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Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 19077505     EISSN : 24600601     DOI : -
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Kesmas: National Public Health Journal is on public health as discipline and practices related to preventive and promotive measures to enhance health of the public through scientific approach applying variety of technique. This focus includes area and scope such as biostatistics, epidemiology, health education and promotion, health policy and administration, environmental health, public health nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, and occupational health and safety.
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Articles 14 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009" : 14 Documents clear
Kepatuhan Membaca Label Informasi Zat Gizi di Kalangan Mahasiswa Zahara, Siti; Triyanti, Triyanti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (201.94 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.191

Abstract

Berdasarkan hasil kajian Badan Perlindungan Konsumen Nasional (BPKN), di Indonesia label pangan masih kurang mendapat perhatian dari konsumen. Hanya sekitar 6,7% konsumen yang memperhatikan kelengkapan label produk pangan yang mereka beli. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kepatuhan mahasiswa Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia membaca label informasi zat gizi dan komposisi makanan kemasan serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Penelitian dengan desain potong lintang ( cross sectional ) ini dilakukan terhadap 215 responden. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa variabel yang berhubungan bermakna dengan kepatuhan mambaca label informasi zat gizi adalah status pekerjaan ayah (OR = 2,44), sikap kesehatan dan label produk pangan (OR = 2,824), perencana makanan (OR= 2,27), pembelanja makanan (OR= 2,33), dan keterpaparan dengan informasi (OR= 2,171). Variabel yang berhubungan bermakna dengan kepatuhan mambaca label komposisi adalah status pekerjaan ayah (OR= 2,116), pembelanja makanan(OR= 1,906), dan penerimaan harga produk pangan (OR= 0,152).Kata kunci : Tingkat kepatuhan, label informasi zat gizi.Abstract According to the results of the study by National Consumer Protection Institute, food label have been paid less attention from customers in Indonesia where only 6.7% consumers consider about the label. This study aims to know the level compliance to read the nutrition information and composition on food packages and its determinant factors among students in the Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia. This cross sectional study was conducted on 215 respondents. Results of the research shows that variables with significant relationship to food label compliance are father’s job status (OR = 2.443), attitudes toward health and food label (OR = 2.824), eating planner (OR= 2.274), food shopper (OR = 2.335), exposure to media (OR= 2.171). Variables that have significant relationship to composition compliance are father’s job status (OR = 2.116), food shopper (OR= 0.036), and acceptance to food price (OR= 0.152).Key words : Level compliance, the nutrition information.
Menghadapi Ancaman Pandemi: Analisis Sumber Daya Rumah Sakit Rujukan Avian Influenza di Jakarta Adisasmito, Wiku; Sari, Mega Purba; Su’udi, Amir; Narulita, Yusi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (208.508 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.192

