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INDONESIA
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 19077505     EISSN : 24600601     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Kesmas: National Public Health Journal is on public health as discipline and practices related to preventive and promotive measures to enhance health of the public through scientific approach applying variety of technique. This focus includes area and scope such as biostatistics, epidemiology, health education and promotion, health policy and administration, environmental health, public health nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, and occupational health and safety.
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Articles 12 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008" : 12 Documents clear
Model Spesifikasi Dinamis Permintaan Rokok: Rasionalkah Perokok Indonesia? Hidayat, Budi; Thabrany, Hasbullah
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (228.395 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.223

Abstract

Studi ini mengestimasi model spesifikasi dinamis permintaan (demand) rokok di Indonesia. Tujuannya adalah untuk menguji hipotesis kecanduan rasional perokok, dan menghitung elastisitas harga rokok jangka pendek dan jangka panjang. Analisis diaplikasikan pada data agregat individu yang dibentuk dari tiga tahapan survei panel IFLS selama tahun 1993-2000. Studi ini menjajagi sejumlah teknik ekonometrik dan memilih teknik tercocok atas dasar serangkaian uji statistik. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa rokok terbukti sebagai produk yang menimbulkan kecanduan (koefisien konsumsi masa lampau positif dan signifikan pada 1%). Sedangkan koefisien negatif dan signifikan untuk konsumsi rokok masa depan menunjukan sifat kecanduan miopik, artinya para perokok bersifat tidak rasional. Studi ini juga menunjukkan permintaan rokok lebih sensitif terhadap perubahan harga untuk jangka panjang ketimbang untuk jangka pendek. Temuan bahwa perokok memiliki sifat kecanduan miopik mengharuskan pengambil kebijakan mendisain ulang strategi promosi kesehatan masyarakat tentang larangan merokok di Indonesia. Berbagi implikasi kebijakan temuan studi disajikan pula pada bagian akhir tulisan ini.Kata kunci : Kecanduan rasional, sigaret, tembakau, elastisitas, data panel.AbstractThis study estimates a dynamic model specification of demand for cigarette in Indonesia. The objectives are to test the rational addiction hypothesis of cigarettes demand, and to calculate price elasticity of cigarettes in the short-run and long-term. The data for this analysis were aggregate individual data from three-wave a panel surveys of the IFLS (Indonesian Family Life Survey) from 1993-2000. This study explores several econometric approaches, and selects the best fit of several statistical measures. The results indicate that cigarette indeed an addictive good (the lags consumption coefficients are a positive with p-value <1%). Whilts a negative coefficient and significancy of future consumption indicate that smokers are myopic addicts, they are not rational. The study also confirms that the demand is more price sensitive for the long-run than the short-run. The finding of myopic addiction has pratical implications with which policy-makers should re-design current public health campaign against cigarette smoking in the country. Various policy implications of the research findings are also discussed in this article.Key words : Rational addiction, cigarettes, tobacco, price elasticity, panel data.
Analisis Implementasi Kebijakan PKPS BBM Bidang Kesehatan Bachtiar, Adang; Ayuningtyas, Dumilah; Wardani, Riastuti Kusuma
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (214.906 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.224

