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INDONESIA
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 19077505     EISSN : 24600601     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Kesmas: National Public Health Journal is on public health as discipline and practices related to preventive and promotive measures to enhance health of the public through scientific approach applying variety of technique. This focus includes area and scope such as biostatistics, epidemiology, health education and promotion, health policy and administration, environmental health, public health nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, and occupational health and safety.
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Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016" : 8 Documents clear
Environmental, Behavioral Factors and Filariasis Incidence in Bintan District, Riau Islands Province Ikhwan, Zainul; Herawati, Lucky; Suharti, Suharti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (209.479 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.546

Abstract

Microfilaria rate of filariasis in Bintan District remains high, especially in Teluk Bintan, Teluk Sebong, and Sri Kuala Lobam Subdistricts. This study aimed to determine relation between environmental risk factors (physical, biological, chemical, socio-cultural, economic) and behavioral factors with filariasis incidence. The study was an analytic observational study conducted on May – September 2015 using case control design, which consisted of a total of case as many as 33 filariasis sufferers and a total of control as many as 65 non filariasis sufferers as taken by cluster sampling technique. Population of study was people in Bintan District. Data obtained were then analyzed by using chi square and logistic regression test. Results showed correlation of knowledge (p value= 0.045; OR = 1.365), wire-net use (p value = 0.048; OR = 1.381), stockyard (p value= 0.018; OR = 3.5), swamp (p value = 0.038; OR = 1.358), plantation/forest (p = 0.035; OR = 0.373) and mosquito-net use (p value = 0.036; OR = 1.417) as risk factor of filariasis incidence. In conclusion, variables most related to filariasis incidence in Bintan District are knowledge (OR = 6.154), mosquito-net use (OR = 3.861) and distance to swamp (OR = 3.668).AbstrakTingkat mikrofilaria filariasis di Kabupaten Bintan masih tinggi, khususnya di Kecamatan Teluk Bintan, Teluk Sebong, dan Sri Kuala Lobam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan faktor risiko lingkungan (faktor fisik, biologi, kimia, sosial budaya, ekonomi) dan faktor perilaku dengan kejadian filariasis. Jenis penelitian observasional analitik yang dilakukan pada Mei – September 2015 dengan desain kasus kontrol, yang terdiri dari jumlah kasus 33 orang penderita filariasis dan kontrol 65 orang bukan penderita filariasis dengan teknik cluster sampling. Populasi penelitian adalah masyarakat di Kabupaten Bintan. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji kai kuadrat dan regresi logistik. Hasil menunjukkan adanya hubungan pengetahuan (nilai p = 0.045; OR = 1.365), kawat kasa (nilai p = 0.048; OR = 1.381), kandang ternak (nilai p = 0.018; OR = 3,5), rawa-rawa (nilai p = 0.038; OR = 1.358), perkebunan/hutan (nilai p = 0.035; OR = 0.373), dan penggunaan kelambu (nilai p = 0.036; OR = 1.417) sebagai faktor risiko kejadian filariasis. Sebagai kesimpulan, variabel yang paling berhubungan dengan kejadian filariasis di Kabupaten Bintan adalah pengetahuan (OR = 6.154), penggunaan kelambu (OR = 3.861) dan jarak dengan rawa-rawa (OR = 3.668).
Variation of Driving Skill among Elderly Drivers Compared to Young Drivers in Japan Susilowati, Indri Hapsari; Yasukouchi, Akira
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (392.091 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.830