Abstract

Hingga kini, di Indonesia, pandemi Avian Influenza (AI) masih menjadi ancaman yang dapat menimbulkan banyak korban manusia dan kerugian ekonomi yang besar. Untuk mengantisipasi hal tersebut perlu persiapan dari rumah sakit rujukan AI secara matang khususnya di Jakarta yang merupakan provinsi dengan jumlah kasus AI terbesar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan sumber daya yang dimiliki rumah sakit rujukan AI RSPI Dr.Sulianti Saroso, RSUP Persahabatan dan RSPAD Gatot Soebroto dalam menghadapi ancaman pandemi AI. Penelitian ini menggunakan disain cross sectional, mengamati sumber daya rumah sakit meliputi fasilitas tempat tidur, peralatan, alat proteksi diri, dan obat-obatan. Metode perhitungan estimasi kebutuhan sumber daya menggunakan formula Radonovich LJ, et al. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan masih terbatasnya ketersediaan tempat tidur baik ICU maupunnon ICU, APD, serta oseltamivir, amoxicillin dan cairan Intravena di rumah sakit rujukan khusus AI apabila terjadi pandemi AI di DKI Jakarta. Dalam rangka siap siaga menghadapi pandemik influenza, disarankan menambahkan rumah sakit rujukan AI di DKI Jakarta dengan mempertimbangkan hasil penelitian ini dan menggunakan pendekatan scenario planning.Kata kunci: Avian influenza , pandemi, sumber daya, RS rujukanAbstractAvian Influenza (AI) pandemic has been threatening Indonesia people and may cause human fatality as well as huge economic lost. To anticipate any loss, a careful hospital preparation needs to be measured. The objective of this research was to explore the AI referral hospital resource capacity in Jakarta to cope with AI pandemic. The hospitals involved in this resource capacity study were Dr. Sulianti Saroso Infectious Hospital, Persahabatan Hospital, and GatotSoebroto Hospital. This cross sectional research aimed at measuring the capacity of the hospital beds, ICU, equipments, personal protective equipments (PPE) and drugs. The Radonovich formula was used in the calculation. The results showed that the resource capacity of the AI referral hospitals in Jakarta was limi-ted, especially in the number of ICU and non ICU beds, PPE, oseltamivir antiviral, amoxicillin and normal saline if AI pandemic occurred in Jakarta. In orderto increase the capacity of Jakarta for pandemic influenza preparedness, it is suggested to assign more hospitals for AI in Jakarta to consider the data of this research and the scenario planning approach.Key words: Avian influenza, pandemic, resources, referral hospital
Kunjungan Rumah Pasca Persalinan, Sebuah Strategi Meningkatkan Kelangsungan Hidup Neonatal Ronoatmodjo, Sudarto
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (228.47 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.187

Abstract

Dalam beberapa dekade terakhir telah terlihat penurunan angka kematian anak di bawah umur lima tahun. Tetapi, penurunan pada angka kematian neonatal tidak menujukkan penurunan yang bermakna. Kematian neonatal merupakan komponen penting jika ingin menurunkan angka kematian anak di bawah umur lima tahun. Kematian anak di bawah umur lima tahun merupakan tujuan ke 4 dari Pembangunan Milenium. Pada tahun 2000 sebanyak 130 juta kelahiran,sebanyak 4 juta mati pada masa neonatal, yang ini merupakan 2/3 dari kematian bayi. Dua pertiga kematian neonatal terjadi pada minggu pertama setelah kelahirannya. Dan 99% nya terjadi di negara berkembang. Konsentrasi waktu terjadinya kematian neonatal mirip dengan waktu terjadinya kematian maternal. Kematian maternal terbesar terjadi saat trimester ke-3 masa kehamilan, masa persalinan dan seminggu setelah persalinan. Maka, intervensi untuk kematian maternal dan kematian neonatal harus dilakukan secara bersama. Bukti telah menunjukkan dengan upaya yang sederhana dengan berbasis masyarakat dapatmenurunkan angka kematian maternal dan neonatal secara bermakna. WHO dan UNICEF pada tahun 2009 telah membuat pernyataan bersama, dengan judul: kunjungan rumah pada bayi baru lahir, sebuah strategi untuk meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup neonatal. Ada 7 butir rekomendasi yang perlu diperhatikan oleh negara yang ingin menurunkan angka kematian neonatal. Setiap negara harus mengevaluasi program yang sedang berjalan dan melakukanpenyesuaian.Key words: Bayi baru lahir, kematian neonatal, asuhan bayi baru lahir esential. AbstractThe declining of children under five of age mortality has been seen over several decades. But the rate of neonatal death remains stagnant. Neonatal death is crucial if one want to decrease the under five mortality as it has been stated as the fourth goal of the Millennium Development Goals. At year 2000 there were 130 million births, among whom 4 million was died during neonatal period, which was 2/3 from the infant death. Two third of the neonatal death occurred at the first week of life and 99% happen in developing countries. The timing of maternal death mostly occurred at the end of pregnancy, at birth and within one week after delivery. Intervention of maternal and neonatal death should be done simultaneously. Evidence have showed that simple measures on communi-ty based approach are able to reduce neonatal and maternal mortality significantly. WHO and UNICEF in 2009 have made joint statement: “Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival”. There were 7 points of recommendation that need to be addressed by countries who want to reduce neona-tal mortality. Each country should look at the existing program and make necessary changes accordingly.Key words: Newborn, neonatal mortality, essential newborn care.
Analisis Data Riskesdas 2007/2008: Kontribusi Karakteristik Ibu terhadap Status Imunisasi Anak di Indonesia Hastono, Sutanto Priyo
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (199.512 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.193

