield prediction

Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

., Yusianto ( Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute ) , Nugroho, Dwi ( Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical perqutions 

Distribution Pattern of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus Hampei) on Arabica and Robusta Coffee

Wiryadiputra, Soekadar ( Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee berry borer [CBB, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr.)] is the main pest on coffee causing a significant losses. Distribution pattern of the pest is not known deeply until now, especially in Indonesia. The data of distribution pattern of pest is very important in constructing the strategy of integrated pest management, especially to determine a sampling method for monitoring of the pest. This experiment aimed to reveal the distribution pattern of CBB both spatially and vertically. The experiment was conducted on Arabica and Robusta coffee, located in Kalibendo estate in Banyuwangi East Java. A plot with 400 (20 x 20) of coffee trees were observed for infestation and population of CBB, at four branches on south, north, east and west directions for each tree. Collected data were analyzed to obtain the value of mean, variance (=s2), variance/mean relationship (=I), index of Morisita (=Iδ), coefficient of Green (=Cx) and k exponent of Negative Binomial. Results of the experiment revealed that spatial distribution pattern of CBB, both on Arabica an Robusta coffee, as well as for infestation and population parameters, was fit with aggregated or clumped distribution. For vertical distribution, it inclined that CBB infestation and population in the lower part of coffee tree was higher than in central and upper part of coffee tree. Plenty of infested coffee berries leaved on soil surface may result in higher infestation and population in the lower part.Key words: Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, spatial distribution, vertical distribution.

Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee

., Yusianto ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Hulupi, Retno ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , ., Sulistyowati ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Ismayadi, Cahya ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 3 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005), using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a) The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b) Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c) Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d) Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were the other groups. (e) The lowest pH and the highest acidity was AS 1. In this case, S 795, BP 416A, BP 509A, BP 430A, P 88, BP 542A, AS 1 and BP 542A were one group, but USDA 762 was the other group. (f) Bulk density of all observed varieties were >0.7 for green coffee and 0,39–0,47 for medium roasted coffee. (g) Outurn of all observed varieties were >83% and volume increment >50%, except for USDA 762. (g) AS 1 showed the best flavor characters, while USDA 762 was the lowest. The promising varieties which showed a group with AS 1 were P 88 and BP 542A, which fruity. All of tested varieties showed green flavor. Harsh flavor was found in BP4 16A, BP 509A, P 88, S 795 and USDA 762. (h) Based on the physicals, chemicals and flavors characters, 202 AS 1 was a group with P 88 and BP 542A; S 795 a group with BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509, while USDA 762 was other group. Key words:Coffee, physic, chemical, flavor, variety.

Analysis of Cutting Growth Characteristics in Robusta Coffee(Coffea canephora Pierre.)

Sumirat, Ucu ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Yuliasmara, Fitria ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , ., Priyono ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Development of Robusta coffee clones needs special characteristics for rootstock. This research was aimed to study the characteristics of cutting growth of Robusta coffee as influenced by genetic factor. The research was conducted at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using 269 progenies originated from reciprocal crossing populations among three parentals, namely BP 409, BP 961, and Q 121. BP 308 an easy cutting-propagated genotype was used as control. The research was arranged in three replications of randomized completely block design with 10 cuttings per replication. Each cutting was single planted in plastic polybag of 15 cm x 25 cm without any growth-regulator treatment. Cluster analysis procedure showed root growth characteristics which could be divided into three groups namely easy (85.3%, 3.82 and 6.68 cm), moderate (57.6%, 1.73 and 4.01 cm) and difficult (25.1%, 0.58 dan 1.44 cm) based on proportion of rooted cuttings, number of primary root and length of root, respectively. On the other side, growth of sprout showed good homogenous characteristic, mainly indicated by proportion of sprouted cuttings which generally achieved up to 98% in average. Study on shoot-root ratio of cuttings resulted in two groups of progenies, namely the first which tended to be dominant on sprout growth and the second which tended to balance their root and sprout growth. Based on proportion of sprouted cuttings which almost achieved up to 100% and various proportion of rooted cutting, it could be indicated that growth of cuttings was started and dominated by the growth of sprout. Key words: Coffee canephora, progeny, genetic variation, cutting, rooting, sprouting

Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

., Yusianto ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Widyotomo, Sukrisno ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast), “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks); fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk); temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C); and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours). The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

Development of Selection Criteria on Bean Weight Character of Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.) through Path Analysis Approach

Anita Sari, Indah ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Wahyu Susilo, Agung ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Path coefficient analysis is frequently used for development of selection criteria on various type of plants. Path analysis on this research was conducted to find the selection criteria of yield component which directly affect bean weight. In addition to the value of path analysis coefficient, genetic variation coefficient, heritability and the value of genetic progress were also studied. The study was conducted at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research used randomized complete block design consisting of 14 accession numbers and each consisting of three replications. Pod girth, pod length, pod weight, wet beans weight per pod, number of normal beans per pod, number of abnormal beans per pod, dry weight per normal bean, and shell content were observed. The results showed that the pod weight character had an important role in determining the dry weight of normal bean. The character had a positive genotype correlation coefficient values which was high and significantly different (r=0.46) for dry weight per normal bean, considerable direct influence (P=0.479), moderate of the genotype variation coefficient (9.6%), and high genetic progress (95.23). Character of wet bean weight per pod could also be used indirectly for the selection criteria for dry weight per normal bean based on genetic variation coefficient value (11.88%), genetic progress value (82.48), and direct effect on dry weight per normal bean had positive value (P=0.006). Key words: Selection criteria, dry weight per bean, path analysis,Theobroma cacaoL.