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INDONESIA
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 19077505     EISSN : 24600601     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Kesmas: National Public Health Journal is on public health as discipline and practices related to preventive and promotive measures to enhance health of the public through scientific approach applying variety of technique. This focus includes area and scope such as biostatistics, epidemiology, health education and promotion, health policy and administration, environmental health, public health nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, and occupational health and safety.
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Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017" : 8 Documents clear
Improvement to Early Warning System the Transmission of Dengue Fever through Controlling Potential Factor in Public Elementary School At Yogyakarta Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul; Alvira, Nur; Wibawa, Tri; Diptyanusa, Ajib
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1155.236 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1248

Abstract

Elementary school is a place that can result in increase of dengue disease among children because of environmental factors, potential transmission, the absence of good environmental management system and some control efforts which are no longer effective. This study aimed to determine factors that potentially against transmission of dengue hemorrhagic fever in state elementary school, so the early warning system can be enforced. Type of study was analytic with cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in 91 state elementary schools in Yogyakarta City in 2014. Variables in the observation are virus serotype DEN, insecticide resistance, the density of vector and physical condition of schools. Data analysis used descriptive and correlation-regression (a = 5%). Results showed that there were eight schools with dengue virus serotype 2 and 3 mosquitoes declared to have mild and moderate resistance to organophosphate, the school environment was susceptible to transmission of dengue hemorrhagic fever based on the container index, house index, breteau index and ovitrap index, temperature and humidity inside and outside were potential to the high density of eggs, wire netting was not installed on ventilation and the very close distance between the buildings could lead to transmission.AbstrakSekolah dasar merupakan tempat yang dapat mengakibatkan peningkatan penyakit dengue pada anak karena faktor lingkungan, adanya potensi penularan, belum adanya system manajemen lingkungan yang baik dan beberapa upaya pengendalian yang tidak lagi efektif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor yang berpotensi terhadap penularan demam berdarah dengue bagi anak, sehingga sistem kewaspadaan dini dapat ditegakkan. Jenis penelitian ini adalah analitik dengan rancangan potong lintang. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada 91 sekolah dasar negeri di Kota Yogyakarta. Variabel yang diobservasi adalah serotype virus DEN, resistensi insektisida, kepadatan vektor,dan kondisi fisik sekolah. Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan korelasi-regresi (a = 0.05). Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat delapan sekolah dengan virus dengue serotip 2 and 3, terjadi resistensi insektisida organofosfat tingkat ringan dan sedang, lingkungan sekolah telah rentan terhadap penularan demam berdarah berdasarkan container index, house index, breteau index dan ovitrap index, suhu dan kelembaban di dalam dan luar ruangan berpotensi terhadap tingginya kepadatan telur, ventilasi tidak terpasang kawat kasa, dan jarak antara bangunan sangat dekat dapat menyebabkan penularan menjadi sangat cepat.
Counterfeit Medicines in Socioeconomic Perspective Nuryunarsih, Desy Nuryunarsih
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1084.961 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1440

Abstract

Counterfeit medicines potentially reach 70% of the global drug markets, and the largest proportion is found in developing countries. Increasing public awareness of counterfeit medicines will automatically affect the demand for counterfeit medical products that will finally reduce counterfeit medicine activities. However, raising awareness of the dangers of counterfeit medicines is a challenging task because public health professionals need to consider diversity of social, economic and educational factors. This study examined peer-reviewed journal articles, media reports, official government and non-government reports. As many as 179 papers (1990 to 2014) were retrieved to identify the relationship between Human Development Index (HDI) of the USA, Japan, Brazil, Iran, Vietnam, Indonesia, Pakistan and Nigeria, and the type of counterfeit medicines. An electronic search was conducted using the following databases, such as Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar. Counterfeit disease curing medicines are found in high varieties most likely in countries with low HDI. At the same time, medicines for lifestyle are not solely found in countries with high HDI, but also exist in low to medium HDI.AbstrakObat-obatan palsu berpotensi mencapai 70% dari pasaran obat internasional dengan proporsi terbanyak ditemukan di negara berkembang. Meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat akan adanya obat-obatan palsu akan secara langsung memengaruhi permintaan produk obat palsu yang akhirnya akan mengurangi kegiatan pemalsuan obat. Akan tetapi, meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat akan bahaya obat-obatan palsu tidaklah mudah sebab profesi kesehatan masyarakat harus juga mempertimbangkan keberagaman faktor-faktor sosial, ekonomi dan pendidikan. Laporan ini menelaah artikel jurnal yang ditelaah oleh kelompok seminat, laporan media, laporan resmi pemerintah dan non-pemerintah. Sebanyak 179 artikel (dari 1990 sampai 2014) ditelaah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara indeks pembangunan manusia (IPM) dari USA, Jepang, Brasil, Iran, Vietnam, Indonesia, Pakistan dan Nigeria, dan tipe pemalsuan obat. Pencarian elektronik menggunakan pangkalan data seperti Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar. Obat-obatan palsu untuk pengobatan ditemukan dalam banyak ragam terutama di negara dengan IPM rendah. Pada saat yang sama, obat-obatan untuk keperluan gaya hidup tidak hanya ditemukan di negara dengan IPM tinggi, akan tetapi juga beredar di negara dengan IPM rendah dan sedang.
Impact of Women’s Empowerment on Infant Mortality in Indonesia Stiyaningsih, Hanik; Wicaksono, Febri
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (104.593 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1259