Abstract

Cakupan imunisasi terbukti dapat menurunkan secara signifikan kejadian kesakitan dan kematian yang diakibatkan penyakit tersebut, tetapi di Indonesia cakupan tersebut tergolong rendah.Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui hubungan karakteristik ibu dengan status imunisasi anak di Indonesia. Disain yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah potong lintang dengan sampel anak yang berumur antara 1-2 tahun yang tinggal di wilayah Indonesia. Sumber data sekunder yang digunakan adalah Riskesdas Depkes tahun 2007/08. Proporsi anak usia 12-24 bulan yang mendapat imunisasi lengkap adalah 56,2 % (95% CI :55,1-57,3). Pendidikan ibu dan pendidikan suami ditemukan berhubungan secara bermakna dengan status imunisasi dasar pada anak. Hasil analisis multi-level menemukan bahwa kontribusi variabel level kabupaten (92,5 %) jauh lebih besar daripada level individu (7,5 %). Disarankan pemerintah bersama masyarakat berupaya untuk meningkatkan pendidikan. Departemen Kesehatan dan sektor terkait disarankan menyusun pedoman upaya memobilisasi imunisa-si dengan sasaran penyuluhan dan kampanye imunisasi secara tepat.Kata kunci: Perilaku, status imunisasi anak, analisis multilevel.AbstractThe escalation on the immunization coverage has been proved to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of the immunized diseases. However, in Indonesia the coverage of immunization is still low. The research purpose is to understand the role of mother’s characteristics to child immunization status in Indonesia. This is an advance analysis of Riskesdas data 2007/2008. Sample of the research is children age 12-24 months. The results showed that only56.2% children had had complete immunization. Multivariate analysis shows that characteristic factors, such as mother’s and husband’s education are sig-nificant to child immunization status. The result of Multilevel Analysis shows that the role of characteristic factors to child immunization status is 7.5% and the role of district level is 92.5%. Based on this result research, it is important for government to continuously improving education, immunization knowledge and encourage the utilization of health care especially immunization services. Ministry of Health and related sectors are supposed to arrange orientation program for immunization mobilization.Keywords: Behavior, child immunization status, multilevel analysis.
A Study among Community Living Underneath SUTET about The General Health Condition and The Electromagnetic Fields Exposures Wawolumaya, Corrie; Darwanto, Djoko
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (254.349 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.188

