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INDONESIA
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 19077505     EISSN : 24600601     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Kesmas: National Public Health Journal is on public health as discipline and practices related to preventive and promotive measures to enhance health of the public through scientific approach applying variety of technique. This focus includes area and scope such as biostatistics, epidemiology, health education and promotion, health policy and administration, environmental health, public health nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, and occupational health and safety.
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Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012" : 16 Documents clear
Determinan Asupan Makanan Usia Lanjut Amran, Yuli; Kusumawardani, Riastuti; Supriyatiningsih, Nita
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (236.989 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.78

Abstract

Berdasarkan data Kementerian Sosial, jumlah usia lanjut (usila) di Indonesia tahun 2004 tercatat 16.522.311 jiwa dan 3.092.910 jiwa atau se- kitar 20% adalah usila terlantar. Nutrisi yang kurang pada usila berdampak pada kesehatan sehingga relatif mudah terjangkit penyakit infeksi dan gangguan zat gizi. Selain itu, asupan makanan berhubungan dengan depresi, jumlah gigi, gangguan gigi, penggunaan obat, penyakit, dukungan sosial seperti kunjungan keluarga atau orang terdekat, dan rasa makanan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui berbagai faktor yang berhubungan dengan asupan makanan pada usila. Penelitian menggunakan desain studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap 58 orang usila di Panti Sosial Tresna Werdha Budi Mulia 01 Cipayung pada periode bulan Mei-Juni tahun 2010. Metode analisis multivariat digunakan untuk melihat faktor dominan yang berpengaruh terhadap asupan makanan. Sekitar 62,1% usila di panti sosial yang diteliti mempunyai asupan makanan yang kurang. Berdasarkan hasil analisis multivariat, makanan, penyakit, dan jumlah gigi merupakan faktor yang paling dominan memengaruhi asupan makanan pada usila.Kata kunci: Asupan makanan, lanjut usiaAbstractBase on Ministry of Sosial Welfare, the number of elder in Indonesia 2004 was recorded 16.522.311 and 3.092.910 or about 20% were negleted elders. Poor nutrition will impact on the health of the elders that directly related the infectious disease and the level of food intake. Besides, food intake is also associated with depression, the number of theet, the dental disorders, drug use, diseases, social support include the visit of the family or the people around them, and the taste of the food. The objective of study is to describe the factors that associated with food intake on the elders. This study that was conducted in Mei-June 2010 used cross sectional design. The sample that was suitable with criteria used in this study is about 58 people. The study used multivariate analysis to know the dominant factors that affected food intake. The result showed that 62,1% of elders in Panti Sosial Tresna Werdha Budi Mulia 01 Cipayung has less food intake. Based on the results, the diseases, depression, number of the teeth, and taste of the food are associated with food intake of the elders.Key words: Food intake, erderly
Pengaruh Pengembangan Organisasi, Kepemimpinan, Jenjang Karir terhadap Kepuasan Kerja dan Kinerja Pegawai Puskesmas Djestawana, I Gusti Gede
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (254.396 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.79

