Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resourcesÂ needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expandingÂ domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gainÂ benefit as a strategic action for raising farmerâs prosperity. This study was aimedÂ to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from TamboraÂ mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers,Â including problem identification at farmerâs level. This research was carriedÂ out at Pekat Subdistrict (Dompu District) and Tambora Subdistrict (Bima District),Â West Nusa Tenggara Province. Direct observation and in-depth interviews wereÂ conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data,Â as well as 11 green coffee samples from farmers to be analysed its physicalÂ quality and flavor profile. The number of respondents were nine stakeholdersÂ consisted of three farmers, two farmer group leaders, one field officer, one dutyÂ officer, one trader, and one large planter official. Respondents selection wereÂ based on convenience sampling method. The results showed that physical qualityÂ of coffee bean was belonged to Grade 4â6 (fair to poor quality), while brokenÂ beans shared the highest number of physical defects. Robusta coffee from TamboraÂ mountainside performed good taste profile, that the coffee can be promoted toÂ be fine Robusta by improving post harvest handling. Robusta coffee farming at TamboraÂ mountainside was characterized by monoculture cropping system, average of landÂ ownerships about 1 ha/household, and average productivity about 900â1,000 kgÂ green coffee/ha/year. Major problems on Robusta coffee farming at TamboraÂ mountainside consisted of lack of coffee plant maintenance as well as limitedÂ accessibility to financing and technology.Â Key words: agribusiness, physical quality, flavor, Robusta coffee, Tambora mountainside
Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Â nell.) is a dangerousÂ pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast AsiaÂ and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to preventÂ CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromoneÂ or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sexÂ pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in EastÂ Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely blockÂ design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/haÂ (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha) were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consistedÂ of synthetic pheromone (lure) and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above theÂ cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during fourÂ months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap duringÂ the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5,Â 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number ofÂ CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96Â CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that beforeÂ treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4â45.6%, however six months after treatment,Â the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4â21%, whereas on controlÂ 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reducedÂ yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equationÂ of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its natureÂ for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values.Key words: cocoa, cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, integrated pest management,Â biological control, sex pheromone
Prelimanary selection at Panataran Estate, East Java found five genotypesÂ of promising fine flavor cocoa (PNT 12, PT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B)Â which had high yielding potency and estimated tolerant to VSD valuation ofÂ superior characters in each accession was important as base to be developed inÂ multilocation test. The research was conducted in Penataran Estate, PTPN XIIÂ using single plot design and consisted of five fine flavor cocoa genotypes (PNT 12,Â PNT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B) and two genotypes as control (DR 2Â and DRC 16). Each genotype consisted 33 plants (seven years old). Yield potential, score of VSD resistance, yield quality and morphology of stomata characters were observed. The analysis results showed that PNT 16 and PNT 12 had the highest of yield potential (1.46 and 1.10 kg/plant/year) respectively. PNT 16 also showed VSD scoring value low and stable on two years observation (2012-2013). Increasing pod number in 2013 was caused by recovery of the plant from VSD attack. Number of stomata on young leaf (flush) on PNT 16, PNT 17, PNT 18, and PNT 33B was lower than DR 2. Size of stomata qualitatively was different in each number. Characters of yield quality as pod lengh, pod weight, and pod girth on five promising clones were not as significantly different compared to control. Five fine flavor cocoa promising genotypes had white bean percentage more than 80 percent. Character of dry weight per bean on five fine flavour cocoa promising genotypes showed smaller than DR 2 but were not significantly different compared to DRC 16.
The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of plantingÂ materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variationÂ of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study wasÂ conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute). There were two populations observed. Number of progenyÂ used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. TheÂ results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha) not more than 5% ofÂ the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha andÂ the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield
Monthly observation of cocoa flushing, number of cherelle wilt (CW), numberÂ of small, medium and large pods of 6 clones was conducted for two years to studyÂ its dynamics for one year. A study was conducted in Kaliwining ExperimentalÂ Station, 45 m asl. and D rainfall type (according to Schmidt & Ferguson), using ICS 13, ICS 60, TSH 858, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165 clones of 8 years old. Each clone was planted intermittently in separate rows, replicated 6 rows. Correlation and regression analysis were done between variables and with rainfall data. The parallel research was conducted in the similar station to assess the accuracy of production estimation method by identify percentage of small pods (length 1â10 cm), medium (11â15 cm) and large pods (>15 cm) to grow until harvested. The study used 15th years old trees of Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 165, KKM 22, ICS 13 and DR 2 clones. Each clones was replicated 5 times. The result showed that intensive flushing (>50%) occured during January, March, September and November meanwhile no flushing during December and February. Correlation between rainfall and flushing was positive (r=0.27). Effect of clones on flushing frequency was similar but for flushing intensity was significant. KW 165 tended to be the lowest but TSH 858 tend to be the highest. CW occured for a year-round but the height level during May and June. Effect of clones was significant, KW 165 showed highest followed by Sulawesi 2. CW level showed positive correlation with number of medium (r=0.71) and big pods (r=0.55), except showed negative correlation with flushing intensity (r=-0.37) and rainfall (r=-0.51). High pod setting happened during May to November and low pod setting during December to March. In this aspect effect of clones were significant, the productive clones were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2 and KW 165, but ICS 60 was the less. CW level during 1st semester was lower than at 2nd semester and clone effect was significant. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested was similar among both semester. The opportunity of small, medium and big pods to be harvested were 8â56%; 57â83% and 77â96% respectively depend on the clones. In average, those opportunities were 27%, 72%, and 87% for small, medium and big pods respectively.Key words: flushing, cherelle wilt, pod setting, clones, yield prediction
Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day isÂ inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly.Â Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examinedÂ at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherriesÂ from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of theÂ experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherryÂ storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement;Â and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherryÂ storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical perqutionsÂ
Coffee berry borer [CBB, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr.)] is the mainÂ pest on coffee causing a significant losses. Distribution pattern of the pest isÂ not known deeply until now, especially in Indonesia. The data of distributionÂ pattern of pest is very important in constructing the strategy of integrated pestÂ management, especially to determine a sampling method for monitoring of theÂ pest. This experiment aimed to reveal the distribution pattern of CBB both spatiallyÂ and vertically. The experiment was conducted on Arabica and Robusta coffee,Â located in Kalibendo estate in Banyuwangi East Java. A plot with 400 (20 x 20)Â of coffee trees were observed for infestation and population of CBB, at four branches on south, north, east and west directions for each tree. Collected data were analyzed to obtain the value of mean, variance (=s2), variance/mean relationship (=I), index of Morisita (=IÎ´), coefficient of Green (=Cx) and k exponent of Negative Binomial. Results of the experiment revealed that spatial distribution pattern of CBB, both on Arabica an Robusta coffee, as well as for infestation and population parameters, was fit with aggregated or clumped distribution. For vertical distribution, it inclined that CBB infestation and population in the lower part of coffee tree was higher than in central and upper part of coffee tree. Plenty of infested coffee berries leaved on soil surface may result in higher infestation and population in the lower part.Key words: Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, spatial distribution, vertical distribution.