Abstract

Tingginya harga minyak dunia mengakibatkan pemerintah Indonesia di bawah pimpinan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) harus mengurangi subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM). Hal ini berdampak pada kenaikan harga BBM sebanyak tiga kali yaitu pada Maret 2005 (kenaikan harga berkisar 60 persen), Oktober 2005 (sekitar 108 persen), dan Mei 2008 (sekitar 30 persen). Kebijakan ini dimaksudkan agar dana yang diperoleh dari pengurangan subsidi BBM dapat dipindahkan alokasinya untuk empat program utama bagi penduduk miskin dan tidak mampu. Program-program tersebut adalah Bantuan Langsung Tunai, Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS), pelayanan kesehatan gratis, dan infrastruktur desa. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menilai secara umum pelaksanaanProgram Kompensasi Pengurangan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (PKPS-BBM) pada periode 2005-2006. Sedangkan pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantatif digunakan dalam penelitian ini melalui telaah dokumen dan wawancara. Adapun realisasi PKPS BBM di Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB), Kalimantan Timur (Kaltim), dan Kota Bogor dinilai belum optimal disebabkan perbedaan jumlah sasaran dan standar utilisasi antara masing-masing daerah dengan pusat mengingat perbedaan kondisi geografisnya. Meskipun demikian, masyarakat miskin cukup puas dengan program pelayanan kesehatan gratis walau pelaksanaan program tersebut belum sepenuhnya tepat sasaran dan masih dapat ditemukan sejumlah iuran yang harus dibayar masyarakat miskin.Kata kunci : PKPS BBM, pelayanan kesehatan, subsidi BBM, NTB, Kalimantan Timur.AbstractUnavoidable raise of international fuel prices had forced Government of Indonesia under the leadership of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) to reduce fuel subsidies. These happened in March 2005 (fuel prices increased approximately 60 per cent), October 2005 (with 108 per cent rise in fuel prices), and May 2008 (which increased the fuel prices for around 30 per cent). The point of this policy is that the government has intention to re-allocate the funds fromreduced fuel subsidies to four main programs for poor people such as direct compensation (payment of 100,000 Indonesian Rupiah, or about US$10, to 15 million families, or one quarter of the population, through the state postal and banking system), school operational assistance, free health service, and rural infrastructure program. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Fuel Subsidy Reduction Compensation Program (Program Kompensasi Pengurangan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (PKPS-BBM)) during the period 2005-2006 in general. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are used in this research through document analysis and in-depth interview. PKPS BBM program implementation in Nusa Tenggara Barat, Kalimantan Timur, and Bogor City are not yet optimal because of the dissimilarity on number of target and standard of utilisation in each region, considering differences in their geographical conditions. However, poor people are quite satisfied with free health services although the realization did not touch the target completely. Moreover, there stillexists expense charged to poor people.Key words : PKPS BBM, health services, fuel subsidies, NTB, Kalimantan Timur.
Analisis Saldo Piutang Pasien Jaminan di Rumah Sakit Port Medical Center Kusumawardhani, Dian; Soewondo, Prastuti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (211.464 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.225

Abstract

Piutang merupakan harta lancar yang terbesar pada organisasi kesehatan dan berdampak dana investasi. Kegagalan pengelolaan piutang di rumah sakit akan mengganggu cash flow dan kegiatan operasional rumah sakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui penyebab saldo piutang pasien jaminan pihak ketiga yang tinggi, meliputi dinas dan langganan di RS Port Medical Center. Penelitian operasional ini melakukan pengamatan langsung dan telaah dokumen pada proses pengelolaan piutang pada tahap penerimaan, pembebanan biaya, penataan rekening, penagihan dan penutupan rekening. Informan adalah para pejabat dan pelaksana yang terlibat. Didapatkan bahwa tidak ada standar atau persyaratan kredit yang berlaku sebelum kerja sama. Potongan harga, jangkawaktu pembayaran dan sanksi yang tertera dalam perjanjian kerja sama tidak dapat dijalankan. Telah ada upaya  penagihan, tetapi belum optimal. Belum ada prosedur tentang cara penagihan bila pembayaran terlambat. Pada lima tahap pengelolaan piutang terlihat beban tugas penata rekening yang tinggi. Dan SOP hanya tersedia pada tahap pembebanan biaya. Proses seleksi yang menggunakan sistem billing online mempermudah pekerjaan tetapi menuntut ketelitian tinggi. Jumlah tagihan dan saldo piutang terbesar adalah dinas. Perusahaan asuransi mempunyai saldo piutang terkecil dan proporsi pembayaran terkecil adalah Jamsostek. Proses penagihan pada dinas, perusahaan umum dan perusahaan asuransi relatif sama (20 hari). Lama proses penagihan danumur piutang terlama adalah Jamsostek.Kata kunci : Saldo piutang, pasien jaminan, rumah sakit.AbstractAccount receivables is the biggest current assets in health organization including hospitals and will influence investation fund management. Failure in account receivables management will confound the cash flow and operational activities. The purpose of this study is to know the causes of high account receivables of patients insured by third party. This operational research used direct observations and documents review regarding the management process of the insured patient account receivables at the stage of admission, charge capture, account billing, collecting and account writing off. An in-depth interview was conducted to the involved persons and officers. The result of the study shows that the current credit policy prevails at PMC hospital seems to be linient since no credit standard or credit terms given before colaboration. Discount, payment period and sanctions are included in the agreement but not effective. There are efforts for claiming, but it has not been done optimally. There is no procedure that can be used in collecting account if there were delay. There is a shortageof staff on the account arrangement and overlapped tasks of staff at central opname. The only available standard operating procedure was at the stage of charge capture. Although the completion process has used on line billing system, to simplify the task, it still needs high accuracy to get accurate data. Thehighest claim goes to the state owned company. The highest account receivable also goes to the state owned company. From four health insurance companies, Jamsostek has the lowest payment percentage. It is also found that the length of the collecting process is 20 days for state owned companies, publiccompanies and insurance companies and 60 days for Jamsostek. The length of billing process and account receivable days for Jamsostek was the longest.Key words : Account receivables, insured patients, hospital.
Tinjauan Filsafat Kesehatan Reproduksi Agustina, Farida Mutiarawati Tri
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (209.852 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.226

