Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Characteristic study on CPB resistance had been carried out by characterizing mesocarp layer of cocoa pod where egg laying and larva penetration are carried out. For this study, 4 clones were selected which performed different response to CPB, namely resistant clones of KW 514 and ARDACIAR 10, moderately resistant clone of KW 411 and the susceptible clone of RCC 72. Pod samples were classified as young and mature were detached from cocoa collection at the experimental station of Kaliwining, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. Characterization was conducted based on microchemical method at the Microtechnique Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University to identify trichome appearance at upper layer of pod, distributed granules of tannin through mesocarp and lignification of the sclerotic. It was characterized that the trichome density performing resistant in which the resistant and moderately resistant clones had more number of trichome density than of the susceptible one. The distributed granules of tannin at young pod showed significant difference among those clones that indicate resistant characteristics. The number of distributed granules of tannin was higher of those the resistant and moderatly resistant clones than of the susceptible clones that were formed both at furrow and at ridge of pod. However, the granules of tannin were distributed more at ridge than at furrow where furrow were preferred by CPB for egg laying. The characteristic differences between the resistant and moderately resistant clones were identified based on the intensity of lignification at sclerotic tissue. The lignified tissue of the resistant clones perform more intensive and more compact than of the moderately resistant clones. Tissue of young pod of the moderately resistant and susceptible clones was not yet lignified. Thickness of lignified tissue at the furrow of resistant clone was higher than of the moderately resistant and susceptible clones. Key words : Theobroma cocoa L.,cocoa pod borer, resistant, mesocarp, sclerotic, trichome, tannin.
One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13â14% moisture content (wet basis), 680â685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31â54 kg/h on 5,310â5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91â98% process efficientcy, 19â31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3â1% slips, 50â55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38â44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32â38% lightness was increased, 0.6â12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28â30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.
Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste, intensity of after taste and preference, than the recent harvest and two years stored coffee. recent harvest had higher body, bitterness, and astringency, than that of one and two years stored coffee. The main off-flavor of recent harvest coffee was green and grassy, the one year stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy, and sour, while the two years stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy and moldy. The flavor change in the first year was higher than in the second year storage. The varieties, that had lowest change on flavor during storage, were BP 416 A, AS 1, P 88, BP 432 A and S 795. Key words: Coffee, Arabica, variety, clone, storage, quality, flavor, color.
A research to evaluate the difference of damage levels caused by two species nematodes, Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae on Arabica and Robusta coffee which were planted in the same endemic area have been conducted at Kalibendo (700 m asl. climate type B) and Blawan coffee estate (1200 m asl., climate type D) for two years. The results showed that in the medium highland (700 m asl.) R. similis attacked Arabica coffee with necrotic root scale higher than surface Robusta coffee. Distribution of R. similis population in the 50 cm depth below soil surface was likely with their root distribution. On the other hand P. coffeae in 30 cm depth below soil therefore their resistance to R. similis was more likely due to the escape reason, as result of their different distribution population of those species in different depth. Key words : Radopholus similis, Pratylenchus coffeae, Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, distribution population.