Abstract

Women’s autonomy and empowerment has generally been recognized as one of most important factors of development. A lack of autonomy and empowerment may lead to negative outcomes on child health and mortality. Yet no study to-date has analyzed links between women’s empowerment and infant mortality in Indonesia. This study tried to fill this gap to investigate the effect of women’s empowerment on infant mortality in Indonesia. Sample of 9,754 women aged 15-49 years who had their last childbirth in period 2007-2012 were drawn from 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Composite index was considered to measure women’s empowerment. Eight indicators were considered to measure three dimensions of women’s empowerment, namely participation in economic decision-making, participation in health decision-making, and autonomy in mobility. Furthermore, the binary logistic model had been specified and estimated to investigate the effect of women’s empowerment on infant mortality. Results showed that women who were more empowered were significantly less likely to experience infant mortality. This highlights the importance of women’s empowerment in efforts to reduce infant mortality.AbstrakSecara umum, otonomi dan pemberdayaan perempuan menjadi salah satu faktor penting dalam pembangunan. Kurangnya otonomi dan pemberdayaan perempuan dapat menyebabkan hasil negatif pada kesehatan dan kematian anak. Belum terdapat penelitian terkini yang menganalisis hubungan antara pemberdayaan perempuan dan kematian bayi di Indonesia. Penelitian ini berusaha mengisi kekosongan tersebut dengan menelusuri pengaruh pemberdayaan perempuan terhadap kematian bayi di Indonesia. Sampel berjumlah 9.754 perempuan berusia 15-49 tahun yang terakhir melahirkan pada periode tahun 2007-2012 diambil dari Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia 2012. Pemberdayaan perempuan diukur dengan menggunakan indeks komposit yang dibangun dari delapan indikator dari tiga dimensi pemberdayaan perempuan, yaitu partisipasi dalam pengambilan keputusan di bidang ekonomi, partisipasi dalam pengambilan keputusan di bidang kesehatan, dan kebebasan untuk berpindah. Selanjutnya, estimasi dampak pemberdayaan perempuan pada kematian bayi menggunakan model regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perempuan dengan tingkat pemberdayaan yang lebih baik akan memiliki peluang yang lebih rendah untuk mengalami kejadian kematian bayi. Hal ini menekankan pentingnya pemberdayaan perempuan untuk mengurangi kematian bayi.
The Use of “KakAyu Dental Flipbook” in Oral Health Knowledge Improvement for Elementary School Students in Depok Rikawarastuti, Rikawarastuti; Anggreni, Eka; Budiarti, Rahaju; Suid, Nurlaila Ramadhan
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (366.253 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1299