Abstract

Kesehatan reproduksi tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kesehatan seksual yang menyangkut peran dua aktor utama laki-laki dan perempuan yang harus dalam kondisi sehat untuk mendapat hasil reproduksi yang sehat. Dari sudut pandang filsafat, ontologi berupaya memahami, mendalami dan mengembangkan pengetahuan kesehatan reproduksi pada tingkat individu dan tingkat masyarakat. Secara epistemologi, kesehatan reproduksi banyak mengalami kemajuan, sejak dari teknologi kontrasepsi sederhana sampai teknologi cloning yang kontroversial. Secara aksiologi, kesehatan reproduksi mampu meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan pemenuhan kebutuhan hidup manusia sesuai perkembangan teknologi. Pemanfaatan dan keberhasilan kesehatan reproduksi dipengaruhi berbagai faktor yang saling terkait dan saling tergantung. Landasan perkembangan ranah kesehatan reproduksi adalah serangkaian konferensi kependudukan dunia sepuluh tahunan. Dimulai pada tahun 1954 di Roma, dilanjutkan 1965 di Belgrade, 1974 di Bucharest, 1984 di Mexico City, dan terakhir tahun 1994 di Cairo. Hingga kini, penerapan berbagai hasil konferensi untuk peningkatan kesejahteraan umat manusia terus berlangsung. Di seluruh negara di dunia, diharapkan hak-hak kesehatan reproduksi dan kesehatan seksual semakin dipenuhi dengan pemanfaatan maksimal teknologi dan sesuai norma dan nilai-nilai kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab.Kata kunci : Kesehatan reproduksi, tinjauan filsafat.AbstractThe Reproductive Health can not be separated from Sexual Health as there is two main actors of male and female has to be related to. Both of them are must be in a healthy condition, in order to produce a healthy reproductive result. From philosophies stand point, the ontology of reproductive health is tried to understand, to explore and to develop reproductive knowledge in the individual and community levels. Epistemologi of reproductive health show highly progress related to contraceptive technology starting from the simplest one to the most controversial of cloning technology. Axiologically, the reproductive health enables to improve the human prosperity and fulfill the human needs in association with technological development. The utilization and the successfull of reproductive health are determined by several interrelated and interdependent factors. The fundamental of reproductive health field development is in a series of world population conferences that held every tens years. Started in 1954 in Roma, continues to 1965 in Belgrade, 1974 in Bucharest, 1984 in Mexico City, and the latest in 1994 in Cairo. Until now, the implementation of several conference results for improvement of human kind properties is continuously occurred. All over the world, it is hoped that reproductive rights and sexual rights can be continuously fulfilled with a highest utilization of technology and in the line with fairness and enlightened norms and values.Key words : Reproductive health, philosophical foundation.
Studi Kualitatif : Pelayanan Rujukan Asfiksia Bayi Baru Lahir di Kabupaten Cirebon Jawa Barat Hadi, Ella Nurlaella
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (201.584 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.227

