Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methodsÂ for germination, need extensive placeÂ and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be acceleratingÂ germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out cameÂ from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm.Â Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings
AmmoniaÂ (NH3)Â volatilizationÂ isÂ aÂ crucialÂ mechanismÂ inÂ soilÂ nitrogenÂ (N) cycle. It accounts for main lossÂ of N in cocoaÂ farmsÂ whenÂ environment isÂ suitable toÂ promoteÂ theÂ emission.Â AÂ researchÂ toÂ locateÂ aÂ linkÂ ofÂ severalÂ factors,Â namely, sugarcane filter cakeÂ (SFC), ureaÂ and soil moisture contentÂ to NH 3 volatilization,Â andÂ to revealÂ cocoaÂ NÂ uptakeÂ andÂ ureaÂ fertilizerÂ efficiencyÂ wasÂ takenÂ placeÂ bothÂ inÂ a laboratoryÂ withÂ theÂ incubationÂ technique,Â andÂ inÂ aÂ greenhouseÂ asÂ aÂ potÂ trial. The design was completely randomized design in factorial. The soil was Inceptisol from Kaliwining Experimental Station, Jember, East Java, collected from top soil ofÂ aÂ productiveÂ cocoaÂ farm.Â AÂ closedÂ trapÂ systemÂ wasÂ designedÂ toÂ measurevolatilizedÂ NH 3 fromÂ soilÂ andÂ SFCÂ mixtureÂ incubatedÂ forÂ 14Â days.Â ForÂ theÂ pot experiment,Â cocoaÂ cloneÂ ofÂ ScavinaÂ 6Â seedlingsÂ wereÂ grownÂ forÂ sixÂ monthsÂ withtreatmentsÂ involvingÂ seriesÂ levelÂ ofÂ SFCÂ andÂ seriesÂ levelÂ ofÂ urea.Â SoilÂ moisture content influenced volatilized NH3 by reducing 50% emission in where it was more obvious in higher level of urea applied. It was more than 90% in average for the increase in volatilized NH 3roduced by increasing in level of urea from 0 to 0.4 g kg -1 inÂ overallÂ levelÂ ofÂ combinations. An increase in ureaÂ levelÂ hadÂ resulted in increase inÂ soilÂ pH, andÂ Parson correlation suggested a directÂ linkÂ withÂ volatilizedÂ NH 3Â We foundÂ aÂ relationshipÂ betweenÂ SFCÂ and volatilizedÂ NH 3 andÂ their combinationsÂ with soilÂ moistureÂ andÂ ureaÂ contentÂ wereÂ ableÂ toÂ inhibitÂ theÂ emission.Â Emission decreaseÂ upÂ toÂ 28%Â wasÂ observedÂ fromÂ 0Â toÂ 100Â gÂ SFCÂ kg-1.Â ThisÂ inhibition mayÂ have contributed toÂ the increase inÂ N cocoaÂ plant uptakeÂ byÂ moreÂ thanÂ 70% comparedÂ toÂ controlÂ andÂ subsequentÂ increaseÂ inÂ NÂ fertilizerÂ supplyÂ efficiency up to 86%Â in the combination with 0.2Â g ureaÂ kg-1.Â The absence of SFC had made a decline in urea efficiency about 20 times.Keywords: ammonia volatilization, sugarcane filter cake, urea, soil moisture, cocoa
Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian Â Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease.Â Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol
Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side and 2 m high of the rear side. The maximum capacity of greenhouse is 40 tons fresh coffee cherries. Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) used as greenhouse roof that combined with I and C profile of steel. Fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee from Robusta variety use as main materials in this research. The treatment of this research was 30 kg/m2, 60 kg/m2 and 90 kg/m2 for coffee density. String process has done by manual, two times a day in the morning and in the afternoon. As control, fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee has dried by fully sun drying method. The result showed that a big scale greenhouse has heat drying efficiency between 29.9-58.2% depend on type and density of coffee treatments. On the full sunny day, greenhouse has produced maximum drying air temperature up to 52oC. In radiation cumulative level 4-5 kW-jam/m2 per day, 12.9-38.8 tons fresh coffee cherries or wet parchment coffee with 58-64% moisture content can be dried to 12% moisture content for 6 up to 14 days drying process. Slowly drying mechanism can be avoided negative effect to degradation of quality precursor compound. Capacity of the dryer can be raise and fungi can be reduce with application of controllable mechanical stirring in the greenhouse.Â Keywords: greenhouse, coffee, drying, quality
Vascular-streak dieback (Oncobasidium theobromae) is a serious disease on cocoa damaging the vegetative tissue especially on the branches and leaves. This research was aimed to identify the relationship between characteristics of sprouting ability and VSD resistance to confirm the response of cocoa to pruning treatment on VSD control and developing criteria for selection. Trial was carried out at Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI, a VSD-endemic area by using 668 plants of hybrid populayion which were derivated from intercrossing among seven clones performing different response to VSD. The resistance was evaluated by scoring the plant damage with the scale of 0-6 on drought season in the year of 2009 and 2011. The characteristics of sprouting ability was assessed by recording the pruned trees for the variables of the number of re-growth shoot, shoot height, number of new shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter and number of leaves per shoot. It was analyzed that the variables of the number of shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter, shoot height and number of leaves per shoot were not significantly correlated to the score of VSD damage. Grouping of the resistance also performed similar results whereas mean of the sprouting variables were not different among group but the percentage of sprouted branches tend to be higher with the higher of the resistance (lower score). This result confirmed any mechanism of tolerance on VSD resistance by accelerating shoot rejuvenation on resistant plant. Key words : vascular-streak diaback, cocoa, resistance, characteristics of sprouting
This experiment aims to know the solar energy efficiency of four clones of cocoa that cultivated under three different shading plants. This experiment has been done from September until December 2013 located at Kaliwining Experiment Farm with characteristic 45 m above sea level, soil type is low humic gley, soil texture is silty clay loam, and climate classification type D based on Scmidht and Fergusson classification. This experiment used nested design as experimental design with species of shading plant as main plot which are teak (Tectona grandis L.), krete (Cassia surattensis (Burm.) F.), lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala L.) and cocoa clones as sub plot which are Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KKM 22, and KW 165. The observation of physiological character consists of the level of leaf chlorophyll, the level of leaf nitrogen, spesific leaf area, leaf area index, the amount of stomata, and stomatal density. The experimental result showed that there is differences (heterogenity) between shading location based on homogenity test by Bartlett method. The interaction effect between plant spesies and cocoa clones are affect the leaf area index and stomatal density, whereas the level of leaf chlorophyll, the level of leaf nitrogen, and spesific leaf area was affected by the kind of plant spesies.Â Keywords : Physiological character, cocoa Ccones, shading trees, nested design, Bartlett method
Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule) as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation) and one negative control treatment (aquades). The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol). The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule) is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used.
Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.