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INDONESIA
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 19077505     EISSN : 24600601     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Kesmas: National Public Health Journal is on public health as discipline and practices related to preventive and promotive measures to enhance health of the public through scientific approach applying variety of technique. This focus includes area and scope such as biostatistics, epidemiology, health education and promotion, health policy and administration, environmental health, public health nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, and occupational health and safety.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007" : 7 Documents clear
Blood-Lead Monitoring Exposure to Leaded-Gasoline among School Children in Jakarta, Indonesia 2005 Haryanto, Budi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (208.966 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i5.293

Abstract

Leaded-gasoline has been used as major octane booster of motor vehicles’ gasoline in Indonesia since decades ago, except in Jakarta, Batam and Bali where it had not been used from 2001, 2003 and 2004, respectively. Negative effects of lead, such as decreasing of IQ, hearing, growth, and hemoglobin level, then will still be threatening and may continue in the future. Meanwhile, the prolonged lead exposure occurs in the may have more dangerous human health effects to children. The Jakarta blood-lead study in 2001 showed that 35% elementary school children have blood lead levels (BLLs) more than 10 µg/dl, and 2.4% had BLL more than 20 µg/dl (CDC-USAEP 2001). The objective of this study is to assess the blood lead level of elementary school children in Jakarta urban area in 2005 by evaluating the mean blood lead level of 3rd and 4th grade elementary school children in Jakarta urban area. A cross-sectional survey was implemented to achieve the above objective. The study was conducted in January-February 2005. Portable LeadCare and Hemocue were used to analyze blood-lead and blood hemoglobin (Hb) respectively from children finger blood on site. All of the 20 selected elementary schools agreed to participate in the test. A total of 203 students were allowed by their parents to participate in the test. The overall average for Hb-blood level is 12.6 g/dl and for Pb-blood level is 4.2 µg/dl. Percentage of those children with Pb-blood equal and more than 10 µg/dl is 1.3%. The declining Pb-blood prevalence from 2001 study obviously reflects the success of Leaded-gasoline phase-out program in Jakarta. It means that the program is successful in preventing people exposed to leadedgasoline in Jakarta, especially children, from the risk of lead toxicity and its impacts. Thus, the program of phasing-out of leaded-gasoline should be expanded and implemented to all Indonesian provinces and cities in order to avoid lead exposure to people.Keywords : Air quality, blood-lead levels, children health effectsAbstrakBensin dengan kandungan logam berat timbal digunakan sebagai bahan bakar utama kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia sejak beberapa dekade. Jakarta, Batam dan Bali yang secara berurutan sudah tidak menggunakannya sejak 2001, 2003 dan 2004. Pengaruh negatif logam berat timbal meliputi penurunan tingkat IQ, gangguan pendengaran, gangguan pertumbuhan, dan menurunkan kadar hemoglobin, masih akan terus berlangsung dan mengancam anak-anak. Studi kadar logam berat timbal dalam darah di Jakarta, tahun 2001, menemukan 5% anak sekolah dasar dengan kadar timbal darah (BLLs) ³10 µg/dl, dan 2,4% mempunyai BLL > 20 µg/dl (CDC-USAEP 2001). Penelitian ini bertujuan menilai kadar timbal darah anak sekolah dasar di Jakarta, tahun 2005. Studi dilakukan pada anak-anak sekolah dasar kelas 3 dan 4 di Jakarta pada periode Januari-Februari 2005. Sebanyak 20 sekolah dasar yang terpilih dan 203 pelajar berartisipasi pada penelitian. Rata-rata kadar hemoglobin darah adalah 12,6 g/dl dan kadar Pb darah adalah 4,2 µg/dl. Proporsi anak-anak dengan kadar Pb-darah ³ 10 µg/dl adalah 1,3%. Penurunan prevalensi Pb-darah dari studi tahun 2001 secara meyakinkan merefleksikan keberhasilan program penghapusan bensin bertimbal di Jakarta. Itu berarti bahwa program tersebut berhasil mencegah pajanan risiko toksik dan dampak kesehatannya pada penduduk Jakarta, khususnya anak-anak. Program penghentian bahan bakar bertimbal disarankan untuk diperluas pada seluruh provinsi dan kota di Indonesia. Kata kunci : Kualitas udara, kadar timbal (Pb) darah, dampak kesehatan pada anak-anak
Pemanfaatan Air Sungai dan Infeksi Schistosoma Japonicum di Napu Poso Sulawesi Tengah Tahun 2006 Hariyanto, M. Edy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (207.313 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i5.294