Abstract

Pada tahun 2005, studi penatalaksanaan asfiksia bayi baru lahir (BBL) oleh bidan di desa Kabupaten Cirebon menemukan kematian asfiksia BBL yang dirujuk ke rumah sakit masih tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi yang mendalam tentang proses rujukan, alur penanganan rujukan kasus asfiksia BBL di RS dan kualitas pelayanan di RS rujukan Kabupaten Cirebon. Untuk itu, digunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode studi kasus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan BdD sudah menangani asfiksia BBL dengan benar, tetapi rujukan sering terlambat karena adanya faktor penghambat dari keluarga (ekonomi dan keputusan merujuk harus melibatkan keluarga besar) dan faktor lingkungan (transportasi di desa terpencil sulit terutama pada malam hari).Disamping, karena penanganan rujukan asfiksia BBL di RS belum optimal, karena masih kurangnya keterampilan petugas bagian UGD dalam manajemen asfiksia BBL dan tidak tersedianya alat resusitasi neonatus di bagian UGD, padahal prosedur penanganan kasus rujukan pertama kali di bagian UGD.Kata kunci : Pelayanan rujukan, asfiksia, BBL.AbstractIn Cirebon district (2005) research on village midwives’s experience in managing birth asphyxia showed mortality of newborns with asphyxia who were referred to the hospitals were still high. This research was aimed to assess referral process, management procedure of referral birth asphyxia cases and quality of care given in the referral hospitals. This study was conducted using qualitative approach focusing on case study method. The result of this study showed that village midwives managed birth asphyxia correctly, but referral of newborn cases was often delayed, because of community factors (finance and delayed decision making by whole family to refer the newborn to the hospitals) and environmental factor (transportation in remote villages was difficult, especially at night. Besides that, referral hospitals were not yet providing adequate emergency care for referral cases of birth asphyxia. These were primarily due to lack of skills in management of birth asphyxia and unavailability of resuscitation device in emergency room.Keywords : Referral health services, Asphyxia, newborn.
Faktor Sosio Ekonomi yang Mempengaruhi Kepatuhan Minum Obat Antihipertensi Pujiyanto, Pujiyanto
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (203.935 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.228

Abstract

Hipertensi merupakan penyakit degeneratif yang banyak diderita penduduk dengan kecenderungan meningkat seiring bertambahnya umur. Dengan bertambahnya umur harapan hidup maka dimasa depan hipertensi akan menjadi masalah kesehatan yang serius. Salah satu upaya mengatasi hipertensi adalah dengan minum obat antihipertensi. Keteraturan meminum obat ditentukan oleh kepatuhan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengelaborasi pengaruh faktor sosio-ekonomi terhadap kepatuhan minum obat. Jenis penelitian adalah studi kualitatif dengan teknik wawancara mendalam. Informan adalah penderita hipertensi yang tinggal di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Beji Kota Depok, berjumlah 8 orang meliputi kategori lansia/non lansia dan laki-laki/perempuan. Wawancara dilakukan di rumah informan pada minggu pertama dan kedua Juni 2007. Rekaman wawancara dibuat transkrip dan dianalisis dengan content analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sikap patuh dan tidak patuh dalam berobat bisa muncul saling bergantian. Seluruh informan, selain mengkonsumsi obat modern, ternyata juga minum obat tradisional dari beragam tumbuhan obat dengan beragam cara membuatnya. Faktor motivasi berperan penting dalam kepatuhan minum obat. Motivasi positif memiliki efek terhadap kepatuhan minum obat yang lebih kuat dibandingkan dengan motivasi negatif. Sikap caring anggota keluarga juga berperan penting dalam kepatuhan minum obat. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disarankan agar tenaga medis dan paramedis memotivasi anggota keluarga penderita hipertensi sebagai motivator minum obat, melakukan studi khasiat obat tradisional yang mencakup kandungan zat aktif obat dancara pembuatan yang tepat serta efek interaksi pemakaian secara bersama-sama obat antihipertensi modern dan tradisional, dan melanjutkan program Askeskin/Jamkesmas untuk mencegah terjadinya unmet need obat antihipertensi pada orang miskin.Kata kunci : Hipertensi, kepatuhan minum obat, obat modern, obat tradisional.AbstractHypertension is a degenerative disease suffered by many people and the trends was raised as the increased of people age. In the future this disease will be a serious health problem due to the increase of life expectancy. There is an effective method to cope the hypertension by taking anti-hypertensive medicine but the regularity of its consumption depends on the compliance. The study objective was to elaborate the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors toward compliance. The research design was qualitative study and the data was gathered by indepth interview. Informen were hypertensive persons who reside in the working area of Beji Health Center, the City of Depok, consist of 8 persons including aged/non aged and male/female. The interview was conductedat the informant house on the first and second of June 2007. Then the transcript of the interview analyzed used the content analysis. Study result showed that the compliance (i.e. complied or not complied) was substitutable. All informen consumed the modern and traditional medicine simultaneously. The traditional one was made from various plants and the way he/she produced it was vary too. We discover the importance of motivation to the compliance. Positive motivation have stronger effect to the compliance as compared to the negative one. Also, family member caring was crucial to the compliance. Depends on the analyses there are some recommendation i.e. any medical and paramedical should suggest the family member of hypertensive patient to be a motivator, conducteda research to comprehend the benefit of traditional medicine including the active substance and the method of produced it effectively and the interaction effects of the use of modern and traditional antihypertensive medicine simultaneously, and to avoid the unmet need to the modern antihypertensivemedicine of the poor the government should continued the health insurance program for the poor (Askeskin/Jamkesmas).Key words : Hypertension, compliance, modern medicine, traditional medicine.
Analisis Saldo Piutang Pasien Jaminan di Rumah Sakit Port Medical Center Kusumawardhani, Dian; Soewondo, Prastuti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (211.464 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.225