Abstract

Educating Indonesian children to improve their knowledge about the importance of maintaining oral health is needed. This study was aimed to explain relation between several factors in elementary school students, such as grade, age, sex with number of children in family or economic factor such as whether the mother is housewife or she earns regular income, which is affected by improvement of their oral health education. A quasi experiment pre-test and post-test without control group design involved 141 students as selected through purposive sampling. Samples were distributed to grade IV, V, and VI of private elementary school students in Depok, West Java, Indonesia in April-October 2016. Data collection used pre-test and post-test questionnaires. Data processing used Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and regression logistic. Results showed the improvement of knowledge level after implementing “KakAyu Dental Flipbook” education. The average result of respondents’ knowledge at pre-test was 80.85 ± 14.17, and 93.40 ± 9.84 at post-test. There is a relation between knowledge improvement and education using “KakAyu Oral Dental/Orthodonthic Flipbook” (p value = 0.001), but no significant relation between the variables (grade, age, sex, number of family members and mother’s working status) and oral health knowledge improvement of elementary school students.AbstrakPerlu adanya edukasi untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan anak Indonesia tentang pentingnya memelihara kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara faktor siswa sekolah dasar seperti kelas, usia, jenis kelamin dengan jumlah anak dalam keluarga atau faktor ekonomi seorang ibu rumah tangga atau berpenghasilan tetap, yang dipengaruhi oleh peningkatan pengetahuan dari edukasi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Disain penelitian quasi experiment pre-test dan post-test tanpa desain grup kontrol melibatkan 141 siswa yang dipilih melalui purposive sampling. Sampel tersebar pada siswa kelas IV, V, dan VI sekolah dasar swasta di Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia pada April-Oktober 2016. Data penelitian diperoleh dari kuesioner pre-test dan post-test. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test dan regresi logistik digunakan dalam pengolahan data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat pengetahuan meningkat setelah dilakukan edukasi menggunakan “KakAyu Dental Flipbook”. Rata-rata hasil pengetahuan responden saat pre-test 80,85 ± 14,17 dan saat post-test 93,40 ± 9,84. Terdapat korelasi antara peningkatan pengetahuan dan edukasi menggunakan “KakAyu Oral Dental/Orthodonthic Flipbook” (nilai p = 0,001), namun tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara variabel (kelas, usia, jenis kelamin, jumlah anak dalam keluarga, dan status pekerjaan ibu) dengan peningkatan pengetahuan kesehatan mulut siswa sekolah dasar.
Risk Factors of Acute Respiratory Infections in Practice Area for Community of Medical Students in Semarang Zulaikhah, Siti Thomas; Soegeng, Purwito; Sumarawati, Titiek
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (318.866 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1281

Abstract

Acute respiratory infection (ARI) ranks first of 10 major diseases in Primary Health Care Bangetayu with the highest percentage in Penggaron Lor Subdistrict. Skill to learn distribution and frequency of diseases as well as determinant factors that affect human health is needed in determine the most effective intervention to increase public health level. This study aimed to determine dominant factors related to ARI incidence in location of practice for community of medical students of Islam Sultan Agung University, Semarang. This study used cross-sectional design with 100 respondents and the samples were collected by stratified random sampling. Ten variables examined were environmental sanitation risk factors, while six related to behavior and health care. Data analysisused a chi-square test (bivariate) and multiple regression logistic (multivariate). Environmental sanitation factors were significantly related to ARI including the presence of ventilation, smoke hole kitchen, bedroom, residential density and the most dominant factor was the habit of smoker family members in Penggaron Lor Subdistrict. This location can be used as a practice area for the community of medical students who take Public Health Studies due to complex health problems.AbstrakInfeki saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA) menempati urutan pertama dari 10 besar penyakit di Puskesmas Bangetayu dengan persentase terbanyak di Kelurahan Penggaron Lor. Keterampilan untuk mempelajari distribusi dan frekuensi penyakit serta faktor determinan yang memengaruhi manusia sangat diperlukan untuk menetapkan intervensi yang paling efektif untuk meningkatkan derajat kesehatan masyarakat. Perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui faktor risiko yang paling dominan berhubungan dengan kejadian ISPA di lokasi praktik komunitas mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan jumlah responden 100 orang dan sampel dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan stratified random sampling. Sepuluh variabel yang diteliti adalah faktor risiko sanitasi lingkungan, sedangkan enam faktor risiko terkait dengan perilaku dan pelayanan kesehatan. Data dianalisis secara bivariat dengan uji kai kuadrat dan multivariat dengan regresi logistik ganda. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian ISPA adalah ventilasi, lubang asap dapur, ruang tidur, dan kepadatan hunian. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah kebiasaan anggota keluarga yang merokok di Kelurahan Penggaron Lor. Lokasi ini dapat digunakan sebagai lahan praktik komunitas bagi mahasiswa kedokteran yang sedang kepaniteraan di program studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat karena memiliki permasalahan kesehatan yang kompleks.
Rebon Shrimp Powder Addition Influence to Nutritional Values, Organoleptic Properties and Acceptance of Supplementary Food by Children Aged 4-5 Years Old Sulistiyono, Priyo; Herawati, Dewi Marhaeni Diah; Arya, Insi Farisa Desy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1168.756 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1280