Abstract

SUTET or the Extra High Voltage Transmission Line of 500 kV has passed through larger residential areas in the community. The aim of study is to provide the description of general health condition of community residing under SUTET in the urban poor of Jakarta and surrounding. The design of study was cross sectional, carried out among 1200 respondents which were taken stratified proportional purposively, based on zones of the electromagnetic field exposures. Data were collected through observation, interview and physical examination. The electric field and the magnetic field exposures were separately measured outside and inside the houses. The highest electromagnetic field exposures were measured at one meter height above the ground , for the electric field 3,1 kV/m. and the magnetic field 550 mA/m or 687,5.10-3µT, were identified in zone 1 0-20 ms. The magnetic field was decreasing gradually through zone2 300mA/m and nearing zero in zone 3. Both the highest electric field and the magnetic field exposures were below the threshold values stated by SNI 2003, 5 kV/m dan 0,1 mT or 80.104 mA/m (note: 1 A/m = 1,25 µT). The highest electric field exposure was identified at one meter height from the ground 2,5 kV/m at 02.00–03.00 hours a.m and the highest magnetic field 2400 mA/m at 12.00-16.00 hours p.m. The biggest portion of houses was poor ( 30 %) were beinghoused for morethan 30 years. The major diseases were found similar in all zones i.e., dental diseases, myopia and hypertension.Keywords: SUTET, zones, physical examination, 10 major diseases.AbstrakJaringan SUTET Perusahaan Listrik Negara banyak melalui daerah pemukiman. Tujuan penelitian mendapatkan gambaran kesehatan penduduk yang bermukim di bawah SUTET dan di daerah urban miskin Jakarta dan sekitarnya. Penelitian disain kroseksional ini dilakukan pada sample 1200 kepala keluarga yang ditarik secara stratifikasi proportional purposif berdasarkan zona kuat medan elektromagnet. Data dikumpulkan dengan metoda observasi, wawancara dan pemeriksaan kesehatan. Kuat medan listrik dan medan magnet diukur terpisah di luar rumah, dan di dalam rumah. Ditemukan kuat medan listrik tertinggipada ketinggian 1 meter di atas tanah 3,1 kV/m. Kuat medan magnet 550 mA/m atau 687,5.10-3µT diidentifikasi dalam zona 1 0-20 m yang menurun be-rangsur pada zona 2 300mA/m dan mendekati 0 pada zona 3. Medan listrik dan medan magnet berada di bawah nilai ambang SNI 2003, 5 kV/m dan 0,1 mT atau 80.104 mA/m (note: 1 A/m = 1,25 µT). Medan listrik tertinggi ditemukan pada ketinggian 1 meter dari tanah 2,5 kV/m pada jam 02.00–03.00 pagi danmedan magnet ttinggi 2400 mA/m pada jam 12.00-16.00 .Jenis rumah terbanyak adalah rumah kumuh ( 30 %) telah dimukimi lebih 30 tahun. Penyakit uta-ma di semua zona adalah gangguan gigi geligi, myopia dan hipertensi yang tidak berbeda antara zona.Kata kunci : SUTET, zona, kondisi kesehatan, 10 penyakit utama.
Human Health Risk to Ultrafine Particles in Jakarta Haryanto, Budi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (196.077 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.189

Abstract

In Jakarta, the main pollution sources are vehicles and industry, with motorized traffic accounting for 71% of the oxides of nitrogen (NOX), 15% of sulphur-dioxide (SO2), and 70% of particulate matter (PM 10 ) of the total emission load. Both urban population size and the fraction of the population that owns a pri-vate vehicle are increasing. The study objective is to determine the numbers of ultrafine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 mm or less, or PM0.1 inhaled by elementary school children, commute workers with private car and commute workers with public transport. A cross-sectional study design is implemented in Jakarta 2005. Ten elementary school children, ten commuters with private car and ten commuters with public transports are purpo-sively selected as subjects and measured personally for 3 x 24 hours using Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) real-time personal exposure measurement (measured in terms of the number of particles per cubic centimeter, or # cm-3). The average concentration of ultrafine particulate matter of elementary school children at home, on the road and at school is 29,254/cm3, 147,897/cm3 and 61,033/cm3 respectively. For those commuters with private car at home, on the road and at office is 29,213/cm3, 310,179/cm3 and 42,496/cm3 respectively. For those commuters with public transport, the concentration average of at home, on the road and at office is found higher: 35,332/cm3, 453,547/cm3, and 69,867/cm3, respectively. Keywords: Ultrafine particles, human health riskAbstrakPerhatian terhadap pencemaran udara ini menjadi semakin meningkat ketika banyak diketemukan dampaknya pada anak-anak, terutama kaitannya dengan insidens dan prevalens asma. Sumber utama pencemaran udara di Jakarta adalah dari kendaraan bermotor dan industri, dimana transportasi berkontribusi terhadap 71% NOX, 15% SO 2, dan 70% partikel debu kurang dari 10 mikronmeter (PM 10). Tujuan penelitian mengetahui jumlah partikel debu berdiameter ultrafine (partikel berukuran <0,1 mm) yang terhirup oleh anak sekolah dasar, pekerja pengguna kendaraan pribadi dan kendaraan umum. Studi ini menggunakan desain crosssectional dan dilakukan di Jakarta tahun 2005. Sebanyak 30 responden anak sekolah dasar, pekerja pengguna kendaraan pribadi dan kendaraan umum dipilih secara purposif sebagai subyek penelitian. Jumlah partikel ultrafine terhirup secara individu diukur selama 3 x 24 jam menggunakan Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) real time personal exposure measurement (jumlah ultrafine partikel per cm 3). Rerata konsentrasi partikel ultrafine terhirup pada anak sekolah dasar di rumah, di perjalanan, dan di sekolah adalah berurutan sebagai berikut: 29.254/cm 3, 147.897/cm 3 dan 61.033/cm 3. Pada pekerja pengguna kendaraan pribadi di rumah, di perjalanan, dan di kantor diperoleh rerata konsentrasi secara berurutan sebagai berikut: 29.213/cm 3, 310.179/cm 3 dan 42.496/cm 3. Sedangkan pada pekerja pengguna kendaraan umum adalah: 35.332/cm 3 di rumah, 453.547/cm 3 di perjalanan, dan 69.867/cm 3 di kantor. Kata kunci : Partikel ultrafine, risiko kesehatan manusia
Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium di Indonesia: Tinjauan Epidemiologis dan Kebijakan Kesehatan Pramono, Laurentius Aswin
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (221.368 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.190

