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Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 19077505     EISSN : 24600601     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Kesmas: National Public Health Journal is on public health as discipline and practices related to preventive and promotive measures to enhance health of the public through scientific approach applying variety of technique. This focus includes area and scope such as biostatistics, epidemiology, health education and promotion, health policy and administration, environmental health, public health nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, and occupational health and safety.
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Search results for , issue " Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013" : 8 Documents clear
Pengetahuan dan Perilaku Ibu Rumah Tangga dalam Pengelolaan Sampah Plastik Setyowati, Ririn; Mulasari, Surahma Asti
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Pencemaran lingkungan akibat sampah plastik semakin mengkhawatirkan apabila tidak ada usaha untuk mengatasinya. Masyarakat yang kurang pengetahuan dan berperilaku buruk dalam pengelolaan sampah plastik dapat menimbulkan gangguan kesehatan dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan antara tingkat pengetahuan ibu rumah tangga dengan perilaku mengelola sampah plastik. Penelitian dilakukan di Dusun Kedesen, Desa Kradenan, Kecamatan Kaliwungu, Kabupaten Semarang Tahun 2012. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan studi cross sectional, dengan sampel berjumlah 74 orang yang diambil secara secara acak sederhana. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara terstruktur menggunakan kuesioner. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis univariat dan analisis bivariat dengan uji statistik Kai Kuadrat (X2). Penelitian menemukan sekitar 56,8% responden berpengetahuan tidak baik dan sekitar 60,8% responden berperilaku tidak baik. Analisis bivariat menunjukan hubungan yang sangat signifikan antara tingkat pengetahuan ibu rumah tangga dengan perilaku mengelola sampah plastik. Ada hubungan yang sangat signifikan antara tingkat pengetahuan ibu rumah tangga dengan perilaku mengelola sampah plastik di Dusun Kedesen, Desa Kradenan, Kecamatan Kaliwungu, Kabupaten Semarang tahun 2012.Pollution caused by plastic increase worrying if there is no attempt to resolve it. Lack of knowledge and poor people’s behavior in the management of plastic waste can cause environmental and health problems. Management of plastic waste can be started from each household who produce plastic waste. The purpose of this study to determine the relationship between the level of housewife’s knowledge with the behavior to manage of plastic waste at Kedesen, Kradenan Village, District Kaliwungu, Semarang in 2012. The study was analytic survey with cross-sectional design. Sample was 74 respondents with simple random sampling. Research tool used was a questionnaire. Analyzed used univariate and bivariate analysis with statistical test Chi Square(X2). The results showed 74 respondents obtained from 42 respondents (56.8%) are not well knowledgeable, 32 respondents (43.2%) both knowledgeable. There were 45 respondents (60.8%) did not have good behavior, while 29 respondents (39.2%) had good behavior. Bivariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the level of knowledge with behavior of housewives in managing plastic waste at the hamlet Kedesen. Statistical results showed the value (p = 0.000) smaller than alpha (a = 0.05). There was a significant relationship between the level of knowledge with behavior of housewife in managing plastic waste at Kedesen Hamlet, Village Kradenan, Kaliwungudistrict, Semarang regency in 2012.