Abstract

Piutang merupakan harta lancar yang terbesar pada organisasi kesehatan dan berdampak dana investasi. Kegagalan pengelolaan piutang di rumah sakit akan mengganggu cash flow dan kegiatan operasional rumah sakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui penyebab saldo piutang pasien jaminan pihak ketiga yang tinggi, meliputi dinas dan langganan di RS Port Medical Center. Penelitian operasional ini melakukan pengamatan langsung dan telaah dokumen pada proses pengelolaan piutang pada tahap penerimaan, pembebanan biaya, penataan rekening, penagihan dan penutupan rekening. Informan adalah para pejabat dan pelaksana yang terlibat. Didapatkan bahwa tidak ada standar atau persyaratan kredit yang berlaku sebelum kerja sama. Potongan harga, jangkawaktu pembayaran dan sanksi yang tertera dalam perjanjian kerja sama tidak dapat dijalankan. Telah ada upaya  penagihan, tetapi belum optimal. Belum ada prosedur tentang cara penagihan bila pembayaran terlambat. Pada lima tahap pengelolaan piutang terlihat beban tugas penata rekening yang tinggi. Dan SOP hanya tersedia pada tahap pembebanan biaya. Proses seleksi yang menggunakan sistem billing online mempermudah pekerjaan tetapi menuntut ketelitian tinggi. Jumlah tagihan dan saldo piutang terbesar adalah dinas. Perusahaan asuransi mempunyai saldo piutang terkecil dan proporsi pembayaran terkecil adalah Jamsostek. Proses penagihan pada dinas, perusahaan umum dan perusahaan asuransi relatif sama (20 hari). Lama proses penagihan danumur piutang terlama adalah Jamsostek.Kata kunci : Saldo piutang, pasien jaminan, rumah sakit.AbstractAccount receivables is the biggest current assets in health organization including hospitals and will influence investation fund management. Failure in account receivables management will confound the cash flow and operational activities. The purpose of this study is to know the causes of high account receivables of patients insured by third party. This operational research used direct observations and documents review regarding the management process of the insured patient account receivables at the stage of admission, charge capture, account billing, collecting and account writing off. An in-depth interview was conducted to the involved persons and officers. The result of the study shows that the current credit policy prevails at PMC hospital seems to be linient since no credit standard or credit terms given before colaboration. Discount, payment period and sanctions are included in the agreement but not effective. There are efforts for claiming, but it has not been done optimally. There is no procedure that can be used in collecting account if there were delay. There is a shortageof staff on the account arrangement and overlapped tasks of staff at central opname. The only available standard operating procedure was at the stage of charge capture. Although the completion process has used on line billing system, to simplify the task, it still needs high accuracy to get accurate data. Thehighest claim goes to the state owned company. The highest account receivable also goes to the state owned company. From four health insurance companies, Jamsostek has the lowest payment percentage. It is also found that the length of the collecting process is 20 days for state owned companies, publiccompanies and insurance companies and 60 days for Jamsostek. The length of billing process and account receivable days for Jamsostek was the longest.Key words : Account receivables, insured patients, hospital.
Tinjauan Filsafat Kesehatan Reproduksi Agustina, Farida Mutiarawati Tri
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (209.852 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.226

