Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
In Indonesia, cocoa reproduction by cuttings is undeveloped yet because the available technology is more expensive than the other clonal reproduction methods. The success of cocoa cuttings is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this research is to study effect of endogenous auxin content, effects of light intensity and exogenous auxin application, on the rooted cuttings. The 2 nd research purpose is to study effects of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidon) and IBA (Î²-indole-butyric acid), clones, and microclimate. The experiment was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember (45 m a.s.l. and D rainfall type according to Schmidt Ferguson). The design for the 1 st experiment was splitsplit plot, replicated three times. The main plot was light intensity inside the roof, i.e.15%, 30%, and 45% to direct sun radiation. The sub plot was cocoa clones, i.e. DR 2 and ICS 13, and the sub-sub plot was IBA concentration, i.e. 0 ppm, 1500 ppm, 3000 ppm and 4500 ppm. The 2 nd experiment was designed factorial 3 x 3 of CRD, replicated 3 times. Clones of KW 163, KW 162 and KW 165, and IBA at 0, 3000, and 6000 ppm were the factors. In the same time, effect of IBA 6000 ppm, PVP 6000 ppm IBA+PVP 6000 ppm, and control were observed using KW 165 clone, and designed in complete randomized design (CRD), replicated 3 times. The result showed that auxin content of ICS 13 was higher than DR 2 (62.67 ppm vs 40.90 ppm) so that gave higher rooted cuttings and more root number. Exogenous application of IBA improved auxin content of the cutting materials and promoted root growth. The optimum IBA concentration for root number was 3500 ppm. Light intensity of 45% improved number of rooted cuttings three times compared to 15%, however compared to the 2 nd research, percentage of rooted cuttings was still very low. Cocoa cutting method to gain rooted cuttings 80â90% has been obtained. The method was using IBA 3000 ppm or 6000 ppm mixtured with or without PVP 6000 ppm, conducted during rainy season, the nursery using permanent shade trees of leucena sp., temperature of 24â27oC and relative humidity was 78â87%. PVP was supposed inhibit oxidation of IBA so that the effect of IBA was more optimum. The response of KW 162, KW 163 and KW 165 clones to root were similar. Rooted cuttings during dry season was low due to the less fresh of cutting materials and high temperature inside the bed roof.
Key Words: Theobroma cacao, cuttings, light intensity, auxin, Î²-indole-butyric acid, Polyvinylpyrrolidon
Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus)is the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella)and rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus). A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidus)inoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot.
Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus), coconut, Gliricidia sepium, mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidus), Helopeltis spp.
One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5â3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0â4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0â4.75 mm with 700â900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65â2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69â0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80â90%, and in temperate size particle10â20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73â3.09.
Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.
A research to get inheritance of Arabica coffee resistance to Radopholus similisnematode was done in screen house and laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, also at endemic area of coffee plantation, using F1, F1 R and F2 crossing between BP 542 A(resistant) x Andungsari 1 (susceptible) with their reciprocal, and BP 542 A x Kartika 1. The purpose of this study that was conducted at seedling stage is to formulate a Strategy for Arabica coffee breeding to get resistant varieties to nematode. As the variables of resistance were weight of seedling biomass, percent of root weight deviation, number of root nematodes, number of soil nematodes, reproduction and percent of necrotic root. Using discriminant analysis and fastclus, those data variables were analyzed for genetic of resistance with Statistical Analysis System programme version 8. Genetic study on the inheritance of resistance to R. similiswas started with evaluation of homozigosity of BP 542 A was resistant parent. The result showed that BP 542 A was heterozygous. Therefore, segregation test could not be suggested with segregation pattern principals as Mendel proposed. Segregation test on BP 542 A showed that it was heterozygote and the resistance was controlled by single gene with complete dominant effect, so the progeny segregated in 75% resistant and 25% susceptible. The result of the test showed the absence of maternal effect for root weight deviation and percentage of necrotic root variables, which meant that no cytoplasmic inheritance was involved. Based on the test of segregation ratio, almost all of the resistance was not appropriate for monogenic and or digenic segregation pattern as expected due to non allelic gene interaction that caused epistasis.
Key words: Inheritance, resistance, Arabica coffee, Radopholus similis.
The role of shading trees in coffee farms has been well understood to establish suitable condition for the growth of coffee trees, on the other hand their role in nitrogen cycle in coffee farming is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of various legume shading trees on the concentration of soil mineral N (N-NH4 + and N-NO3-), potential nitrification and to study the controlling factors of nitrification under field conditions. This field explorative research was carried out in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Twelve observation plots covered four land use systems (LUS), i.e. 1) Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiasepium as shade trees; 2) Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaas shade trees and Arachis pintoias cover crops; 3)Coffee agroforestry with Paraserianthes falcataria as shade trees; and 4) Mixed/multistrata coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaand other fruit crops as shade trees. Measurements of soil mineral-N concentration were carried out every three weeks for three months. Results showed that shade tree species in coffee agroforestry significantly affected concentrations of soil NH4 +, NO3- and potential nitrification. Mixed coffee agroforestry had the highest NH4+/N-mineral ratio (7.16%) and the lowest potential nitrification (0.13 mg NO2-kg-1 hour -1 ) compared to other coffee agroforestry systems using single species of leguminous shade trees. Ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral increased 0.8â21% while potential nitrification decreased 55â79% in mixed coffee agroforestry compared to coffee agroforestry with Gliricidia or P. falcatariaas shade trees. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcatariaas shade trees had potential nitrification 53% lower and ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral concentration 20% higher than that with Gliricidia. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcataria as shade trees also had organic C content 17% higher, total N 40% higher, available P 112% higher than that with Gliricidia. The presence of A. pintoiin coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiareduced 56% potential nitrification but increased 19.3% of NH4+/N-mineral concentration. The low soil potential nitrification in the mixed coffee agroforestry had close relationship with the high content of soil organic matter.
Key words : Nitrogen-mineral, nitrification, shading trees, agroforestry, Coffea canephora, nitrate, organic matter, intercropping,Gliricidia sepium, Arachis pintoi, Paraserianthes falcataria.