Abstract

This study analyzed driving skill among Japanese elderly drivers compared to young drivers and see which less skilled that might impact road accident risk in highway. Subjects included young and elderly drivers, consisting of 10 college students (20 – 24 years old) and 25 elderly drivers (14 men and 11 women) coming from The Silver Manpower Centre, an organization for elderly > 60 years. Elderly drivers were divided into two age groups, namely elderly 1 aged 60 – 65 years (10 persons) and elderly 2 aged > 65 years (15 persons). Driving performance was evaluated by using driving game simulator in laboratory. Analysis was conducted on consistency in the lane, lane-changing skill, traffic sign compliance, right-turning skill, braking and driving speed. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA test. Generally, performance of elderly 2 was lower than the young almost in all parameters including consistency in the lane (p value < 0.007), traffic sign compliance (p value < 0.011), right-turning skill (p value < 0.001) and braking (p value < 0.001). In the lane-changing skill, young drivers showed significantly higher score (p value < 0.007) than both elderly groups in which elderly 1 (p value < 0.004); elderly 2 (p value < 0.001). The group > 65 years old were likely to be wrong on seeing traffic signs due to visual limitation and long response of compliance.AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis kemampuan mengemudi pada pengemudi lanjut usia (lansia) dibandingkan dengan usia muda di Jepang dan melihat keterampilan mengemudi yang kurang sehingga dapat memengaruhi risiko kecelakaan di jalan raya. Subjek penelitian adalah pengemudi usia muda dan lansia, terdiri dari 10 mahasiswa (20 - 24 tahun) dan 25 pengemudi lansia (14 laki-laki dan 11 perempuan) berasal dari The Silver Menpower Center, organisasi bagi lansia > 60 tahun. Pengemudi lansia dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, yaitu lansia 1 berusia 60 - 65 tahun (10 orang) dan lansia 2 berusia > 65 tahun (15 orang). Kemampuan mengemudi dievaluasi dengan simulator permainan mengemudi dalam laboratorium. Analisis dilakukan pada konsistensi dalam jalur, perubahan jalur, kepatuhan pada rambu lalu lintas, kemampuan berbalik kanan, mengerem/akselerasi, dan kecepatan mengemudi. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji ANOVA. Secara umum, kemampuan pengemudi lansia 2 lebih rendah dibandingkan usia muda hampir di semua parameter, meliputi kekonsistenan dalam jalur (nilai p < 0,007), kepatuhan pada rambu lalu lintas (nilai p < 0,011), kemampuan berbalik kanan (nilai p < 0,001), dan keterampilan mengerem/akselerasi (nilai p < 0,001). Dalam keterampilan mengubah jalur, pengemudi usia muda menunjukkan skor signifikan (nilai p < 0,007) lebih tinggi dari kedua kelompok pengemudi lansia dimana lansia 1 (nilai p < 0,004); lansia 2 (nilai p < 0,001). Pengemudi > 65 tahun cenderung salah dalam melihat rambu lalu lintas karena terbatasnya penglihatan dan lamanya respons dalam mematuhinya.
Role of Hearth Program with Undernutrition Incidence among Toddlers in Tangerang City Gizella, Gizella; Hilmanto, Dany; Rachmadi, Dedi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1536.946 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.757

Abstract

Toddler is a group at risk of undernutrition in which World Health Organization (WHO) stated that toddler mortality because of undernutrition was 54% in 2002. In Indonesia, the prevalence increased from 17.9% in 2010 to 19.6% in 2013. In Tangerang City, there was 1.43% of toddlers suffering from undernutrition in 2013. This study aimed to prove in valid the correlation between Hearth Program covering food-providing behavior, toddler’s hygiene behavior, health care seeking behavior and toddler parenting behavior with undernutrition incidence among toddlers. This study was quantitative, cross sectional, using primary data, analyzed in univariate, bivariate and multivariate in a month on September. Samples were taken by total sampling as many as 60 toddlers suffering from undernutrition in Tangerang City. Results showed that 12 (20%) of 60 toddlers suffered from very underweight nutrition and the remaining amounted to 48 toddlers (80%) suffered from underweight nutrition. There was a correlation between food providing behavior and health care seeking behavior with undernutrition among toddlers. Variable food-providing behavior was the dominant factor influencing undernutrition among toddlers with OR = 4.655 (CI = 1.052 – 20.6) after controlled by the variable health care seeking behavior. Improvement on food providing and health care seeking is hopefully able to improve and decrease undernutrition among toddlers.AbstrakKelompok yang rentan terhadap gizi kurang adalah balita. World Health Organization (WHO) menyatakan kematian anak bawah lima tahun (balita) akibat gizi kurang sebesar 54% pada tahun 2002. Di Indonesia, prevalensinya mengalami peningkatan dari 17,9% pada tahun 2010 menjadi 19,6% pada tahun 2013. Di Kota Tangerang, terdapat 1,43% balita yang mengalami gizi buruk pada tahun 2013. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan secara valid hubungan antara Program Pos Gizi yang meliputi perilaku pemberian makan, perilaku kebersihan balita, perilaku mencari pelayanan kesehatan dan perilaku pengasuhan balita dengan kejadian gizi kurang pada balita. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif, potong lintang, menggunakan data primer serta dianalisis secara univariat, bivariat, dan multivariat selama satu bulan pada bulan September 2015. Sampel diambil secara total sampling sebanyak 60 balita yang mengalami gizi kurang di Kota Tangerang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa dari 60 balita yang mengalami gizi kurang, sebanyak 12 balita (20%) mengalami gizi sangat kurus dan sisanya sejumlah 48 balita (80%) mengalami gizi kurus. Terdapat hubungan antara perilaku pemberian makan dan perilaku mencari pelayanan kesehatan dengan gizi kurang pada balita. Variabel perilaku pemberian makan merupakan faktor dominan yang memengaruhi gizi kurang pada balita dengan OR = 4,655 (CI = 1,052 – 20,6) setelah dikontrol oleh variabel perilaku mencari pelayanan kesehatan. Perbaikan pemberian makan dan pencarian pelayanan kesehatan diharapkan mampu memperbaiki dan menurunkan gizi kurang pada balita.
Good Corporate Governance Implementation and Performance of Civil Servant Hasan, Muhammad; Ayuningtyas, Dumilah; Misnaniarti, Misnaniarti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (205.121 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.855

