Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
For cocoa clonal propagation it need rootstock with good characteristics. Half sibs families is the most appropriate alternative for rootstock selection. This study was aimed to select and estimate genetic parameters of cocoa seedling on the half sibs families of DR 1, DR 2, ICS 60, DRC 15, BLC 4, DRC 16, KEE 2, ICS 13, KW 162, KW 163, PA 300, RCC 70, TSH 858, Sca 6 and Sca 12. Research was carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Genetic parameter were estimated based on variance and covariance component of the variables of the number of leaf, stem height, stem girth, leaf acreage, the volume of fresh root, the length of secondary root and the length of primary root which assessed along seed growth till 90 day after planting. The result showed that most of the recorded variables perform high category of narrow sense heritability (h 2>0.5). Stem girth, leaf acreage, volume of fresh root, length of secondary root and the length of primary root were assessed as the broad category of genetic variability (d2 A >2Sed 2 A ). Therefore, length of primary root and length of secondary root would be the main criterion for rootstock selection as their performance on broad category of genetic variability and high category of narrow sense heritability. Length of secondary root can be estimated based on the performance of stem girth (r = 0.5 * ) and leaf acreage (r = 0.23*) and the primary root can be stimated based on the performance of stem height (r = 0.81 * ) and leaf acreage (r = 0.72*). Based on positive selection of primary root lenght and negative selection of secondary root lenght it was identified that the families of KEE 2 and Sca 12 potentially would be good rootstock due to their long category of the primary root and short category of the secondary root that having characteristics of high water uptake and low vigor. Key words: selection, genetic parameter, half-sib familiy, rootstock, cocoa.
Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by Â½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.
A small scale cylindrical type cocoa roaster has been designed to improve Indonesian mallholder income and commence utilization of cocoa-base products. Capacity of the roaster was at 15 kg dried cocoa beans. Operating condition of the instrument in terms of temperature and duration of roasting for cocoa powder production has been optimized by using Response Surface Methodology in the range of 110â140 C for the former and 20â60 minute for the latter. Variable of the study were temperature profile, peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder and microbial con tamination. Result of the study showed that cocoa beanâs temperature at the first 2â8 minute roasting was 30â50 C, before increased as high 10 C per minute to the adjusted temperature. Temperature and duration of roasting influenced interactively on peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder. An optimum roasting for cocoa powder preparation was obtained at temperature of 140 C and roasting time of 20 minute. Roasting treatment significantly reduced number of microbe in total plate count, however most probable number (MPN) of coliform in term of Escherichia coli was not detected. Key words : Cocoa bean, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, roasting, small scale cylindrical roaster, sensory properties, Escherichia coli.
Effectiveness and effiency of CPB control were influenced by the right time of control. To decided this methods, information about CPB infestation was needed. An experiment had been conducted to get a simple and accurate technique for CPB monitoring. The experiment was located in Tirawuta, a smallholder cocoa plantation in Kolaka district, South-East Sulawesi. The evaluated monitoring pods techniques using observing all ripe cocoa pod as standard method, i.e. pod colour changes as an indicator of CPB attack, observation on 100 pods during harvesting, moth trapping and observation on the presence of the holes caused by CPB. The collected data expressed as the percentage of CPB attack and compared with each other. Based on the Chi 2 value and time consumed for monitoring, it could be concluded that the observation of 100 attacked pods during harvesting was the most accurate technique closest to the standard method, with a lowest 2 value and not significantly different to standard method. On the contrary the visual observation on the pod colour showed the less accurate technique with ï£ 2 value of 242,25â335,33 followed by the bservation on the present of holes on the pod with ï£ 2 value of 243,45â282,87. Furthermore, monitoring technique by moth trapping could not be compared with the other techniques since their unit was unequal. However, no insect could be trapped during a night trapping using either chemical trapping or sticky trap. Development of sticky trap by variation in trap colour could be trapped of CPB moth during more than one week. Red trap was the most interesting (preferred) for the CPB followed by the yellow, white and blue ones. There was significant correlation between number of tree sample and the time needed for observation. Larger size of tree sample consumed a longer time for the observation, but in visual symptom and entry/exit hole observation methods, larger sample size did not significantly influence its accuracy. Itâs concluded that both of monitoring technique were not a converge estimation. Key words : Cocoa, cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, Integrated Pest Management, monitoring technique.
Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005), using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a) The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b) Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c) Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d) Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were the other groups. (e) The lowest pH and the highest acidity was AS 1. In this case, S 795, BP 416A, BP 509A, BP 430A, P 88, BP 542A, AS 1 and BP 542A were one group, but USDA 762 was the other group. (f) Bulk density of all observed varieties were >0.7 for green coffee and 0,39â0,47 for medium roasted coffee. (g) Outurn of all observed varieties were >83% and volume increment >50%, except for USDA 762. (g) AS 1 showed the best flavor characters, while USDA 762 was the lowest. The promising varieties which showed a group with AS 1 were P 88 and BP 542A, which fruity. All of tested varieties showed green flavor. Harsh flavor was found in BP4 16A, BP 509A, P 88, S 795 and USDA 762. (h) Based on the physicals, chemicals and flavors characters, 202 AS 1 was a group with P 88 and BP 542A; S 795 a group with BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509, while USDA 762 was other group. Key words:Coffee, physic, chemical, flavor, variety.