Abstract

Penyakit schistosomiasis menempati rengking ke dua setelah malaria sebagai masalah sosial ekonomi dan kesehatan masyarakat di daerah tropis dan sub tropis. Prevalensi Schistosomiasis di Napu pada tahun 2004 (1,71%) masih tinggi dan cenderung meningkat. Hal tersebut didiukung oleh infection rate pada keong sebagai host intermediet yang tinggi (16.3%) yang menunjukkan bahwa penularan masih terus terjadi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan pemanfaatan air sungai/ parit dengan infeksi Schistosoma japonicum di Napu Poso Sulawesi Tengah. Penelitian dengan disain studi kasus kontrol ini menggunakan sumber data sekunder hasil survey tinja dan pengamatan dengan metode Katto Katz di Napu tahun 2006. Kasus adalah responden dengan tinja yang mengandung telur cacing Schistosoma menurut, sedangkan control adalah responden dengan tinja yang tidak ditemukan telur cacing Schistosoma. Metoda analisis yang digunakan adalah regresi logistik ganda dengan ukuran asosiasi Odd Rasio dan uji Kai Kuadrat. Penelitian ini menemukan Hubungan antara perilaku pemanfaatan air sungai/parit dengan infeksi Schistosoma japonicum setelah disesuaikan terhadap perancu yaitu penggunaan sepatu boot dan pemanfaatan jamban OR=2,31 (95%CI : 1,22-4,36).Kata kunci: Perilaku, air sungai, schistosomiasisAbstractSchistosomiasis occupies second rank after malaria as soacial-economic and public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In 2004, Schistosomiasis prevalence in Napu is considered high at 1.71% and tends to increase. This is supported by high infection rate at snail as intermediate host (16.3%). In general, one who infected by Schistosoma is those with habit related to the use of river water. The objective of this research is to know the relationship between risk factor of the use of river water/ditch with infection of Schistosoma japonicum in Napu, Poso, Central Sulawesi province. The source of data used in this study is survey of Schistosoma using Katto Katz method in Napu in the year 2006. Cases are respondents whose faeces contained Schistosoma egg while controls are those whose faeces did not contain Schistosoma egg. The result shows positive correlation between behavior of using river water/ditch with infection of Schistosoma japonicum after confounder control with OR=2,31 (95%CI : 1,22-4,36).Key words: Behavior, river water, and schistosomiasis.
Potret Buram Pelayanan Kesehatan Lanjut Usia di Indonesia Trihandini, Indang
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (202.598 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i5.295