Abstract

Malnutrition and stunting prevalence in under-five children in Cirebon City are still high that reach 13.9% and 15.7%. Rebon shrimp (Acetes erythraeus) contains high protein and calcium. Influence of adding rebon shrimp in supplementary food (lemu porridge and steamed sponge) towards nutrition quality was investigated. This study aimed to determine effects of rebon shrimp powder on nutritional values, organoleptic properties and food acceptance. Laboratory test and Nutriservey software were used to measure nutritional value of rebon shrimp powder and nutrition of supplementary food. Organoleptic test used completely randomized design with four treatments (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% shrimp powder) and two repetitions. Respondents were 30 students of Nutrition Studies Program in Cirebon with 7 hedonic scale (organoleptic test) and 50 children aged 4-5 years in integrated health care (acceptance test). As the result, the level of ash, protein and calcium of rebon shrimp powder met the Indonesian National Standard. Energy, protein and calcium significantly increased (p value < 0.05). Nutrient content of steamed sponge per 100 gram with 5% rebon shrimp powder supplied 21.6% energy, 18.9% protein and 25.9% calcium on recommended dietary allowances. Preference level of color, flavor, taste, texture and overall were significantly different. Lemu porridge with 5% rebon shrimp powder was accepted by 80% of the children and the steamed sponge acceptance reached 88%.AbstrakPrevalensi gizi kurang dan stunting pada anak bawah lima tahun (balita) di Kota Cirebon masih cukup tinggi yaitu mencapai 13,9% dan 15,7%. Udang rebon (Acetes erythraeus) memiliki kandungan protein dan kalsium yang tinggi. Pengaruh penambahan udang rebon dalam makanan tambahan (bubur lemu dan bolu kukus) terhadap kualitas gizi diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bubuk udang rebon terhadap nilai gizi, sifat organoleptik dan daya terima. Uji laboratorium dan perangkat lunak Nutriservey digunakan untuk analisis nilai gizi bubuk udang rebon dan gizi makanan tambahan. Uji organoleptik menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan (bubuk udang rebon 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) dilakukan dua kali pengulangan. Responden adalah 30 mahasiswa program studi gizi Cirebon, mrnggunakan 7 skala hedonik (uji organoleptik) dan 50 anak-anak usia 4-5 tahun di posyandu (uji daya terima). Hasilnya adalah kadar abu, protein dan kalsium bubuk udang rebon memenuhi Standar Nasional Indonesia. Energi, protein dan kalsium meningkat signifikan (nilai p < 0,05). Kandungan gizi per 100 gram bolu kukus dengan bubuk udang rebon 5% memenuhi angka kecukupan gizi energi 21,6%, protein 18,9% dan kalsium 25,9%. Tingkat kesukaan pada warna, aroma, rasa, tekstur dan keseluruhan berbeda signifikan (nilai p < 0,05). Bubur lemu dengan bubuk udang rebon 5% dapat diterima oleh 80% balita dan bolu kukus mencapai 88%.
Effects of Multilevel Intervention in Workplace Health Promotion on Workers’ Metabolic Syndrome Components Zahtamal, Zahtamal; Rochmah, Wasilah; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Setyawati, Lientjie K.
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (320.465 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1279