Abstract

Kesehatan reproduksi tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kesehatan seksual yang menyangkut peran dua aktor utama laki-laki dan perempuan yang harus dalam kondisi sehat untuk mendapat hasil reproduksi yang sehat. Dari sudut pandang filsafat, ontologi berupaya memahami, mendalami dan mengembangkan pengetahuan kesehatan reproduksi pada tingkat individu dan tingkat masyarakat. Secara epistemologi, kesehatan reproduksi banyak mengalami kemajuan, sejak dari teknologi kontrasepsi sederhana sampai teknologi cloning yang kontroversial. Secara aksiologi, kesehatan reproduksi mampu meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan pemenuhan kebutuhan hidup manusia sesuai perkembangan teknologi. Pemanfaatan dan keberhasilan kesehatan reproduksi dipengaruhi berbagai faktor yang saling terkait dan saling tergantung. Landasan perkembangan ranah kesehatan reproduksi adalah serangkaian konferensi kependudukan dunia sepuluh tahunan. Dimulai pada tahun 1954 di Roma, dilanjutkan 1965 di Belgrade, 1974 di Bucharest, 1984 di Mexico City, dan terakhir tahun 1994 di Cairo. Hingga kini, penerapan berbagai hasil konferensi untuk peningkatan kesejahteraan umat manusia terus berlangsung. Di seluruh negara di dunia, diharapkan hak-hak kesehatan reproduksi dan kesehatan seksual semakin dipenuhi dengan pemanfaatan maksimal teknologi dan sesuai norma dan nilai-nilai kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab.Kata kunci : Kesehatan reproduksi, tinjauan filsafat.AbstractThe Reproductive Health can not be separated from Sexual Health as there is two main actors of male and female has to be related to. Both of them are must be in a healthy condition, in order to produce a healthy reproductive result. From philosophies stand point, the ontology of reproductive health is tried to understand, to explore and to develop reproductive knowledge in the individual and community levels. Epistemologi of reproductive health show highly progress related to contraceptive technology starting from the simplest one to the most controversial of cloning technology. Axiologically, the reproductive health enables to improve the human prosperity and fulfill the human needs in association with technological development. The utilization and the successfull of reproductive health are determined by several interrelated and interdependent factors. The fundamental of reproductive health field development is in a series of world population conferences that held every tens years. Started in 1954 in Roma, continues to 1965 in Belgrade, 1974 in Bucharest, 1984 in Mexico City, and the latest in 1994 in Cairo. Until now, the implementation of several conference results for improvement of human kind properties is continuously occurred. All over the world, it is hoped that reproductive rights and sexual rights can be continuously fulfilled with a highest utilization of technology and in the line with fairness and enlightened norms and values.Key words : Reproductive health, philosophical foundation.
Studi Kualitatif : Pelayanan Rujukan Asfiksia Bayi Baru Lahir di Kabupaten Cirebon Jawa Barat Hadi, Ella Nurlaella
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (201.584 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.227