Abstract

Jumlah dan proporsi kelompok lanjut usia (lansia) di seluruh dunia, terus meningkat, dan cenderung menjadi masalah kesehatan dan sosial sehingga mendapat perhatian dan dukungan yang serius. Resolusi PBB no 46/ 1991, 16 Desember 1991 menghimbau agar seluruh negara di dunia memberikan hak yang layak kepada kelompok lansia. Di Indonesia, populasi lansia pada tahun 2000 (17,2 juta) meningkat 3 kali lebih besar dari pada tahun 1970 (5,3 juta). Pada tahun 2020, jumlah dan proporsi kelompok lansia di Indonesia diprediksi akan mencapai 28 juta jiwa dan 9,5%. Aspek legal telah menempatkan lansia Indonesia pada tempat yang respek dan terhormat, tetapi, kenyataan memperlihatkan sebaliknya, lansia berada pada posisi yang lemah, tersisihkan dan tak berdaya. Tujuan pelayanan kesehatan lansia adalah mengantarkan mereka melintasi usia lanjut dalam keadaan sehat, berbahagia, produktif dan mandiri. Tanpa aksi nyata yang terencana, serius dan sinambung, lansia justru semakin terpuruk dan berkembang menjadi masalah kesehatan dan sosial yang serius. Jumlah lansia telantar dan berisiko tinggi terlantar adalah 3.274.100 dan 5.102.800 orang. Lansia yang menjadi gelandangan dan pengemis adalah 9.259 orang, dan yang mengalami tindak kekerasan 10.511 orang. Pengakuan hak lansia ternyata masih sebatas undang-undang belum diimplementasikan pada aksi nyata yang terencana, terukur dan sinambung.Kata kunci: Lansia, hak undang-undang, status kesehatanAbstractGlobally, the number and proportion of aging increase sharply and continuously. The importance of aging as public health problem has attracted serious attention and support by United Nation as shown by its resolution No 46/ 1991, 16 December 1991, that recommends the countries all over the world to provide appropriate rights for aging people. In Indonesia, the number of aging people in 1970 (5,3 milions) increases 3 times higher in 2000 (17, 2 millions). In 2020, the number and proportion of aging population in Indonesia are predicted to be about 28 millions and 9,5%, respectively. The Indonesian legal aspect has placed aging people in respectful and honored position. But, the reality shows the opposite side where the aging people are eliminated and being in a dependent position. The legal aspect must able to deliver Indonesian aging community pass through the old age in a healthy, happy, productive and independent condition. But, without planned, serious, and continuous real actions, the aging people condition will become worst and worst. The increasing number and proportion of aging people, if not followed by quality improvement of health services tend to be serious social and public health problem. The numbers of already neglected and high risk of neglected aging people in Indonesia are about 3.274.100 and 5.102.800 persons, respectively. The aging people who are homeless and begging on street is 9.259 persons, and those suffered from abuse is 10.511 persons. In Indonesia, the aging people’s rights is only shown on regulation but it has not implemented yet.Keywords: Aging people, rights, health status.
Perilaku Menyusui Bayi pada Etnik Bugis di Pekkae, 2003 Hamzah, Asiah
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (207.468 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i5.290

Abstract

Studi penilaian ASI di Kabupaten Barru tahun 1998, menemukan 99,0% bayi dan balita masih mendapat ASI. Namun, bayi baru lahir tidak diberi ASI pada jam pertama, Pemberian ASI pada hari I (40,6%) masih rendah, masih banyak yang memberikan hari II (18,4%), dan hari III (41,0%). Umumnya bayi mendapat kolostrom (83,2%) dan ASI (99,0%), tetapi sekitar 75% bayi mendapat makanan prelakteal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perilaku menyusui bayi pada etnik Bugis Kecamatan Tanete Rilau Kabupaten Barru. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah metode kualitatif dengan paradigma etnometodologi dan interaksi simbolik. Pradigma etnometodologi digunakan untuk mengetahui makna perilaku ibu dalam menyusui bayi menurut etnik Bugis. Pradigma interaksi simbolik digunakan untuk mengetahui simbol terpola berdasar Significant Others Dan Generalized Others. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perilaku menyusui orang Bugis tidak terlepas dari Siri’, dari sudut pandang antropologi politik orang Bugis dimasa lalu. Siri’ tidak lain dari inti kebudayaan Bugis yang mendominasi serta menjadi kekuatan pendorong terhadap Pangngadereng selaku wujud totalitas kebudayaan Bugis. Perilaku perempuan Bugis mulai dari hamil sampai melahirkan serta menyusui berdasarkan Significant Others dan Generalized Others. Perilaku tersebut tidak terlepas dari ininnawa madeceng (harapan yang baik) kepada anak yang terkait nilai normatif masyarakat Bugis.Kata kunci: Perilaku menyusui, etnik bugisBreast feeding evaluation study in District of Barru in 1998, showed that about 99, 0% infants and under five years old children is still breastfed. However, the newborn babies were not breastfed during the first hour but instead were breastfed in the first day (40, 6%), second day (18, 4%), and the third day (41, 0%). Generally the colostrum is given to newborn infant (83,2%) and most of the infant are breastfed (99,0%), but about 75% of the infant are given the prelacteal feeding. This research aimed to understand breastfeeding behavior in Pekkae community, at Tenete Rilau district, Barru regency. This study was conducted in a qualitative approach setting using ethnological and symbolic interactions approaches. Ethnological paradigm was used to understand mother’s behavior based on significant others and generalized other. There were 13 respondents involved in this study consisting of breastfeeding mothers liv- ing in Pekkae village, Barru regency. The result of this study showed that the behavior on breastfeeding closely associated with a cultural belief so – called ‘siri’, which is one of the important buginese cultures inspiring the buginese social livelihood. The behavior of buginese mothers from pregnancy until birth and breastfeeding can be considered as ‘significant others’ and ‘generalized others. This behavior is also attributed to ‘ininnawa madeceng’ (good hope) from the parents so that their children may become good people based on buginese normative culture.Key words: Breast feeding behavior, buginese ethnicAbstract
Tantangan Pencapaian Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) Bidang Kesehatan di Indonesia Utomo, Budi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (214.254 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i5.296