Abstract

Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (GAKI) merupakan penyebab retardasi mental terbesar di seluruh dunia yang dapat dicegah. Dewasa ini, GAKI masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di Indonesia karena belum mampu mencapai kondisi eliminasi seperti yang diharapkan. Hasil survei tahun 2003 dan Riskesdas 2007 menunjukkan bahwa pencapaian program penanggulangan GAKI di Indonesia masih jauh dari target Universal Salt Iodization dan Indonesia Sehat 2010. Artikel ini bertujuan mengevaluasi berbagai eviden epidemiologi yang berhubungan dengan kebijakan GAKI di Indonesia. Padamasa mendatang, berbagai komitmen lintas sektoral sangat diperlukan bagi pencapaian kondisi eliminasi GAKI. Perhatian klinisi dan ahli epidemiologi ter-hadap permasalahan GAKI di Indonesia masih rendah. Demikian pula, publikasi ilmiah yang mengkaji GAKI dari sudut pandang epidemiologi dan aplikasinya bagi kebijakan kesehatan. Artikel ini diharapkan dapat memberi gambaran dan perspektif epidemiologi yang luas bagi para klinisi dan ahli kesehatan masyarakat.Kata kunci: GAKI (Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium), penanggulangan, epidemiologi, kebijakan kesehatan.AbstractIDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorders) is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation in the world. Nowadays, IDD still one of the most important public health problems in Indonesia. Up to now, Indonesia has not yet reached the target of IDD elimination as expected. National IDD Survey at 2003 and National Health Survey at 2007 show the achievement of IDD control program in Indonesia is still below the target of Universal Salt Idozation and Indonesia Health 2010 (RAN KPP GAKI strategy). Cross-sectoral commitment is very important for the elimination of IDD in the future. Clinicians and epidemiologist concern for IDD elimination in Indonesia is still low, so does the publications in the field of IDD from epidemiology and health policy perspective. It is expec-ted that this literature review can give broad description and epidemiological perspective for clinicians and public health experts. Key words: IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorders), control program, epidemiology, health policy.
A Study among Community Living Underneath SUTET about The General Health Condition and The Electromagnetic Fields Exposures Wawolumaya, Corrie; Darwanto, Djoko
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (254.349 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.188