Abstract

Pada tahun 2005, studi penatalaksanaan asfiksia bayi baru lahir (BBL) oleh bidan di desa Kabupaten Cirebon menemukan kematian asfiksia BBL yang dirujuk ke rumah sakit masih tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi yang mendalam tentang proses rujukan, alur penanganan rujukan kasus asfiksia BBL di RS dan kualitas pelayanan di RS rujukan Kabupaten Cirebon. Untuk itu, digunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode studi kasus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan BdD sudah menangani asfiksia BBL dengan benar, tetapi rujukan sering terlambat karena adanya faktor penghambat dari keluarga (ekonomi dan keputusan merujuk harus melibatkan keluarga besar) dan faktor lingkungan (transportasi di desa terpencil sulit terutama pada malam hari).Disamping, karena penanganan rujukan asfiksia BBL di RS belum optimal, karena masih kurangnya keterampilan petugas bagian UGD dalam manajemen asfiksia BBL dan tidak tersedianya alat resusitasi neonatus di bagian UGD, padahal prosedur penanganan kasus rujukan pertama kali di bagian UGD.Kata kunci : Pelayanan rujukan, asfiksia, BBL.AbstractIn Cirebon district (2005) research on village midwives’s experience in managing birth asphyxia showed mortality of newborns with asphyxia who were referred to the hospitals were still high. This research was aimed to assess referral process, management procedure of referral birth asphyxia cases and quality of care given in the referral hospitals. This study was conducted using qualitative approach focusing on case study method. The result of this study showed that village midwives managed birth asphyxia correctly, but referral of newborn cases was often delayed, because of community factors (finance and delayed decision making by whole family to refer the newborn to the hospitals) and environmental factor (transportation in remote villages was difficult, especially at night. Besides that, referral hospitals were not yet providing adequate emergency care for referral cases of birth asphyxia. These were primarily due to lack of skills in management of birth asphyxia and unavailability of resuscitation device in emergency room.Keywords : Referral health services, Asphyxia, newborn.
Model Spesifikasi Dinamis Permintaan Rokok: Rasionalkah Perokok Indonesia? Hidayat, Budi; Thabrany, Hasbullah
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 3 No. 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (228.395 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v3i3.223

Abstract

Studi ini mengestimasi model spesifikasi dinamis permintaan (demand) rokok di Indonesia. Tujuannya adalah untuk menguji hipotesis kecanduan rasional perokok, dan menghitung elastisitas harga rokok jangka pendek dan jangka panjang. Analisis diaplikasikan pada data agregat individu yang dibentuk dari tiga tahapan survei panel IFLS selama tahun 1993-2000. Studi ini menjajagi sejumlah teknik ekonometrik dan memilih teknik tercocok atas dasar serangkaian uji statistik. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa rokok terbukti sebagai produk yang menimbulkan kecanduan (koefisien konsumsi masa lampau positif dan signifikan pada 1%). Sedangkan koefisien negatif dan signifikan untuk konsumsi rokok masa depan menunjukan sifat kecanduan miopik, artinya para perokok bersifat tidak rasional. Studi ini juga menunjukkan permintaan rokok lebih sensitif terhadap perubahan harga untuk jangka panjang ketimbang untuk jangka pendek. Temuan bahwa perokok memiliki sifat kecanduan miopik mengharuskan pengambil kebijakan mendisain ulang strategi promosi kesehatan masyarakat tentang larangan merokok di Indonesia. Berbagi implikasi kebijakan temuan studi disajikan pula pada bagian akhir tulisan ini.Kata kunci : Kecanduan rasional, sigaret, tembakau, elastisitas, data panel.AbstractThis study estimates a dynamic model specification of demand for cigarette in Indonesia. The objectives are to test the rational addiction hypothesis of cigarettes demand, and to calculate price elasticity of cigarettes in the short-run and long-term. The data for this analysis were aggregate individual data from three-wave a panel surveys of the IFLS (Indonesian Family Life Survey) from 1993-2000. This study explores several econometric approaches, and selects the best fit of several statistical measures. The results indicate that cigarette indeed an addictive good (the lags consumption coefficients are a positive with p-value <1%). Whilts a negative coefficient and significancy of future consumption indicate that smokers are myopic addicts, they are not rational. The study also confirms that the demand is more price sensitive for the long-run than the short-run. The finding of myopic addiction has pratical implications with which policy-makers should re-design current public health campaign against cigarette smoking in the country. Various policy implications of the research findings are also discussed in this article.Key words : Rational addiction, cigarettes, tobacco, price elasticity, panel data.

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