Abstract

Puskesmas harus mampu cepat tanggap terhadap kebutuhan pelanggan dengan konsekuensi organisasi memerlukan sumber daya manusia yang mempunyai keahlian dan kemampuan unik. Untuk mewujudkan hal terse- but, puskesmas harus berorientasi pada pembentukan kualitas sumber daya manusia yang mampu menjawab tuntutan perubahan. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah membuktikan pengaruh pengembangan organisasi, kepemimpinan, serta pengembangan karir secara parsial dan simultan terhadap kepuasan kerja dan kinerja pegawai Puskesmas Kota Denpasar. Penelitian dilakukan pada pegawai di 10 Puskesmas Kota Denpasar menggunakan 3 tahap teknis analisis multivariat dengan metode confirmatory factor analysis yang dilakukan dengan mengurangi satu demi satu indikator penyusun suatu variabel hingga tercapai suatu model pendugaan yang memenuhi persyaratan menggunakan program aplikasi structural equation model (SEM) berupa analysis of moment structures (AMOS). Berdasarkan model persamaan 1 terbukti bahwa hipotesis yang menyatakan pengembangan organisasi, kepemimpinan, serta pengembangan karir secara parsial dan simultan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerja (nilai p < 0,05). Berdasarkan model persamaan 2, pengembangan organisasi, kepemimpinan, pengembangan karir, serta kepuasan kerja secara parsial dan simultan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja pegawai (nilai p < 0,05).Kata kunci: Kinerja pegawai, kepuasan kerja, kepemimpinan, pengembangan karir, pengembangan organisasiAbstractPuskesmas should be able to quickly respond to costumer need with the consequences of human resource organizations require the expertise and unique capabilities. So, puskesmas should be oriented to the formation of human resources capable of answering the demands of change. The aims of the research to find out the implication of organizational development, leadership, career development, both partially and simultaneously towards work satisfaction and work performance of personnel in Puskesmas in  Denpasar City. This research involved personnels of 10 Puskesmas in Denpasar City: The research takes total population number as the sample and total 324 people were involved in this research. Data analysis technique was carried out in 3 phases; univariat, bivariat dan multivariat analysis. Univariat analysis was carried out with backward confirmatory factor analysis, while bivariat analysis was carried out with canonical correlation technique, and multivariat analysis was carried out with structural equation model (SEM). The analysis used computer program od SEM application: analysis of moment structures (AMOS). The research results as follows; according to equation 1, it is proved that hypothesis stating that organizational development, leadership and career development, both partially and simultaneously, influences on work satisfaction significantly (p value < 0,05). Organizational development, leadership, career development and work sa- tisfaction, both partially and simultaneously, influence work performance significantly (p value < 0,05).Key words: Job performance, work satisfaction, leadership, career development, organizational development
Konsumsi Jamu Ibu Hamil sebagai Faktor Risiko Asfiksia Bayi Baru Lahir Purnamawati, Dewi; Ariawan, Iwan
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (239.085 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.80

Abstract

Jamu merupakan obat tradisional yang dibuat dengan cara mengolah bahan alamiah yang mempunyai khasiat obat dengan beberapa bahan campuran. Efektivitas dan efek samping pengobatan tradisional sebagai upaya pelayanan kesehatan masih perlu dibuktikan, khususnya jika digunakan oleh ibu yang sedang hamil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsumsi jamu pada ibu hamil terhadap kejadian asfiksia pada bayi baru lahir di Bekasi tahun 2008. Desain penelitian adalah kasus kontrol dengan metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hubungan yang signifikan antara konsumsi jamu terhadap kejadian asfiksia pada bayi baru lahir (nilai p = 0,005; odds ratio (OR) = 7,1; 95% CI = 4,23 – 11,9; (AFE) = 0,85; dan (AFP) = 0,43). Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah antenatal care (ANC) dan asfiksia pada bayi baru lahir dengan jumlah ANC= 4-8 kali (nilai p = 0,052; OR = 1,68; dan 95% CI = 0,99 - 2,83) sedangkan jumlah ANC kurang dari 4 kali (nilai p= 0,019; OR = 3,02; dan 95% CI = 1,2 - 7,58). Berdasarkan hasil wawancara mendalam diketahui bahwa mayoritas ibu hamil belum paham tentang perilaku sehat selama hamil dan tidak mendapatkan penjelasan yang cukup dari petugas kesehatan. Oleh karena itu, perlu ada peningkatan kualitas pelayanan kesehatan pada saat kehamilan dan persalinan serta perlu standardisasi penggunaan jamu un- tuk ibu hamil.Kata kunci: Obat tradisional, jamu, asfiksia, kehamilanAbstractJamu are traditional medicine which is made by natural ingredience which has medicational effect combining with several ingrediences. The successful of traditional medicine as self medication in health care still need to prove for its efectiveness and the side effect especially if it used by pregnant women. The goal of this study is to know how the effect of consuming jamu for pregnant women with birth asphyxia in Bekasi in 2008. Quantitaive and qualitative study designs were used in this study. Case control design used to see how the odds ratio of the mother who have experience to take jamu during pregnancy. The result showed that there are relation and risk of con- sume jamu with birth asphyxia (p value = 0,000; odds ratio (OR) = 7,1; 95% CI = 4,23 – 11,9) and frequencies of antenatal care (ANC) with birth as- phyxia (4 – 8 times during pregnancy, p value = 0,052; OR = 1,68; and less than 4 times during pregnancy, p value = 0,019; OR = 3,02). The result of indepth interview tells us that majority of mother doesn’t know about the health attitude during pregnancy and doesn’t have enough information from providers about it. Therefore increase the quality of health services during pregnancy and birth delivery and standart for using jamu for pregnant women are needed.Key words: Traditional medicine, jamu, asphyxia, pregnancy
Analisis Demand dan Supply Konsumsi Garam Beryodium Tingkat Rumah Tangga Darmawan, Nadia Irina; Darmawan, Ede Surya
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.917 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.81