Efektivitas Kebijakan Daerah dalam Penurunan Angka Kematian Ibu dan Bayi Saputra, Wiko; Fanggidae, Victoria; Mafthuchan, Ah
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Di Indonesia, desentralisasi sektor kesehatan tidak selalu berdampak baik pada upaya penurunan angka kematian ibu, bayi dan anak balita. Desentralisasi tidak hanya memberi kewenangan pengembangan kebijakan lokal spesifik yang tepat, tetapi juga kebijakan yang tidak mendukung kebijakan nasional sehingga berdampak pencapaian yang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas desentralisasi kesehatan dalam mendorong pemerintah daerah menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif wawancara semi terstruktur, observasi, dan diskusi kelompok terarah pada informan kunci yang terlibat dalam penyusunan dan pelaksanaan kebijakan daerah. Tiga kabupaten dipilih secara purposif berdasarkan expert judgement meliputi Kabupaten Pasuruan, Kabupaten Takalar dan Kabupaten Kupang. Kebijakan desentralisasi ditemukan bukan saja memberikan kewenang pelayanan kesehatan, tetapi juga menuntut kreativitas penyusunan kebijakan kesehatan. Tiga kabupaten tersebut ternyata mampu membuat kebijakan kesehatan yang menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi. Di setiap daerah, ditemukan inovasi kebijakan yang mengarah pada perbaikan sistem pelayanan kesehatan ibu dan bayi. Pemerintah pusat perlu mendorong pemerintah daerah untuk berinovasi mengembangkan kebijakan kesehatan sehingga target MDGs bidang kesehatan pada tahun 2015 dapat tercapai.In Indonesia, health sector desentralization does not always show good effect reduction measure of infant, maternal and under five children mortality. Local government can make appropriate local spesific health policy, but not always appropriate to national policy, that effect on low coverage. The objective of this study is to analyzes the rule of local policies in reducing maternal and infant mortality rate in Indonesia. The approach used is qualitative research with semi-structured interviews to key informants involved in  the preparation and implementation of local policies, making direct observation and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Three districts were selected purposively based on expert judgment are Pasuruan District, Takalar District and Kupang District. The results showed that decentralization gives local governments the authority to conduct health services and local government demanded creativity in formulating health policy. The three districts were able to make health policy related to reducing maternal and infant mortality. This policy is effective to a decrease in maternal and infant mortality rates in the three districts. Although found in every area of innovation policy but its direction is towards the improvement of the health care system for mothers and babies. Therefore, the central government needs to encourage local governments to undertake innovative health policies mainly to decrease maternal and infant mortality rates in order to achieve the MDGs health targets to be achieved by 2015.
Profil Penderita Otitis Media Supuratif Kronis Asroel, Harry Agustaf; Siregar, Debi Rumondang; Aboet, Askaroellah
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Otitis media supuratif kronis merupakan penyakit telinga umum di negaranegara berkembang. Komplikasi otitis media supuratif kronis tipe bahaya mempunyai tanda dan gejala klinis yang khas.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui profil penderita otitis media supuratif kronis (OMSK) tipe bahaya di RSUP H. Adam Malik. Penelitian deskriptif terhadap 119 penderita dari tahun 2006-2010. Sekitar 28,57% penderita dijumpai pada tahun 2010, sekitar 31,93% terjadi pada usia 11-20 tahun, sekitar 53,78% laki-laki, dan sekitar 38,66% pada telinga kanan. Sebanyak 68,91% terjadi akibat riwayat otitis media berulang dan 61,34% dengan keluhan utama telinga berair. Gejala dan tanda klinis yang sering terjadi adalah telinga berair (76,47%) dan perforasi membran timpani (74,79%), baik perforasi atik (0,84%), marginal (1,68%), subtotal (23,53%), dan total (48,74%). Gangguan pendengaran terbanyak adalah tuli konduktif (58,82%). Pada foto proyeksi Schuller, 62,18% dijumpai gambaran mastoiditis kronis dengan kolesteatoma. Dari hasil kultur dijumpai 21,01% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 86,55% terjadi komplikasi mastoiditis.Profil penderita OMSK tipe bahaya di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan sesuai dengan profil penderita OMSK tipe bahaya pada umumnya.Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common ear disease in developing countries. The complications of CSOM have a unique set of clinical signs and symptoms. This study aimed to identify the profile of dangerous type CSOM patients at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan in 2006-2010. A descriptive study of 119 patients in 2006-2010. From 119 patients, 28.57% were found in 2010, 31.93% were at age between 11-20 years old, 53.78% men and 38.66% were at right ear. 68.91% due to a history of recurrent otitis media and 61.34% with a main complaint of draining ears. The most clinical symptoms and signs were aqueous ears (76.47%) and tympanic membrane perforations (74.79%), as attic perforation (0.84%), marginal (1.68%), subtotal (23.53%), and total (48.74%). The most hearing impairments were conductive deafness (58.82%). In Schuller projections, 62.18% were found the imaging of chronic mastoiditis with cholesteatoma. From the culture results, 21.01% were Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 86.55% were mastoiditis complications.The profile of dangerous type CSOM patients at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan is similar with the other profile of dangerous type CSOM commonly.
