Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Pogostemon cablinis an important source of volatile oil for pharmaceutical and cosmetical products. Agronomical aspect of this commodity needs open ecosystem, but for certain level of shading, this crop may yield economically. A study to evaluate the effect of P. cablinintercropped on young cocoa farm, had been conducted during 2005, in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) 45 m above sea level, D climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson), and on low gley humic soil. The experiment was arranged in factorial and the field design was split plot replicated three times. The main plot was no shade tree, shade of Leucaena glauca and Areca catechuwhile the subsplots were fertilizer dose (per ha/year), i.e. (P0) without fertilizer; (P1) 140 kg Urea, 35 kg SP-36, 70 kg KCl; (P2) 280 kg Urea, 70 kg SP-36,140 kg KCl; and (P3) 560 kg Urea, 140 kg SP-36, 280 kg KCl. The result showed that P. cablin cultivation without shading gave better growth and yield than the shading treatment; meanwhile Leucaenashading showed better growth and early yield than the A. catechushading. Fertilizer rate of P1 produced highest leaf weight and oil yield, although P3 possessed the highest growth variables of plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and chlorophyll content. For the dry weight biomass variable, highest yield was obtained from no shade tree and P1 treatment. Using chromatography gas analysis, retention time of patchouly alcohol is 15â18 minutes, it was found that the content was influenced by shading treatment, i.e. 25.15% in monoculture, 28.73% in Leucaena and 25.21% in A. catechutreatment. For the oil viscosity variable, the monoculture treatment showed the highest value (23.21 centipoise), followed by A. catechu(11.60 centipoise) and Leucaenatreatment (8.65 centipoise). Intercropping of P. cablinwith young cacao did not show negative effect on young cacao growth. This study demonstrated that pre-cropping ofP. cablinin young cacao provided opportunity to farmers to have additional income, the benefit cost ratio (B/C) for Leucaenatreatment 1.00â1.35 depend on dose of fertilizer, while for A. catechutreatment gave no profit (B/C 0.59â1.03 depend on fertilizer dose). Meanwhile, P. cablinmonoculture cultivation gave B/C 1.44â2.71. Key Words: Pogostemon cablin, Theobroma cacao,Leucaena glauca, Areca catechu, intercropping, patchouly alcohol, B/C ratio, fertilizer.
Physiological races of Radopholus similis Cobb., the burrowing nematode that attack coffee trees have never been reported yet, while two physiological races have been identified, i.e. banana and citrus races. Banana and citrus are commonly used as the shading trees or crop diversification in coffee plantation. Therefore, both races have to be analyzed whether the same as the race that attacking the coffee plants. Research to investigate the physiological race of R. similis Cobb. had been conducted in the screen house at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete design with three replications, while cross inoculation tests were used as race identification method, by using three isolates from banana, citrus and Arabica coffee as the control. Tested host plants were banana Cavendish, âAmbon Kuningâ and âRajaâ varieties, rootstock of citrus Siam from Kintamani and Arabica coffee Kartika 1 variety. The expression of virulence of three nematode isolates against banana, citrus or arabica coffee tested to be considered as favorable host, while the most virulent isolate attacked coffee could be decided as physiological race of coffee. Results showed that banana isolate penetrated and attacked the roos of arabica coffee. The isolate of R. similis from citrus could not attack both coffee and banana varieties. Therefore, the physiological race of coffee was considered similar with the banana race. It was possible that the physiological race was specific race but it could attacke banana as other favorable host, however, it could not be proven in this results. Based on this results, the use of Musa sp.as intercrop or shade tree in coffee plantation has more risk to nematode attack than that of Citrus sp. Key words: physiological race, Radopholus similis, coffee, banana, citrus, nematode.
The existence of ground cover crop, such as Arachis pintoiin cocoa farm may enhance physical, chemistry and biological fertility of soil. Nevertheless, the presence of those cover crops potentially increase the competition with main crop in various means. The primary objective of this study was to investigate kinds of competition raised when cocoa plants cultivated with ground cover crop of A. pintoi. This study consisted of three experiments. The first experiment aimed to study possible allelopatic competition using root exudates solution of A. Pintoi as well as Leucaena leucocephalaand Adenanthera microsperma as check for being used for watering cocoa plants. The second experiment aimed to study the competition between A. pintoiand cocoa plants in field condition with 1) cover crop fully overlay ground surrounding cocoa basal trunk, 2) no cover crop overlay ground surrounding cocoa basal trunk in a distance of 40 cm in diameter, and 3) no cover crop as check. Third experiment aimed to study the competition between A. pintoiand cocoa plants in limited growth medium (pot), using 10 cm stolon shoots each 4, 2 and 0 shoots per pot. Results showed that A. Pintoidid not produce alleopatic exudates to restrict cocoa growth. Population of A. Pintoi had negative effect on cocoa plant growth in the field by reducing fresh trunk weight and dry root weight, even greater negative effect found in cocoa plant grown in limited growth medium by also reducing dry leaf and trunk weight and leaf area. Key words: Theobroma cacao, Arachis pintoi, allelopathy, competition, denantheramicrosperma, Leucaena leucocephala
Self compatibility cross in cocoa is a useful criterion in utilizing germplasm collection. Evaluation of self-compatibility crosses on cocoa clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI by treating artificial self-pollination. The observed clones were TSH 858, ICS 60, ICS 13, UIT 1, KW 162, KW 165, KW 163, DR 1, DR 2, DRC 16, DRC 15, KKM 22, Na 32, Na 33 and DR 38. Self-compatibility crosses were identified by percentage of fruit set evaluated during 6 consecutive weeks after pollination. The results showed that the percentage of fruit set were significantly different among clones in the range of 0â46.34%. Three groups of compatibility of cocoa clones were identified i.e. first, self-incompatible clones of DR 1, Na 32, Na 33; second, partially self compatible clones of DR 38, TSH 858, ICS 60, ICS 13, UIT 1, KW 162, KW 165, KKM 22; and third, self-compatible clones of DR 2, DRC 16,DRC 15, KW 163. Clones which perform self-incompatible and partially self-compatible furthermore can be used as female parents in the production of hybrids. Key words: self-compatibility, Theobroma cacao, clones.
Cocoa pod borer is one of the most difficult pests to be controlled, hence it becomes serious threat for sustainable cocoa plantation. The objective of the research is to investigate several factors influencing adoption of innovation technology in pest control by using regression model analysis. The research was carried out in Polewali Mamasa and Mamuju regency, West Sulawesi during February March 2006 using survey method. Number of respondents interviewed in the research was 80 people which was selected by using purposive sampling method. The result shows that CPB in West Sulawesi decreased cocoa productivity 50% (10â90%), caused by less of farmers coordination in controlling CPB and the slowness of technology adoption. Factors which influence farmers knowledge are provision of field school, farmers income and simplicity of the technology. Factors which influence farmers attitude are farmers income knowledge, cultivated cocoa area, provision farmers group and number of family members. Factors which influence farmer action in PsPSP technology adoption is farmer attitude, farmer income, cultivated cocoa area and availability of extension workers in that area. Governmentâs involvement in accelerating adoption of innovation technology, especially in preparing capable extension workers and provision of subsidized credit for the farmers is inevitable. Key words: cocoa pod borer, adoption of technology, sustainable cacao plantation, Governmentâs involvement, West Sulawesi