Abstract

Secara nasional, konsumsi garam beryodium cukup adalah 62,3% dan di Provinsi Jawa Barat adalah 58,3%. Cakupan konsumsi garam beryodium tingkat rumah tangga di Kota Bekasi hanya sekitar 62,14%. Pemantauan garam beryodium di tingkat rumah tangga oleh Dinas Kesehatan Kota Bekasi tahun 2004 menunjukkan bahwa garam yang mengandung yodium cukup adalah 51%. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui analisis faktor demand dan supply terhadap konsumsi garam beryodium tingkat rumah tangga di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Kecamatan Bekasi Barat Kota Bekasi dengan menggunakan desain cross sectional. Populasi yang diteliti yaitu 110 orang ibu dengan menggunakan uji chi square. Pada faktor demand di- dapatkan hasil bahwa ada hubungan pengetahuan dengan konsumsi ga- ram beryodium tingkat rumah tangga. Namun, tidak ada hubungan antara pendapatan dengan konsumsi garam beryodium tingkat rumah tangga. Pada faktor supply didapatkan hasil bahwa tidak ada hubungan antara ketersediaan di pasar dan harga dengan konsumsi garam beryodium tingkat rumah tangga. Untuk meningkatkan cakupan konsumsi garam beryodium tingkat rumah tangga diperlukan kerja sama dari berbagai pihak.Kata kunci: Garam beryodium, rumah tangga, demand, supplyAbstractNasionaly, the consumption of iodized salt is 62,3% and in Province of West Jawa is 58,3%. The coverage consumption of iodezed in household level in Bekasi city only about 62,14%. The monitoring iodezed salt in household level by district health departemen in 2004 showed that the enough iodezed salt is 51%.This research was conducted to determine the factor analysis of demand and supply of iodized salt consumption at household level in the District of West Bekasi. This iodesed salt udy used cross sectional design. The population that was studied was 110 mothers using chi square test. On the demand factor, the result shows that there is a relationship between knowledge and the consumption of iodized salt at household level. However, there is no relationship between the revenue and the consumption of iodized salt at household level. While in the supply factor, shows that there is no relationship between availability and price in the market and the con- sumption of iodized salt at household level. To improve the coverage of iodized salt consumption at household level, it is required cooperation from various partiesKey words: Iodized salt, household, demand, supply
Peran Juru Pantau Jentik dalam Sistem Kewaspadaan Dini Demam Berdarah Dengue di Indonesia Pratamawati, Diana Andriyani
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (240.743 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.76

Abstract

Program pencegahan dan pemberantasan demam berdarah dengue (DBD) telah berlangsung sekitar 43 tahun dan berhasil menurunkan angka kema- tian dari 41,3% pada tahun 1968 menjadi 0,87% pada tahun 2010, tetapi belum berhasil menurunkan angka kesakitan. Bahkan, Indonesia men- duduki urutan tertinggi kasus DBD di Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) pada tahun 2010. Salah satu faktor belum efektifnya pencegahan DBD di Indonesia adalah masih lemahnya sistem kewas- padaan dini. Peran juru pantau jentik (jumantik) sangat penting dalam sistem kewaspadaan dini mewabahnya DBD karena berfungsi untuk memantau keberadaan dan menghambat perkembangan awal dari vektor penular DBD. Seiring masih tingginya angka kasus DBD di Indonesia, muncul pertanyaan bagaimana peran jumantik dalam sistem kewaspadaan dini DBD selama ini di Indonesia. Artikel ini mencoba menelaah masalah tersebut berdasarkan tinjauan pustaka. Secara umum, peran jumantik dinilai cukup berhasil dalam pencegahan DBD, namun terdapat beberapa hal yang perlu menjadi bahan evaluasi.Kata kunci: Jumantik, demam berdarah dengue, sistem kewaspadaan diniAbstractPrograms of prevention and eradication of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has been around 43 years and managed to reduce mortality from 41,3% in 1968 to 0,87% in 2010, but has not managed to reduce morbidity. Indonesia even ranked the highest of dengue cases in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) by the year 2010. One factorthat made has not been effective dengue prevention in Indonesia is the early warning system is still weak. Jumantik role is very important in the early warning system outbreaks of dengue hemorrhagic fever because it serves to monitor the presence andinhibit the early development of vector-borne dengue fever. During the high number of dengue cases in Indonesia, question rouses how jumantik role in the dengue hemorrhagic fever early warning system so far in Indonesia. This article takes a closer look based on a literature review. In general, the role of jumantik considered quite successful in preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever early warning system but nevertheless there are things that need to be evaluated.Key words: Jumantik, dengue hemorrhagic fever, early warning system
Konfirmasi Pemeriksaan Mikroskopik terhadap Diagnosis Klinis Malaria Arsin, A. Arsunan; Paerunan, Heri; Syatriani, Sri
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (239.431 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.82