Abstract

Laporan pemerintah tentang pencapaian MDGs di Indonesia sampai tahun 2002 merefleksikan komitmen dalam mensejahterakan rakyat. Kesehatan yang dijabarkan dalam berbagai indikator tujuan 4, 5, dan 6 dilaporkan membaik. Tulisan ini menelaah status pencapaian, mencari penjelasan latar belakang pencapaian, dan menilai prospek pencapaian MDGs utamanya bidang kesehatan. Hasil telaah menunjukkan sebagian besar indikator kesehatan membaik, tetapi lamban. Walau menurun, angka kematian ibu dan anak masih tinggi. Penyakit infeksi dan masalah gizi masih prevalen. Akses masyarakat terhadap pelayanan kesehatan masih rendah. Biaya masih menjadi penghambat utama pelayanan kesehatan bagi mereka yang membutuhkan. Program pemberantasan penyakit menular, termasuk HIV/AIDS, malaria, dan TB masih dihadapkan pada banyak hambatan. Prevalensi malaria dan TB masih tinggi, sementara epidemi HIV/AIDS di beberapa daerah sudah mulai masuk kedalam populasi rendah. Gambaran ini menyiratkan prognosis pencapaian MDGs di Indonesia yang kurang menggembirakan. Tantangan utama pencapaian MDGs bidang kesehatan adalah bagaimana pemerintah dapat menerjemahkan komitmen dan kebijakan intervensi efektif yang sudah tersedia menjadi program rutin pelayanan kesehatan yang dapat langsung menyentuh masyarakat, terutama mereka yang paling membutuhkan, yaitu masyarakat miskin.Kata kunci: Pencapaian MDGs, bidang kesehatan, masyarakat miskinAbstractGovernment’s report on achievement of MDGs in Indonesia until 2002 reflects commitment towards people’s welfare. Health area as explained in indicators of goals 4, 5, and 6 were reported as improved. This review examines achievement status, elucidates background explanation about those achievement status, and assesses prospect of MDG achievement, particularly in health area. The review shows that most of MDG’s health indicators improved but in a slow manner. Funding is still posed as the main constraint of health care of those who needed it. Eradication program of infectious and contagious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, and TB faces many hurdles. Malaria and TB prevalences are still high , while HIV/AIDS epidemic in several areas has shown infiltration and spread among low socio-economic population groups. This situation reflects a not very good prognostic of MDG achievement in Indonesia. The main challenge of MDG achievement in health area in Indonesia is related to question on how the government could translate commitment and effective intervention policy into routine health care program that directly touch the people, especially those who need most: the poor.Keywords: MDG achievement, health area, the poor
Relapse Opiat di Rumah Sakit Ketergantungan Obat Jakarta, Tahun 2003-2005 Muttaqin, Akhmad
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.329 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i5.291