Abstract

In order to achieve the vision and mission, every hospital must implement Good Corporate Governance (GCG). Its implementation aims to optimally improve performance of employees that will finally improve organizational performance. This study aimed to analyze the relation between principles of GCG and performance of civil servants of the Natuna Field Hospital in Anambas Islands District. This analytical descriptive study using cross sectional design involved 56 civil servants as samples. Data was collected in 2012 using a structured questionnaire. This study used chi square and logistic regression tests. Multivariate model was simplified by eliminating the confounding variables using backward stepwise method. This study found two variables significantly related to performance of civil servants, namely implementation of fairness and transperancy principles. Both were the most related variables to the performance of civil servants.AbstrakDalam rangka mencapai visi dan misi, setiap rumah sakit harus menjalankan tata kelola perusahaan yang baik (Good Corporate Governance/GCG). Penerapan GCG sendiri bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kinerja pegawai secara optimal, yang akhirnya akan meningkatkan kinerja organisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan penerapan prinsip-prinsip GCG terhadap kinerja pegawai negeri sipil (PNS) Rumah Sakit Umum Lapangan Natuna Kabupaten Kepulauan Anambas. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analitik dengan desain potong lintang pada 56 PNS. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada tahun 2012 dengan kuesioner terstruktur. Digunakan analisis dengan uji kai kuadrat dan regresi logistik, dan untuk penyederhanaan model dilakukan eliminasi terhadap faktor perancu dengan menggunakan metode backward stepwise. Penelitian ini menemukan dua variabel yang signifikan berhubungan dengan kinerja PNS, yaitu penerapan prinsip fairness dan penerapan prinsip transparancy. Keduanya merupakan variabel yang paling berhubungan dengan kinerja pegawai negeri sipil.
Well Water Consumed and Urolithiasis in Gedangsari Subdistrict, Yogyakarta Sulistyawati, Sulistyawati; Astuti, Fardhiasih Dwi; Trisasri, Ruri; Rustiawan, Asep
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (207.237 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.1165

Abstract

The land in Gedangsari Subdistrict area composes of limestone. Many local people consume drinking water from wells that contain high levels of calcium. Many people suffer from urolithiasis. This study aimed to describe calcium or Ca(OH)2 distribution in the well water and explain its relation with urolithiasis incidence. This study was conducted in Gedangsari Subdistrict, Gunung Kidul District from July to November 2013. The study was cross sectional confirmed with titration test in laboratory. Samples were 94 wells of 3,849 well population as selected randomly. Criteria of sample selection included wells used for drinking by the population aged older than 30 years already, with less than 15 meter of depth. Laboratory test of Ca (OH)2 level was conducted by titration. Suspect urolithiasis was clinically diagnosed by doctor and data analysis used chi-square test. Results showed relation between water hardness and urolithiasis (RP = 2.27), although statistically not significant. In conclusion, there was no relation between mineral water consumption, age, and length of stay with urolithiasis incidence in Gedangsari Subdistrict, Gunungkidul District.AbstrakTanah di wilayah Kecamatan Gedangsari mengandung batuan kapur. Masyarakat di daerah ini banyak yang mengkonsumsi air minum dari sumur gali yang mengandung kadar kalsium tinggi, dan banyak yang menderita urolithiasis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran distribusi kalsium atau Ca(OH)2 pada air sumur dan menjelaskan hubungannya dengan kejadian urolithiasis. Penelitian dilakukan di Kecamatan Gedangsari, Kabupaten Gunungkidul selama Juli sampai November 2013. Penelitian dilakukan secara potong lintang dengan konfirmasi uji titrasi di laboratorium. Sejumlah 94 sampel sumur dipilih secara acak dari populasi 3.849 sumur. Kriteria pemilihan sampel adalah sumur gali yang telah digunakan untuk minum oleh penduduk berusia lebih dari 30 tahun, dengan kedalaman kurang dari 15 meter. Pemeriksaan laboratorium kadar kalsium dilakukan dengan titrasi. Dugaan urolithiasis didiagnosis melalui pemeriksaan klinis oleh dokter. Data dianalisis dengan uji kai kuadrat. Hasil analisis menunjukkan hubungan antara kesadahan air dengan urolithiasis (RP= 2.27) namun tidak bermakna secara statistik. Konsumsi air putih, usia, dan lama tinggal tidak berhubungan dengan kejadian urolithiasis di Kecamatan Gedangsari Kabupaten Gunungkidul.
Measles Immunization and Vitamin A for Prevention of Pneumonia in Indonesia Widoyo, Ratno
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (417.224 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.841