Abstract

Penyakit malaria masih menjadi salah satu masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di dunia. Di Indonesia, terutama di luar daerah Jawa dan Bali, sampai kini angka kesakitan malaria masih tergolong tinggi. Di Puskesmas Bunta Kabupaten Banggai, pada tahun 2008 Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI) dilaporkan mencapai 109,9‰. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan serta mengetahui hubungan gejala, tanda klinis, dan hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopik malaria. Desain studi yang digunakan adalah cross sectional. Pengumpulan data wawancara dan mengambil sediaan darah dilakukan pada 150 penderita suspect malaria di puskesmas dan rumah penduduk. Penderita malaria klinis dengan pemeriksaan mikros- kopik malaria positif ditemukan sekitar 52%. Gejala dan tanda klinis malaria yang berhubungan bermakna dengan pemeriksaan mikroskopik meliputi menggigil (nilai p = 0,000); sakit kepala (nilai p = 0,007); nyeri otot/ tulang (nilai p = 0,001); pusing (nilai p = 0,000); demam (nilai p = 0,003); anemia (nilai p = 0,000); dan splenomegali (nilai p = 0,000). Berdasarkan analisis multivariat ditemukan gejala dan tanda klinis yang paling dominan berhubungan dengan pemeriksaan mikroskopik adalah menggigil (nilai p = 0,002; CI 95% = 1,593-7,797) dan anemia (nilai p = 0,000; CI 95% = 2,265 11,191) yang merupakan faktor prediksi terbaik untuk diagnosis dini, skrining, dan surveilans malaria.Kata kunci: Malaria klinis, pemeriksaan mikroskopik, gejala dan tanda klinis malariaAbstractMalaria which morbidity still high is one of health problems in the world in- cluding in Indonesia, mainly in outside Java and Bali island. In Bunta Public Health Center Banggai Regency in 2008, the AMI was 109,9‰ still high. The objective of this research is to compare and to know the relationship between clinical malaria diagnosis and microscophic examination. The methods used in research were observasional study with cross sectional study by interviewing and taking blood stoke of malaria suspected among 150 respondents in Public Health Center and people residents. The data was analyzed by SPSS program according to univariate, bivariat, and mul- tivariate. The result showed that positive mycroscopic cases among clinical malaria cases is 52%. The sign and symptomps of malaria is corelated to positif microscophic examinated cases such as shiver (p value = 0,000); headache (p value = 0,007); muscle/bones pain (p value = 0,001); dizzyness (p value = 0,000); fever >37,5°C (p value = 0,003); anemia (p value = 0,000); and splenomegaly (p value = 0,000). Based on the multivariate test, indicated that the sign and symptoms that related dominantly to micros- cophic examination includes shiver symptom (p value = 0,002; CI 95% = 1,593-7,797) and anemia (p value = 0,000; CI 95% = 2,265-11,191). Malaria clinical signs and symtomps is the alternative diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas that have microscophic examination restictiveness.Key words: Clinical malaria, microscophic examination, clinical sign and symptoms
Status Gizi Ibu dan Persepsi Ketidakcukupan Air Susu Ibu Fikawati, Sandra; Syafiq, Ahmad
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (238.793 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.77