Status Gizi Balita Berdasarkan Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure Rahmadini, Nurani; Sudiarti, Trini; Utari, Diah Mulyawati
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Upaya menurunkan prevalensi kurang gizi pemerintah membuat program Keluarga Sadar Gizi (Kadarzi). Cakupan Kadarzi Kota Depok tahun 2011 rendah (12,7%) dan prevalensi gizi kurang, pendek, kurus berturut-turut 7,89%, 7%, 4,75%. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui faktor dominan terhadap status gizi balita 6 - 59 bulan berdasarkan Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). Penelitian menggunakan data sekunder hasil survei Kadarzi 2011. Survei dilakukan di sebelas kecamatan Kota Depok menggunakan desain cross sectional. Sampel sebanyak 1.176 keluarga yang memiliki balita termuda umur 6 _ 59 bulan. Variabel yang diteliti adalah status gizi balita, perilaku Kadarzi, status Kadarzi, karakteristik balita, dan karakteristik keluarga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan prevalensi balita gagal tumbuh 31%. Terdapat dua variabel yang memberikan pengaruh status gizi balita secara bersama-sama yaitu penimbangan balita (nilai p = 0,003) dan pendidikan ibu (nilai p = 0,034). Uji regresi logistik ganda menunjukkan penimbangan balita sebagai faktor dominan terhadap status gizi balita. Balita yang ditimbang tidak teratur berisiko 1,5 kali mengalami gagal tumbuh dibandingkan yang ditimbang teratur. Indeks CIAF berguna untuk mengetahui prevalensi gizi kurang secara keseluruhan dan penanggulangannya. Diperlukan penyuluhan dan promosi yang lebih aktif kepada masyarakat mengenai pentingnya pemantauan pertumbuhan balita melalui posyandu dan melakukan pembinaan kader posyandu dalam pemantauan status pertumbuhan anak sebagai deteksi dini adanya gangguan pertumbuhan.Effort to reduce malnutrition governments make Keluarga Sadar Gizi (Kadarzi). Kadarzi in Depok 2011 still low (12,7%) and the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting are respectively 7,89%, 7%, 4,75%. This study aimed to determine the dominant factor for nutritional status of children based on Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). Research using secondary data survey Kadarzi 2011. The survey was conducted using a cross sectional study in 11 districts. Samples of 1,176 families who have children youngest aged 6 - 59 months. The variables studied were the nutritional status, Kadarzi behaviors, Kadarzi status, children characteristics, and family characteristics. Results showed prevalence of growth faltering (31%). There are two variables that influence nutritional status, child’s weighing (p value = 0,003) and mother’s education (p value = 0,034). Multiple logistic regression analysis show child’s weighing as a dominant factor to the nutritional status of children. Children who are weighed not regularly are more risky 1,5 to get growth faltering then children who are weighed regularly. CIAF is useful to determine prevalence of undernutrition clearly and its solution. Counseling and promotion about child’s growth monitoring are required as early detection of growth faltering.
Faktor Risiko Malnutrisi pada Balita Kuntari, Titik; Jamil, Nur Aisyah; Kurniati, Opi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Gizi buruk yang merupakan masalah penting di semua negara-negara miskin dan berkembang bertanggung jawab terhadap 60 persen kematian balita. Prevalensi balita gizi buruk di Indonesia tergolong tinggi, pada 2005, berbagai propinsi di Indonesia melaporkan 76.178 balita mengalami gizi buruk. Kasihan adalah salah satu kecamatan di kabupaten Bantul berbatasan dengan Kotamadya Yogyakarta yang menghadapi permasalahan gizi buruk. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui angka kejadian dan faktor risiko gizi buruk di Kecamatan Kasihan, Kabupaten Bantul. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain studi kasus kontrol meliputi kelompok kasus 54 balita malnutrisi dan kelompok kontrol 54 balita gizi baik. Status gizi ditentukan berdasarkan Z score berat badan menurut umur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat pendidikan ibu yang tinggi (OR = 0,4 ; 95% CI = 0,19 - 0,79), jarang kelahiran lebih dari 60 bulan (OR = 0,3; 95% CI = 0,11 - 0,90), berat lahir normal (OR = 0,2; 95% CI = 0,10 - 0,60), dan riwayat penyakit kronis (OR = 0,3; 95% CI = 0,14 - 0,80) merupakan faktor protektif malnutrisi pada balita. Malnutrisi tidak berhubungan dengan umur ibu, paritas, tingkat pendidikan ayah, pendapatan keluarga, riwayat ASI, anggota keluarga yang merokok dan imunisasi campak.Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries. Malnutrition significantly increases the risk of infant and child death. Although the incidence of malnutrition in Yogyakarta lower than other provinces in Indonesia, the prevalence of severe malnutrition of children under five years of age was 1.14%. the objective of this study were to identify and determine the risk factors for malnutrition in children under the five years of age in Kasihan 1, Bantul District. Case control design was conducted among 54 children under the age of five with malnutrition (z score <-2 Deviation Standart) and 54 comparison children from Kasihan 1. The data were collected using structured questionnaire. The children’s weight and length were measured using standardized and calibrated device. Nutrition state classified using Z score (weight for age) Anthropometry WHO software version 2011. The protective factors for malnutrition were high maternal education (OR = 0.4 ; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.79), birth space more than 60 months (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.11- 0.90), normal birth weight (OR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.10 - 0.60), and no history of chronic disease (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.14 - 0.80). There are no relationship between malnutrition with maternal age, parity, paternal education, income, history of breastfeeding, smoking member of family and measles immunization.
Prevalensi dan Faktor Risiko Tuli Akibat Bising pada Operator Mesin Kapal Feri Jumali, Jumali; Sumadi, Sumadi; Andriani, Sylvia; Subhi, Misbahul; Suprijanto, Damianus; Handayani, Wuri Diah; Chodir, Abdul; Noviarmi, Fadilatus Sukma Ika; Indahwati, Leli
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Kebisingan ruang mesin dapat menyebabkan gangguan pendengaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis prevalensi tuli akibat bising Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) dan faktor yang memengaruhi pada operator mesin kapal feri penyeberangan Ketapang-Gilimanuk. Penelitian observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional ini menggunakan metode pengumpulan data dengan wawancara, pengukuran intensitas kebisingan ruang mesin dan pemeriksaan audiometri terhadap operator. Besar sampel adalah 66 operator dari 36 kapal feri yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dipilih secara acak. Hasil studi menunjukkan 36% kapal memiliki intensitas kebisingan ² 85 dBA dan 64% > 85 dBA. Pemeriksaan audiometri dengan nada murni pada 66 operator didapatkan 34,85% responden mengalami NIHL. Hasil analisis regresi logistik menunjukkan faktor dominan yang memengaruhi NIHL adalah usia dan lama paparan (p < 0,05). Hasil uji kai kuadrat didapatkan intensitas kebisingan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap NIHL setelah dikoreksi dengan umur dan lama paparan (p < 0,05). Disarankan untuk mengurangi waktu paparan terhadap operator yang terpajan kebisingan tinggi dan menjaga jarak antara operator dengan sumber kebisingan untuk meminimalkan pajanan bising.Engine room noise can cause hearing loss. The objective of this research was to analyze the prevalence of Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) and its affecting factors on machinery ferry operators at Ketapang-Gilimanuk. This was an observational with cross sectional design, the techniques for collecting data were interviews, noise intensity measurements and audiometric examination.The sample was 66 operators who were selected randomly after inclusion. The study results showed that 36% of ferry have noise intensity ² 85 dBA and 64% have > 85 dBA. The audiometric examination with pure tone result of the 66 operators showed that 34.85% of respondent had NIHL. The age and length of exposure affected NIHL incidence (p < 0.05). While the noise intensity affected the incidence of NIHL (p > 0.05) together with age and lenght of exposure. It is important to reduce exposure time of noisy operations on workers, automation of activities and increase the distance between workers and noisy equipment to minimise the noise exposure.