Abstract

Penyalahgunaan ulang opiat merupakan penyakit kronik yang berkali-kali muncul. Angka kambuh (relapse) pecandu Narkotika, Psikotropika dan Zat Adiktif (Napza) secara umum tidak jauh berbeda dengan angka relapse pecandu opiat. Tujuan penelitian ini mengetahui berbagai faktor saja yang berhubungan dengan kejadian relapse opiat di RSKO Jakarta tahun 2003-2005. Penelitian dengan disain kasus control ini dilakukan terhadap data sekunder rekam medik. Variabel yang diteliti meliputi faktor individu (jenis kelamin, tingkat pendidikan, golongan umur, status perkawinan, status pekerjaan, dan status infeksi hepatitis) serta faktor zat (pola penggunaan, lama pakai, cara pakai, frekuensi pakai, dan kadar zat). Sampel studi terdiri dari 72 kasus dan 84 kontrol, Kasus adalah pasien ketergantungan opiat yang berkunjung berturut-turut 6 bulan tanpa menggunakan opiat dan kembali berkunjung dengan keluhan kembali menyalahgunakan opiat. Kontrol adalah pasien ketergantungan opiat yang berkunjung berturut-turut 6 bulan tanpa menggunakaan opiat dan tetap berkunjung tanpa keluhan menyalahgunakan opiat. Penelitian ini menggunakan metoda analisis multivariat logistik regresi ganda. Variabel berhubungan dengan relapse opiat adalah tingkat pendidikan, status perkawinan, status hepatitis, lama pakai, dan cara pakai. Variabel yang paling dominan adalah status hepatitis, penderita hepatitis berisiko relapse lebih besar daripada bukan penderita hepatitis.Kata kunci: Relaps, ketergantungan opiat, regresi logistikAbstractDrug abuse is a chronic condition that can relapse several times. Generally the relapse rates of narcotic, psychotropic and other additive material are not differed from that of opiate. The objective of this study is to know factors related to the occurrence of opiate relapse in Jakarta Drug Abuse Hospital in 2003- 2005. The study design used in this study is case control design using medical record as secondary source of data. The study variables include individual variables (sex, education eve, age, marital status, job, and status of hepatitis), the drug factors including pattern of abuse, duration, method, frequency, and dose. The sample consists of 72 cases and 84 control. The cases are opiate abuse patient who visited the Jakarta Drug Abuse for 6 months without relapse and revisited with opiate relapse. The controls are opiate abuse patient who visited the Jakarta Drug Abuse for 6 months without relapse and still not relapse in the next visit. The analysis method used in this study is multiple logistic regression method. Variables related to opiate relapse include education, marriage status, hepatitis status, method and duration of abuse.Key words: Relapse, opiate abuse, logistic regression
Frekuensi Keteraturan Senam dan Penurunan Tekanan Darah Anggota Klub Jantung Sehat Pondalisa, Jakarta Tahun 2000 - 2005 Werdhani, Retno Asti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 5 April 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (195.954 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i5.292

Abstract

Prevalensi hipertensi di Indonesia meningkat bersamaan dengan meningkatnya usia. Untuk itu, upaya pencegahan hipertensi dan komplikasinya perlu dilakukan sejak dini jauh sebelum usia lanjut. Olahraga khususnya jenis aerobik diketahui dapat mengendalikan tekanan darah. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan frekuensi dan keteraturan senam terhadap penurunan tekanan darah pada peserta program latihan. Desain studi yang digunakan adalah kohort retrospektif dengan metoda analisis Cox Regression. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap sumber data sekunder 132 anggota KJS Pondalisa yang merupakan salah satu sarana olahraga masyarakat, selama periode satu tahun keanggotaan. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa tidak ada anggota yang melakukan senam 3xper minggu sesuai program dengan keteraturan senam anggota maksimum selama 15 minggu. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa seluruh anggota KJS Pondalisa belum melakukan olah raga sesuai dengan anjuran. Efek frekuensi senam 2xper minggu terhadap penurunan tekanan darah tidak berbeda secara bermakna dengan efek frekuensi senam < 2xper minggu. Penurunan tekanan darah pada frekuensi senam 2xper minggu didapatkan bila dilakukan selama > 8 minggu berturut-turut.Kata kunci : Frekuensi, teratur, senam/olahraga, penurunan tekanan darahAbstractThe prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia increases with age. Health promotion is needed to prevent hypertension and its complications among those who have not yet reached old age. Sport especially aerobic type has been known to control blood pressure. The objective of the study is to evaluate the association among frequency and regularity of exercise with blood pressure reduction. A Retrospective cohort study and Cox Regression analysis was conducted using secondary data of members of KJS Pondalisa during the first year of membership. The result of study showed that there were no member doing exercise three times weekly as programmed. The maximum exercise’s regularity was 15 weeks. There is no statistically significant effect of two times weekly exersices on reduction of blood presure compared to frequency of less than two times weekly. Reduction of blood presure will be occured if the exercise is conducted for more than 8 weeks continuously.Keywords: Frequency, regular, exercise, blood pressure reduction

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