Abstract

SUTET or the Extra High Voltage Transmission Line of 500 kV has passed through larger residential areas in the community. The aim of study is to provide the description of general health condition of community residing under SUTET in the urban poor of Jakarta and surrounding. The design of study was cross sectional, carried out among 1200 respondents which were taken stratified proportional purposively, based on zones of the electromagnetic field exposures. Data were collected through observation, interview and physical examination. The electric field and the magnetic field exposures were separately measured outside and inside the houses. The highest electromagnetic field exposures were measured at one meter height above the ground , for the electric field 3,1 kV/m. and the magnetic field 550 mA/m or 687,5.10-3µT, were identified in zone 1 0-20 ms. The magnetic field was decreasing gradually through zone2 300mA/m and nearing zero in zone 3. Both the highest electric field and the magnetic field exposures were below the threshold values stated by SNI 2003, 5 kV/m dan 0,1 mT or 80.104 mA/m (note: 1 A/m = 1,25 µT). The highest electric field exposure was identified at one meter height from the ground 2,5 kV/m at 02.00–03.00 hours a.m and the highest magnetic field 2400 mA/m at 12.00-16.00 hours p.m. The biggest portion of houses was poor ( 30 %) were beinghoused for morethan 30 years. The major diseases were found similar in all zones i.e., dental diseases, myopia and hypertension.Keywords: SUTET, zones, physical examination, 10 major diseases.AbstrakJaringan SUTET Perusahaan Listrik Negara banyak melalui daerah pemukiman. Tujuan penelitian mendapatkan gambaran kesehatan penduduk yang bermukim di bawah SUTET dan di daerah urban miskin Jakarta dan sekitarnya. Penelitian disain kroseksional ini dilakukan pada sample 1200 kepala keluarga yang ditarik secara stratifikasi proportional purposif berdasarkan zona kuat medan elektromagnet. Data dikumpulkan dengan metoda observasi, wawancara dan pemeriksaan kesehatan. Kuat medan listrik dan medan magnet diukur terpisah di luar rumah, dan di dalam rumah. Ditemukan kuat medan listrik tertinggipada ketinggian 1 meter di atas tanah 3,1 kV/m. Kuat medan magnet 550 mA/m atau 687,5.10-3µT diidentifikasi dalam zona 1 0-20 m yang menurun be-rangsur pada zona 2 300mA/m dan mendekati 0 pada zona 3. Medan listrik dan medan magnet berada di bawah nilai ambang SNI 2003, 5 kV/m dan 0,1 mT atau 80.104 mA/m (note: 1 A/m = 1,25 µT). Medan listrik tertinggi ditemukan pada ketinggian 1 meter dari tanah 2,5 kV/m pada jam 02.00–03.00 pagi danmedan magnet ttinggi 2400 mA/m pada jam 12.00-16.00 .Jenis rumah terbanyak adalah rumah kumuh ( 30 %) telah dimukimi lebih 30 tahun. Penyakit uta-ma di semua zona adalah gangguan gigi geligi, myopia dan hipertensi yang tidak berbeda antara zona.Kata kunci : SUTET, zona, kondisi kesehatan, 10 penyakit utama.
Analisis Data Riskesdas 2007/2008: Kontribusi Karakteristik Ibu terhadap Status Imunisasi Anak di Indonesia Hastono, Sutanto Priyo
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (199.512 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.193

Abstract

Cakupan imunisasi terbukti dapat menurunkan secara signifikan kejadian kesakitan dan kematian yang diakibatkan penyakit tersebut, tetapi di Indonesia cakupan tersebut tergolong rendah.Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui hubungan karakteristik ibu dengan status imunisasi anak di Indonesia. Disain yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah potong lintang dengan sampel anak yang berumur antara 1-2 tahun yang tinggal di wilayah Indonesia. Sumber data sekunder yang digunakan adalah Riskesdas Depkes tahun 2007/08. Proporsi anak usia 12-24 bulan yang mendapat imunisasi lengkap adalah 56,2 % (95% CI :55,1-57,3). Pendidikan ibu dan pendidikan suami ditemukan berhubungan secara bermakna dengan status imunisasi dasar pada anak. Hasil analisis multi-level menemukan bahwa kontribusi variabel level kabupaten (92,5 %) jauh lebih besar daripada level individu (7,5 %). Disarankan pemerintah bersama masyarakat berupaya untuk meningkatkan pendidikan. Departemen Kesehatan dan sektor terkait disarankan menyusun pedoman upaya memobilisasi imunisa-si dengan sasaran penyuluhan dan kampanye imunisasi secara tepat.Kata kunci: Perilaku, status imunisasi anak, analisis multilevel.AbstractThe escalation on the immunization coverage has been proved to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of the immunized diseases. However, in Indonesia the coverage of immunization is still low. The research purpose is to understand the role of mother’s characteristics to child immunization status in Indonesia. This is an advance analysis of Riskesdas data 2007/2008. Sample of the research is children age 12-24 months. The results showed that only56.2% children had had complete immunization. Multivariate analysis shows that characteristic factors, such as mother’s and husband’s education are sig-nificant to child immunization status. The result of Multilevel Analysis shows that the role of characteristic factors to child immunization status is 7.5% and the role of district level is 92.5%. Based on this result research, it is important for government to continuously improving education, immunization knowledge and encourage the utilization of health care especially immunization services. Ministry of Health and related sectors are supposed to arrange orientation program for immunization mobilization.Keywords: Behavior, child immunization status, multilevel analysis.
Human Health Risk to Ultrafine Particles in Jakarta Haryanto, Budi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 2 Oktober 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (196.077 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i2.189