Abstract

Menyusui eksklusif kurang dari 6 bulan berkontribusi terhadap 1,4 juta kematian bayi dan 10% angka kesakitan balita. Persepsi Ketidakcukupan Air Susu Ibu (PKA) yang memengaruhi kepercayaan diri untuk menyusui menjadi salah satu penyebab utama kegagalan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI) eksklusif di dunia. Salah satu faktor penyebab PKA adalah ketidakmampuan ibu hamil untuk mencapai kenaikan berat badan (BB) yang direkomendasikan sehingga ibu berisiko melahirkan bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR) dan memiliki cadangan lemak rendah untuk memproduksi ASI. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara status gizi ibu dan PKA. Penelitian ini merupakan kajian terhadap 3 studi yang menganalisis di Kabupaten Karawang, Kecamatan Cilandak, dan Kecamatan Tanjung Priok pada tahun 2010 dan 2011. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hubungan yang bermakna antara status gizi ibu dan PKA dengan odds ratio (OR) masing-masing 3,7 (1,470 - 9,081); 3,9 (1,551 – 9,832); dan 4,5 (1,860 – 11,008). Disimpulkan bahwa PKA dialami oleh ibu menyusui yang selama hamil tidak mencapai kenaikan BB yang direkomendasikan menyebabkan ibu berhenti memberikan ASI eksklusif. Penemuan yang penting ini dapat digunakan untuk mengubah anggapan para pakar ASI dan masyarakat bahwa semua ibu, apapun kondisi status gizinya, mampu menyusui ekslusif. Penelitian ini diharapkan menjadi masukan bagi penentu kebijakan untuk memerhatikan status gizi ibu menyusui.Kata kunci: Status gizi ibu, persepsi ketidakcukupan ASI, ASI eksklusifAbstractExclusive breastfeeding for less than 6 months contributed to the 1,4 million deaths of infants and 10% toddlers’ morbidity. Perceived Insufficient Milk (PIM) became one of the main causes of exclusive breastfeeding failure in the world. PIM could occured by inability of pregnant women to achieve the recommended weight gain thus mothers have the risk of giving birth of low birth weight (LBW) infants and have low fat reserves to produce milk. Low production of breast milk will negatively affect the confidence of mothers to  breastfeed. This study aimed to examine three studies that analyzed the relationship between maternal nutritional status and PIM. The study was conducted in three places Karawang district, Tanjung Priok subdistrict, and Cilandak sub district in 2010 and 2011. The results of this study showed significant associations between maternal nutritional status and PIM with odds ratio (OR) 3,7 (1,47 to 9,08); 3,9 (1,55 to 9,83); and 4,5 (1,86 to 11,01) respectively. It concluded that PIM was experienced by breastfeeding mothers whose maternal weight gain during pregnancy did not achieve the recommendation and caused the mother to stop exclusive breastfeeding. This discovery is important and useful to change the existing perception among breastfeeding experts and communities all mothers, regardless their nutritional status, are able to breastfeed exclusively. The study is expected to provide input for policy makers to pay more attention to the nutritional status of breastfeeding mothers.Key words: Maternal nutritional status, perceived insufficient milk, exclusive breastfeeding
Faktor Risiko Kematian Neonatal Dini di Rumah Sakit Bersalin Abdullah, Andi Zulkifli; Naiem, M. Furqaan; Mahmud, Nurul Ulmy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (238.589 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.83