Abstract

Pneumonia is the major cause of child death in Indonesia after diarrhea. Increasing coverage of measles, pertusis, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) immunization substantially cancontrol pneumonia. Spn and Hib vaccines have not been included in category of mandatory immunization in Indonesia. Measles vaccine has more direct effect on prevention of pneumonia than pertusis vaccine. Providing immunization followed by providing vitamin A will increase the specific antibody titer among children. This study aimed to determine effects of measles vaccine and vitamin A to pneumonia incidence among toddlers. Method of study was cross sectional using 13,062 data of children drawn from 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Data were analyzed using poisson regression test. Analysis results showed that prevalence of pneumonia among Indonesian children was 5.4%, measles immunization coverage was 82.57%, and vitamin A supplementation coverage was 74.9%. Furthermore, providing measles immunization and vitamin A could prevent pneumonia incidence among toddlers (12 – 59 months old) up to 26.5%. Providing measles immunization then followed by providing vitamin A can be used as a preventive action in attempt to decrease pneumonia incidence.AbstrakPneumonia merupakan penyebab kematian tertinggi pada anak di Indonesia setelah diare. Pengendalian pneumonia dapat dilakukan dengan peningkatan cakupan imunisasi campak, pertusis, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), dan Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib). Vaksin Spn dan Hib belum masuk ke dalam kategori imunisasi wajib di Indonesia. Vaksin campak lebih memiliki pengaruh langsung terhadap pneumonia dibandingkan dengan vaksin pertusis. Pemberian imunisasi yang disertai pemberian vitamin A akan meningkatkan titer antibodi pada anak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian imunisasi campak dan vitamin A terhadap kejadian pneumonia. Metode penelitian adalah potong lintang dengan menggunakan 13.062 data anak yang terdapat pada data Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2012. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji regresi poisson. Hasil analisis menunjukkan prevalensi pneumonia pada anak di Indonesia adalah 5.4%, cakupan imunisasi campak sebesar 82.6%, dan cakupan pemberian vitamin A sebesar 74.9%. Pemberian imunisasi campak disertai dengan pemberian vitamin A dapat mencegah terjadinya kejadian pneumonia pada anak usia 12 – 59 bulan sebesar 26,5%. Pemberian imunisasi campak yang disertai dengan pemberian vitamin A dapat digunakan sebagai tindakan pencegahan dalam upaya penurunan kejadian pneumonia.
Identification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Rat and Shrew Populations Using rpoB Gene and Its Spatial Distribution in Boyolali District Widiastuti, Dyah; Sholichah, Zumrotus; Agustiningsih, Agustiningsih; Wijayanti, Nastiti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (612.124 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.798