Abstract

Approximately 10–30% of adult Asian people had metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to reveal effects of workplace health promotion (WHP) with multilevel interventions on workers’ metabolic syndrome component. This study was conducted in 2014-2015 using quasi-experimental design with multilevel subject intervention in Indonesia. The WHP program for multilevel intervention group included 12 weeks of combined physical training, diet, health education, social support, and advocacy. The WHP program for control group included only health education. Instruments used included IPAQ, table of 24-hour food recall, physical measurement tools, and clinical laboratories. Data analysis used Marginal Homogeneity, paired sample t-test, Mc Nemar, and Wilcoxon test. WHP multilevel intervention could improve physical activity and the nutrition in accordance with diet of workers, in particular to increase the amount of fiber and a reduce cholesterol intake. The improved metabolic syndrome components due to the influence of multilevel WHP were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels (p value < 0.05). Overall, workplace health promotion multilevel interventions are effective for the management of metabolic syndrome components.AbstrakSekitar 10-30% orang Asia dewasa mengalami sindrom metabolik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap efek Promosi Kesehatan di Tempat Kerja PKDTK dengan intervensi multilevel pada komponen/penanda pekerja yang menderita sindrom metabolik. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tahun 2014-2015 dengan menggunakan desain quasi experimental dengan intervensi subjek secara multilevel di Indonesia. Program PKDTK untuk kelompok intervensi multilevel berupa kombinasi latihan fisik, diet, pendidikan kesehatan, dukungan sosial, dan advokasi salama 12 minggu. Program PKDTK untuk kelompok kontrol hanya pendidikan kesehatan. Instrumen penelitian seperti IPAQ, table food recall 24 jam, alat pengukuran fisik, dan laboratorium klinis. Analisis data menggunakan Marginal Homogeneity, paired sample t, Mc Nemar, dan uji Wilcoxon. Intervensi PKDTK multilevel dapat meningkatkan aktivitas fisik dan asupan makanan yang sesuai dengan diet sindrom metabolik, khususnya untuk meningkatkan jumlah serat pangan dan pengurangan asupan kolesterol. Komponen sindrom metabolik yang membaik karena pengaruh PKDTK secara multilevel adalah tekanan darah sistolik dan diastolik, serta kadar glukosa darah puasa (nilai p < 0,05). Secara keseluruhan, intervensi PKDTK multilevel efektif untuk pengelolaan komponen sindroma metabolik pada pekerja.
Extrovert Personality Type and Prolonged Second Stage of Labor Kusmiyati, Yuni; Nurfitria, Chandra Tyas; Suherni, Suherni; Wahyuningsih, Heni Puji
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (314.983 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i4.1206

Abstract

Personality can affect individual’s response that implicate in duration of labor. Previous studies showed relationship between personality and duration of labor. People with extrovert personality type (type A) tend to be more susceptible to stress than introvert personality type (type B). This study aimed to determine correlation between extrovert personality type and prolonged second stage of labor by considering external variables such as maternal education, economy, age and parity. A case control study was conducted on 156 parturient women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of study, such as in Yogyakarta in 2015. Case samples were 52 women with prolonged second stage of labor and control were 104 women with normal second stage of labor. Purposive sampling method was used. Personality type assessment used type A/B questionnaire of Jenkins Activity Survey. Data analysis used logistic regression. Results showed that 80.8% prolonged second stage of labor occurred in type A mothers and 19.2% in type B mothers. Extrovert personality type had a significant correlation with prolonged second stage of labor (p value = 0.00). Type A mothers have a risk 8.2 times (95% CI: 3.7-18.4) of prolonged second stage of labor than type B mothers after be controlled with economic status, parity, maternal education and age.AbstrakKepribadian dapat memengaruhi respons individu yang dapat berdampak pada proses persalinan lama. Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan adanya hubungan kepribadian dengan waktu persalinan. Tipe kepribadian ekstrover (tipe A) cenderung lebih rentan terhadap stres dibandingkan orang dengan tipe kepribadian introvert (tipe B). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan tipe kepribadian ekstrover dan variabel luar (pendidikan, ekonomi, usia ibu dan paritas) dengan persalinan kala II lama. Studi kasus kontrol dilakukan pada 156 ibu bersalin yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi pada tahun 2015 di Yogyakarta. Sampel kasus adalah 52 ibu dengan persalinan kala II lama dan kontrol adalah 104 ibu dengan persalinan kala II normal. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Tipe kepribadian dinilai menggunakan kuesioner tipe A/B Jenkins Activity Survey. Analisis data menggunakan regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 80,8% kala II persalinan lama terjadi pada ibu dengan kepribadian tipe Adan 19,2% pada ibu dengan kepribadian tipe B. Tipe kepribadian ekstrover memiliki hubungan signifikan terhadap kala II persalinan lama (nilai p = 0,00). Ibu dengan kepribadian tipe A berisiko 8.2 kali (95% CI: 3,7-18,4) mengalami persalinan kala II lama dibandingkan ibu dengan kepribadian tipe B setelah dikontrol variabel status ekonomi, paritas, pendidikan dan usia ibu.

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