Abstract

Angka kematian bayi di Indonesia masih tergolong tinggi, kematian neona- tal 50% terjadi pada bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR) dan lebih dari 50% ke- matian bayi adalah kematian neonatal dini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor antenatal care (ANC), status imunisasi Tetanus Toxoid (TT) ibu hamil, anemia pada saat hamil, berat lahir, status paritas, dan status hipotermia terhadap kematian neonatal dini. Penelitian meng- gunakan desain penelitian case control di Rumah Sakit Bersalin Kota Makassar dengan sampel 40 kasus dan 120 kontrol. Data diperoleh melalui wawancara langsung dengan responden. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko kejadian kematian neonatal dini meliputi ANC (nilai p = 0,000; odds ratio, OR = 7,333; CI 95% = 2,966 - 18,129), status imunisasi TT (nilai p = 0,000; OR = 19,205; CI 95% = 7,902 - 46,678), anemia ibu hamil (nilai p = 0,000; OR = 32,818; CI 95% = 7,549 - 142,674), berat lahir (nilai p = 0,000; OR = 122,212; CI 95% = 32,324 - 462,068), status paritas (nilai p = 0,000; OR = 5,537; CI 95% = 2,029 - 15,111), status asfiksia (ni- lai p = 0,000; OR = 8,197; CI 95% = 0,452 - 2,745). Status hipotermia bukan merupakan faktor risiko kematian neonatal dini (nilai p = 0,815; OR = 1,114; CI 95% = 3,646 mukan bahwa berat lahir bayi merupakan faktor yang paling berisiko ter- hadap kematian neonatal dini (nilai p = 0,000). Kata kunci: Faktor risiko kematian, neonatal dini, angka kematian bayi, bayi berat lahir rendahAbstractInfant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high. Fifty percent of the neonatal mortality occurred among low birth weight infants (LBWI) and neonatal mortality within 7 days of life accounted for 50% of total infant mortalities. This study was aimed to examine the extent of early neonatal mortality risk by antenatal care (ANC), Tetanus Toxoid (TT) immunization status of pregnant women, anemia during pregnancy, birth weight of neonatal, parity status, and hypothermia status.This study was a case control study with direct interview to respondents, conducted in the Maternity Hospital of Makassar with 40 cases and 120 controls. Samples were selected by purposive sam- pling. Study results indicated that risk factor of early neonatal mortality were ANC (p value = 0,000; odds ratio, OR = 7,33; CI 95% = 2,966 - 18,129), TT immunization status (p value = 0,000; OR = 19,205; CI 95% = 7,902 - 46,678), pregnancy anemia (p value = 0,000; OR = 32,818; CI 95% = 7,549 - 142,674), birth weight (p value = 0,000; OR = 122,212; CI 95% = 32,324 - 462,068), parity status (p value = 0,000; OR = 5,537; CI 95% = 2,029 - 15,111), asphyxia status (p value = 0,000; OR = 8,197; CI 95% = 0,452 - 2,745), whereas hypothermia status (p value = 0,815; OR = 1,114; 0,452 - 2,745) was not a risk factor. Results of logistic regression multivariate analysis indicated that infant’s birth weight was the most risk factor of early neonatal mortality (p value = 0,000). Specific surveillance program for high risk neonatal needed to be arranged in all health centers.Key words: Mortality risk factor, early neonatal, infant mortality rate, low birth weight infants
Status Gizi Ibu dan Persepsi Ketidakcukupan Air Susu Ibu Fikawati, Sandra; Syafiq, Ahmad
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (238.793 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.77

Abstract

Menyusui eksklusif kurang dari 6 bulan berkontribusi terhadap 1,4 juta kematian bayi dan 10% angka kesakitan balita. Persepsi Ketidakcukupan Air Susu Ibu (PKA) yang memengaruhi kepercayaan diri untuk menyusui menjadi salah satu penyebab utama kegagalan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI) eksklusif di dunia. Salah satu faktor penyebab PKA adalah ketidakmampuan ibu hamil untuk mencapai kenaikan berat badan (BB) yang direkomendasikan sehingga ibu berisiko melahirkan bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR) dan memiliki cadangan lemak rendah untuk memproduksi ASI. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara status gizi ibu dan PKA. Penelitian ini merupakan kajian terhadap 3 studi yang menganalisis di Kabupaten Karawang, Kecamatan Cilandak, dan Kecamatan Tanjung Priok pada tahun 2010 dan 2011. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hubungan yang bermakna antara status gizi ibu dan PKA dengan odds ratio (OR) masing-masing 3,7 (1,470 - 9,081); 3,9 (1,551 – 9,832); dan 4,5 (1,860 – 11,008). Disimpulkan bahwa PKA dialami oleh ibu menyusui yang selama hamil tidak mencapai kenaikan BB yang direkomendasikan menyebabkan ibu berhenti memberikan ASI eksklusif. Penemuan yang penting ini dapat digunakan untuk mengubah anggapan para pakar ASI dan masyarakat bahwa semua ibu, apapun kondisi status gizinya, mampu menyusui ekslusif. Penelitian ini diharapkan menjadi masukan bagi penentu kebijakan untuk memerhatikan status gizi ibu menyusui.Kata kunci: Status gizi ibu, persepsi ketidakcukupan ASI, ASI eksklusifAbstractExclusive breastfeeding for less than 6 months contributed to the 1,4 million deaths of infants and 10% toddlers’ morbidity. Perceived Insufficient Milk (PIM) became one of the main causes of exclusive breastfeeding failure in the world. PIM could occured by inability of pregnant women to achieve the recommended weight gain thus mothers have the risk of giving birth of low birth weight (LBW) infants and have low fat reserves to produce milk. Low production of breast milk will negatively affect the confidence of mothers to  breastfeed. This study aimed to examine three studies that analyzed the relationship between maternal nutritional status and PIM. The study was conducted in three places Karawang district, Tanjung Priok subdistrict, and Cilandak sub district in 2010 and 2011. The results of this study showed significant associations between maternal nutritional status and PIM with odds ratio (OR) 3,7 (1,47 to 9,08); 3,9 (1,55 to 9,83); and 4,5 (1,86 to 11,01) respectively. It concluded that PIM was experienced by breastfeeding mothers whose maternal weight gain during pregnancy did not achieve the recommendation and caused the mother to stop exclusive breastfeeding. This discovery is important and useful to change the existing perception among breastfeeding experts and communities all mothers, regardless their nutritional status, are able to breastfeed exclusively. The study is expected to provide input for policy makers to pay more attention to the nutritional status of breastfeeding mothers.Key words: Maternal nutritional status, perceived insufficient milk, exclusive breastfeeding
Konfirmasi Pemeriksaan Mikroskopik terhadap Diagnosis Klinis Malaria Arsin, A. Arsunan; Paerunan, Heri; Syatriani, Sri
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 6 No. 6 Juni 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (239.431 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v6i6.82