Abstract

Leptospirosis becomes health problem in Indonesia. Until April 2014, cases of leptospirosis transmitted by rats were reported in Boyolali with case fatality rate (CFR) 83.3%. Leptospira genus consists of various serovars and genetic types living in different environment. Classification of Leptospira species based on rpoB gene could be used as this gene has high level of polymorphism. This study aimed to identify Leptospira serovars in rat population using kinship analysis based on rpoB gene polymorphism and to describe spatial distribution of rats with Leptospira positive in Boyolali District. A cross sectional study was conducted on April 2014 at Sindon Village in Ngemplak Subdistrict and Jeron Village in Nogosari Subdistrict, Boyolali District. Polymerase Chain Reaction test was performed on 104 rat kidney samples from the two locations of study. Spatial analysis was conducted to map distribution of rats with Leptospira positive. There were six positive rpoB gene samples in Rattus tanezumi, Rattus argentiventer and Suncus murinus. Five of six positive samples showed the closest genetic kinship to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe based on rpoB gene. One isolate did not have a close genetic kinship to any serovar included in the cluster. Spatial analysis based on home range buffer zone showed that rats with Leptospira positive were found in 30 meter and 150 meter from leptospirosis patients.AbstrakLeptospirosis merupakan masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Hingga April 2014, dilaporkan kasus leptospirosis yang ditularkan oleh tikus di Kabupaten Boyolali dengan angka kematian 83,3%. Genus Leptospira terdiri dari ratusan serovar dan tipe genetik yang hidup di pelbagai jenis habitat. Pengelompokan spesies Leptospira berdasarkan gen rpoB dapat digunakan karena tingkat polimorfisme gen tersebut tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi serovar bakteri Leptospira pada populasi tikus di Kabupaten Boyolali menggunakan analisis hubungan kekerabatan didasarkan pada polimorfisme gen rpoB dan menggambarkan distribusi spasial tikus positif Leptospira di Kabupaten Boyolali. Penelitian potong lintang dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2014 di Desa Sindon Kecamatan Ngemplak dan Desa Jeron Kecamatan Nogosari, Kabupaten Boyolali. Pemeriksaan Polymerase Chain Reaction dilakukan pada 104 sampel ginjal tikus dari dua lokasi penelitian. Analisis spasial sederhana dilakukan untuk memetakan sebaran tikus yang positif Leptospira. Terdapat enam sampel positif gen rpoB Leptospira pada Rattus tanezumi, Rattus argentiventer dan Suncus murinus. Lima dari keenam sampel menunjukkan hubungan kekerabatan yang paling dekat dengan Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe berdasarkan gen rpoB. Satu isolat tidak memiliki hubungan kekerabatan yang dekat dengan serovar manapun yang masuk dalam cluster. Analisis spasial berdasarkan jarak aktivitas harian tikus menunjukkan tikus positif Leptospira ditemukan berada dalam kisaran 30 meter dan 150 meter dari penderita leptospirosis.
Rural-Based Health Promotion Model for Pregnant Women in Banyumas District Gamelia, Elviera; Anandari, Dian; Purnamasari, Dyah Umiyarni
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 1, August 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (328.346 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i1.687

Abstract

Previous studies show that knowledge of prenatal care in rural areas remains low that affects to bad behavior, so developing health promotion models is needed to improve prenatal care knowledge, attitude and behavior. This study aimed to develop health promotion model of prenatal care in rural area based on needs assessment. Study was conducted on June 2015 by qualitative approach involving first 16 pregnant women in third trimester with risky pregnancy as key informants and 16 family members living with them and know their daily life, 27 midwives and 3 religious leaders as additional informants. Data collection techniques were in-depth interviews and observation for pregnant women and family, then focus group discussion for midwives and religious leaders. Analysis used was Miles and Huberman model by data reduction, data display and conclusion. Based on needs assessment, health promotion media is needed by book for pregnant women with attractive design that features images, colors and complete explanation. Book is selected because of pregnant women’s preference and needs, characteristics of rural areas and infrastructure availability. Prenatal care materials need to be added from book containing child and maternal health including prenatal checkup by midwives, danger pregnancy signs, causes, consequences, prevention, recommended and unrecommended food, breast care ways, pregnancy exercise and fetal development. Health promotion methods are lectures and discussions in pregnant women’s class.AbstrakPenelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan pelayanan prenatal di wilayah pedesaan masih rendah yang berdampak pada perilaku buruk sehingga mengembangkan model promosi kesehatan dibutuhkan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan prenatal, sikap dan perilaku. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan model promosi kesehatan pelayanan prenatal di wilayah pedesaan berdasarkan penilaian kebutuhan. Penelitian dilakukan pada Juni 2015 dengan pendekatan kualitatif melibatkan 16 ibu hamil pertama di trimester ketiga dengan kehamilan berisiko sebagai informan kunci dan 16 anggota keluarga yang tinggal bersama ibu hamil dan mengetahui kehidupan sehari-harinya, 27 bidan dan 3 tokoh agama sebagai informan tambahan. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah wawancara mendalam dan observasi untuk ibu hamil dan keluarga, kemudian focus group discussion untuk bidan dan tokoh agama. Analisis yang digunakan adalah model Miles dan Huberman dengan melakukan pengurangan data, tampilan data dan kesimpulan. Berdasarkan penilaian kebutuhan, media promosi kesehatan dibutuhkan melalui buku untuk ibu hamil dengan desain menarik berfitur gambar, warna dan penjelasan lengkap. Buku dipilih karena kecenderungan dan kebutuhan ibu hamil, karakteristik wilayah pedesaan dan ketersediaan infrastruktur. Bahan pelayanan prenatal perlu ditambahkan dari buku yang memuat kesehatan ibu dan anak meliputi pemeriksaan prenatal oleh bidan, tanda kehamilan berbahaya, penyebab, konsekuensi, pencegahan, makanan rekomendasi dan tidak, cara menjaga payudara dan latihan kehamilan serta perkembangan janin. Metode promosi kesehatan adalah penyampaian dan diskusi di kelas ibu hamil.

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