Abstract

In Jakarta, the main pollution sources are vehicles and industry, with motorized traffic accounting for 71% of the oxides of nitrogen (NOX), 15% of sulphur-dioxide (SO2), and 70% of particulate matter (PM 10 ) of the total emission load. Both urban population size and the fraction of the population that owns a pri-vate vehicle are increasing. The study objective is to determine the numbers of ultrafine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 mm or less, or PM0.1 inhaled by elementary school children, commute workers with private car and commute workers with public transport. A cross-sectional study design is implemented in Jakarta 2005. Ten elementary school children, ten commuters with private car and ten commuters with public transports are purpo-sively selected as subjects and measured personally for 3 x 24 hours using Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) real-time personal exposure measurement (measured in terms of the number of particles per cubic centimeter, or # cm-3). The average concentration of ultrafine particulate matter of elementary school children at home, on the road and at school is 29,254/cm3, 147,897/cm3 and 61,033/cm3 respectively. For those commuters with private car at home, on the road and at office is 29,213/cm3, 310,179/cm3 and 42,496/cm3 respectively. For those commuters with public transport, the concentration average of at home, on the road and at office is found higher: 35,332/cm3, 453,547/cm3, and 69,867/cm3, respectively. Keywords: Ultrafine particles, human health riskAbstrakPerhatian terhadap pencemaran udara ini menjadi semakin meningkat ketika banyak diketemukan dampaknya pada anak-anak, terutama kaitannya dengan insidens dan prevalens asma. Sumber utama pencemaran udara di Jakarta adalah dari kendaraan bermotor dan industri, dimana transportasi berkontribusi terhadap 71% NOX, 15% SO 2, dan 70% partikel debu kurang dari 10 mikronmeter (PM 10). Tujuan penelitian mengetahui jumlah partikel debu berdiameter ultrafine (partikel berukuran <0,1 mm) yang terhirup oleh anak sekolah dasar, pekerja pengguna kendaraan pribadi dan kendaraan umum. Studi ini menggunakan desain crosssectional dan dilakukan di Jakarta tahun 2005. Sebanyak 30 responden anak sekolah dasar, pekerja pengguna kendaraan pribadi dan kendaraan umum dipilih secara purposif sebagai subyek penelitian. Jumlah partikel ultrafine terhirup secara individu diukur selama 3 x 24 jam menggunakan Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) real time personal exposure measurement (jumlah ultrafine partikel per cm 3). Rerata konsentrasi partikel ultrafine terhirup pada anak sekolah dasar di rumah, di perjalanan, dan di sekolah adalah berurutan sebagai berikut: 29.254/cm 3, 147.897/cm 3 dan 61.033/cm 3. Pada pekerja pengguna kendaraan pribadi di rumah, di perjalanan, dan di kantor diperoleh rerata konsentrasi secara berurutan sebagai berikut: 29.213/cm 3, 310.179/cm 3 dan 42.496/cm 3. Sedangkan pada pekerja pengguna kendaraan umum adalah: 35.332/cm 3 di rumah, 453.547/cm 3 di perjalanan, dan 69.867/cm 3 di kantor. Kata kunci : Partikel ultrafine, risiko kesehatan manusia

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