Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae) is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf anatomy, chitinase, polyphenol
Development of Robusta coffee clones needs special characteristics for rootstock. This research was aimed to study the characteristics of cutting growth of Robusta coffee as influenced by genetic factor. The research was conducted at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using 269 progenies originated from reciprocal crossing populations among three parentals, namely BP 409, BP 961, and Q 121. BP 308 an easy cutting-propagated genotype was used as control. The research was arranged in three replications of randomized completely block design with 10 cuttings per replication. Each cutting was single planted in plastic polybag of 15 cm x 25 cm without any growth-regulator treatment. Cluster analysis procedure showed root growth characteristics which could be divided into three groups namely easy (85.3%, 3.82 and 6.68 cm), moderate (57.6%, 1.73 and 4.01 cm) and difficult (25.1%, 0.58 dan 1.44 cm) based on proportion of rooted cuttings, number of primary root and length of root, respectively. On the other side, growth of sprout showed good homogenous characteristic, mainly indicated by proportion of sprouted cuttings which generally achieved up to 98% in average. Study on shoot-root ratio of cuttings resulted in two groups of progenies, namely the first which tended to be dominant on sprout growth and the second which tended to balance their root and sprout growth. Based on proportion of sprouted cuttings which almost achieved up to 100% and various proportion of rooted cutting, it could be indicated that growth of cuttings was started and dominated by the growth of sprout. Key words: Coffee canephora, progeny, genetic variation, cutting, rooting, sprouting
Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in âragi tapeâ (yeast), âragi tempeâ, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks); fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, âragi tapeâ, âragi tempeâ, and fermented milk); temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C); and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours). The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of âfull sour defectâ. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and âfresh luwak coffeeâ as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents
Path coefficient analysis is frequently used for development of selection criteria on various type of plants. Path analysis on this research was conducted to find the selection criteria of yield component which directly affect bean weight. In addition to the value of path analysis coefficient, genetic variation coefficient, heritability and the value of genetic progress were also studied. The study was conducted at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research used randomized complete block design consisting of 14 accession numbers and each consisting of three replications. Pod girth, pod length, pod weight, wet beans weight per pod, number of normal beans per pod, number of abnormal beans per pod, dry weight per normal bean, and shell content were observed. The results showed that the pod weight character had an important role in determining the dry weight of normal bean. The character had a positive genotype correlation coefficient values which was high and significantly different (r=0.46) for dry weight per normal bean, considerable direct influence (P=0.479), moderate of the genotype variation coefficient (9.6%), and high genetic progress (95.23). Character of wet bean weight per pod could also be used indirectly for the selection criteria for dry weight per normal bean based on genetic variation coefficient value (11.88%), genetic progress value (82.48), and direct effect on dry weight per normal bean had positive value (P=0.006). Key words: Selection criteria, dry weight per bean, path analysis,Theobroma cacaoL.
AndisolsÂ are characterizedÂ byÂ dominanceÂ ofÂ amorphousÂ mineralsÂ which form strong and stable bonding with organic matter, therefore Andisols always contain high organic matter. For that reason, organic fertilizer is generally not appliedÂ onÂ Andisols,Â becauseÂ itÂ isÂ assumedÂ thatÂ itÂ willÂ notÂ giveÂ Â anyÂ positive effectÂ onÂ growthÂ orÂ yield.Â TheÂ experimentÂ wasÂ aimedÂ toÂ evaluateÂ responseÂ of mature Kartika 1Â Arabica coffee variety (seven years old) cultivated onÂ Andisols applied with organic matter derived from cow dung manure. The experiment was carried out at AndungsariÂ Experimental Station located in Bondowoso District, EastÂ Java. Elevation of the site was 1,150 m asl., with rainfall type of C (Schmidt &Â Fergusson).Â TheÂ experimentÂ wasÂ Â Â arrangedÂ accordingÂ toÂ completely randomizedÂ blockÂ designÂ withÂ fourÂ replicationsÂ toÂ evaluateÂ effectÂ ofÂ ninecombinationÂ treatmentsÂ ofÂ applicationÂ ratesÂ atÂ Â applicationÂ depthsÂ ofÂ 50,Â 100, and 150 cm. TheÂ range of organic fertilizers rates wereÂ 0 - 13.5 kg/tree/year. The experiment revealed that cow dung manure applications on Arabica coffee cultivatedÂ onÂ AndisolsÂ significantlyÂ increasedÂ yieldÂ atÂ theÂ averageÂ ofÂ 33% comparedÂ toÂ theÂ untreatedÂ crop.Â NoÂ significantÂ effectÂ ofÂ theÂ treatmentÂ onvariables of leaf water deficit and soil moisture content during dry season and rootÂ density.Â AtÂ rangeÂ ofÂ applicationÂ depthsÂ ofÂ 50Â -Â 150Â cm,Â theÂ deeperÂ the organic matter applications, the higher the yield will be.Key words: Andisols, Arabica coffee, organic matter, cow dung manure
A disease presumed to be caused by Fusarium was observed in cocoa open fields with few or without shade trees. Within the population of cocoa trees in the field, some trees had died, some had yellowing leaves and dieback, and the others were apparently healthy. In order to demonstrate Fusarium species as the causal pathogen and to obtain information concerning the incidence of the disease, its distribution and its impact on sustainability of cocoa, isolation of the pathogen, inoculation of cocoa seedlings with isolates and a survey of disease has been conducted. Fusarium was isolated from roots and branches, and inoculated onto cocoa seedlings (one month old) via soil. Symptoms appeared within 3-4 weeks after infection. These symptoms consisted of yellowing of leaves beginning from the bottom until the leaves falldown, and browning internal of vascular tissue. Darkened vascular traces in the petiole characteristic of vascularstreak dieback infection were absent. The occurrence of Fusarium in the field was characterized by the absence of obvious signs of fungal infestation on root of infected trees, yellowing of leaves on twigs, dieback, and tree mortality in severe infestations. Disease incidence could reach 77% and in this situation it was difficult for trees recover from heavy infections or to be regenerated in the farm. The study proves that Fusarium is a pathogen causing dieback and the disease is called as Fusarium vascular dieback (FVD). Its development is apparently enhanced by dry conditions in the field. Key words: Fusarium sp., vascular disease, dieback, FVD, Theobroma cacao L.