Sampel Susu Formula dan Praktik Pemberian Air Susu Ibu Eksklusif Nuraini, Tuti; Julia, Madarina; Dasuki, Djaswadi
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Cakupan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI) eksklusif di Kota Pagar Alam, tahun 2011 sekitar 43% tergolong rendah. Sebaliknya, pemberian susu formula meningkat tiga kali lipat dari 10,3% menjadi 32,5%. Iklan susu formula telah menyentuh bidan swasta dan puskesmas melalui pendekatan produsen susu formula dan pemberian susu formula secara gratis kepada ibu menyusui. Penelitian yang bertujuan mengetahui determinan kegagalan praktik pemberiaan ASI eksklusif di Kota Pagar Alam Provinsi Sumatera Selatan ini menggunakan desain studi unmatching kasus kontrol. Populasi adalah seluruh ibu yang mempunyai bayi berusia 7 _ 12 bulan. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode proportional random sampling. Variabel terikat praktik adalah pemberian ASI eksklusif, variabel bebas adalah pemberian sampel susu formula. Ibu yang mendapat sampel susu formula dan yang tidak mendapat dukungan tenaga kesehatan berisiko 3,67 dan 4,2 kali lebih besar untuk tidak memberikan ASI eksklusif.The coverage of exclusive breastfeeding in the City of Pagar Alam in 2011 was by 43%. Advertising of infant formula has reached privately practicing midwives or health centers. The approach from infant formula manufacturers to midwives in health centers is by providing free milk formula to nursing mothers to be distributed under the pretext of promotion. The objective of this study is to analyze the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practice failures in the City of Pagar Alam of South Sumatra Province. The population study with an unmatched case-control design was conducted in the City of Pagar Alam. The population was all breastfeeding mothers who had babies in the city of Pagar Alam of South Sumatra Province. The research subjects are breastfeeding mothers who had babies aged 7 - 12 months who selected with proportional random sampling method. The variables of the study included the dependent variable, i.e, the practice of exclusive breastfeeding, the independent variable, i.e, promotion of free milk formula samples. The risk of not exclusively breast feeding amang mothers who had accepted formula milk samples and who absence of support posed by health workers is 3.67 and 4.20 times higher the mothers who had not accepted the formula milk sample and who absence of support posed by heath worker.
Frekuensi Pemeriksaan Kehamilan, Konseling Laktasi, dan Pemberian Air Susu Ibu Eksklusif Djami, Moudy Emma Unaria; Noormartany, Noormartany; Hilmanto, Dany
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol 7. No. 12 Juli 2013
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Pemberian air susu ibu (ASI) eksklusif pada bayi penting karena erat hubungannya dengan kelangsungan hidup bayi, pertumbuhan dan perkembangan yang optimal serta peningkatan kualitas generasi berikutnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan hubungan frekuensi pemeriksaan kehamilan dan konseling laktasi dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Rancangan penelitian adalah kohor historikal. Analisis multivariabel dilakukan menilai hubungan dan faktor paling dominan antara variabel bebas (frekuensi pemeriksaan kehamilan dan konseling laktasi), variabel perancu (pengetahuan, pendidikan, pekerjaan, paritas dan tingkat pendapatan keluarga) dan variabel terikat (ASI eksklusif). Pada analisis regresi logistik ditemukan pengetahuan sebagai faktor paling dominan dalam pemberian ASI eksklusif (OR = 4,30; 95% CI = 1,98 - 9,31). Pengetahuan yang baik tentang ASI eksklusif meningkatkan pemberian ASI eksklusif 4,30 kali lebih besar. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah semakin sering frekuensi pemeriksaan kehamilan akan semakin tinggi pemberian ASI eksklusif, serta semakin sering pemberian konseling laktasi oleh tenaga kesehatan semakin tinggi pemberian ASI eksklusif.Exclusive breastfeeding is important because it is connected with infant survival, optimal growth and development and improving the quality of the next generation. This study aims to analyze and determine the frequency of prenatal care and relationship counseling lactation with exclusive breastfeeding. A historical cohort study design and bivariate and multivariable analyzes performed to look for association and dominant factor among the independent variables (frequency of prenatal care and counseling lactation), confounding variables (knowledge, education, employment, parity and level of family income) with the dependent variable (exclusive breastfeeding). In the logistic regression analysis found knowledge as a dominant factor in the exclusive breastfeeding (OR = 4,30; 95% CI = 1,98 _ 9,31). The conclusion of this study is that the more often the frequency of antenatal care will increase exclusive breastfeeding, and the more lactation counseling given by health provider during antenatal visit will increase exclusive breastfeeding.

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