Abstract

Penyakit malaria masih menjadi salah satu masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di dunia. Di Indonesia, terutama di luar daerah Jawa dan Bali, sampai kini angka kesakitan malaria masih tergolong tinggi. Di Puskesmas Bunta Kabupaten Banggai, pada tahun 2008 Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI) dilaporkan mencapai 109,9‰. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan serta mengetahui hubungan gejala, tanda klinis, dan hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopik malaria. Desain studi yang digunakan adalah cross sectional. Pengumpulan data wawancara dan mengambil sediaan darah dilakukan pada 150 penderita suspect malaria di puskesmas dan rumah penduduk. Penderita malaria klinis dengan pemeriksaan mikros- kopik malaria positif ditemukan sekitar 52%. Gejala dan tanda klinis malaria yang berhubungan bermakna dengan pemeriksaan mikroskopik meliputi menggigil (nilai p = 0,000); sakit kepala (nilai p = 0,007); nyeri otot/ tulang (nilai p = 0,001); pusing (nilai p = 0,000); demam (nilai p = 0,003); anemia (nilai p = 0,000); dan splenomegali (nilai p = 0,000). Berdasarkan analisis multivariat ditemukan gejala dan tanda klinis yang paling dominan berhubungan dengan pemeriksaan mikroskopik adalah menggigil (nilai p = 0,002; CI 95% = 1,593-7,797) dan anemia (nilai p = 0,000; CI 95% = 2,265 11,191) yang merupakan faktor prediksi terbaik untuk diagnosis dini, skrining, dan surveilans malaria.Kata kunci: Malaria klinis, pemeriksaan mikroskopik, gejala dan tanda klinis malariaAbstractMalaria which morbidity still high is one of health problems in the world in- cluding in Indonesia, mainly in outside Java and Bali island. In Bunta Public Health Center Banggai Regency in 2008, the AMI was 109,9‰ still high. The objective of this research is to compare and to know the relationship between clinical malaria diagnosis and microscophic examination. The methods used in research were observasional study with cross sectional study by interviewing and taking blood stoke of malaria suspected among 150 respondents in Public Health Center and people residents. The data was analyzed by SPSS program according to univariate, bivariat, and mul- tivariate. The result showed that positive mycroscopic cases among clinical malaria cases is 52%. The sign and symptomps of malaria is corelated to positif microscophic examinated cases such as shiver (p value = 0,000); headache (p value = 0,007); muscle/bones pain (p value = 0,001); dizzyness (p value = 0,000); fever >37,5°C (p value = 0,003); anemia (p value = 0,000); and splenomegaly (p value = 0,000). Based on the multivariate test, indicated that the sign and symptoms that related dominantly to micros- cophic examination includes shiver symptom (p value = 0,002; CI 95% = 1,593-7,797) and anemia (p value = 0,000; CI 95% = 2,265-11,191). Malaria clinical signs and symtomps is the alternative diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas that have microscophic examination restictiveness.Key words: Clinical malaria, microscophic examination, clinical sign and symptoms

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