Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention
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Articles
68
Articles
Elettaria cardamomum Distillate Increases Cellular Immunity in Doxorubicin Treated Rats

Raksamiharja, Rikat ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Sy, Khairunnisa ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , S, Meirizky Zulharini ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Novarina, Annisa ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Sasmito, Ediati ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Doxorubicin is one of chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer therapy. However, doxorubicin usage causes some adverse effects, such as lymphocyte, CD4+ and CD8+ cells number.  Therefore,  the  co-chemotherapeutic  agent  is  required  to  reduce  the imunosuppression  effect.  Cardamom  (Elettaria  cardamomum)  contains  terpenoid  1,8  cineol. This  research  aimed  to  know  the  effect  of  Elettaria  cardamomum  distillate  (ECD)  in combination with doxorubicin on Sprague Dawley rat’s hematology profile and the amount of CD4+  and  CD8+  cells.  The  experiment  was  done  for  13  days  using  6  groups  of  rats:  I doxorubicin (dox) 15 mg/kg BW; II dox + ECD5 mg/kg BW; III dox + ECD 50 mg/kg BW; IV dox  +  ECD  100  mg/kg  BW;  V  ECD  100  mg/kg  BW;  VI  control  without  treatment.  The hematology  profile  and  the  amount  of  CD4+  and  CD8+  were  counted  before  and  after treatment  using  flowcytometer.  The  results  show  that  ECD  increases  the  amount  of lymphocyte, white blood, CD4+ and CD8+ cells in dose dependent manner in doxorubicin treated rats. Based on the data, it can be concluded that ECD is potential to be developed as immunostimulant agent for chemotherapy.Keywords: Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), immunostimulant, hematology, CD4+, CD8+

Ethanolic Extract of Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) Wood Performs as Chemosensitizing Agent Through Apoptotic Induction on Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

Khamsita, Rahmi ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Hermawan, Adam ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Putri, Dyaningtyas Dewi Pamungkas ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Meiyanto, Edy ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Resistance  to  chemotherapy  is  believed  to  cause  treatment  failure  of  the  patient cancer. Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) has been proven to possess anticancer activity on some cancer cell lines. The aimed of this study to develop ethanolic extract of secang wood (EES) as  chemosensitizing  agent  through  apoptotic  induction  on  breast  cancer  MCF-7  cells. Extraction  of  secang  was  done  by  using  maceration  with  70  %  ethanol.  Single  and combinatorial treatment of EES and doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells were analyzed by using MTT assay to determine the IC50 value and combination index (CI) to evaluate the combinatorial effect. Apoptosis was analyzed with flowcytometry (annexin V).  EES showed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity (IC50 value of 37 µg/ml), while combinatorial treatment showed that  7  concentrations  was  found  to  be  synergist  with  doxorubicin  on  MCF-7  cells. Combinatorial treatment also triggered apoptotic instead of single treatment. Based on this result,  we  conclude  that  ethanolic  extract  of  secang  wood  is  potential  as  chemosensitizing agent in breast cancer.Keyword: Caesalpinia sappan L, MCF-7 cells, doxorubicin, apoptosis.

Ficus septica Burm.f. Leaves Ethanolic Extract Triggered Apoptosis on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis Qualitatively

Anindyajati, . ( Cancer Chemoprevention Reearch Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Darma, Andita Pra ( Cancer Chemoprevention Reearch Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Nurzijah, Ika ( Cancer Chemoprevention Reearch Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Septhea, Dita Brenna ( Cancer Chemoprevention Reearch Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Nugroho, Agung Endro ( Cancer Chemoprevention Reearch Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Ficus septica Burm.f.ethanolic extract (FEE) shows cytotoxic effects on several cancer cell lines. Our research aimed to investigate the effect of FEE on apoptosis induction and p53 expression against carcinogenesis of 7,12-Dimenthylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary. The research was conducted by comparing both apoptosis induction and p53 expression in DMBA-induced rats that were treated with FEE against control groups. Cells that undergo apoptosis were visualized by Double Staining method with acridine orange and ethidium bromide, while p53 expression was detected by IHC staining. Double staining result showed increased occurrence of apoptotic cells compared to the control groups. IHC staining pf P53 did not show significant difference between treatment and control groups. However, FEE was able to repair morphology of cells undergoing carciogenesis. Thus, we conclude that FEE has an anti carciogenic activity on DMBA-induced rat mammary through apoptosis induction without affecting p53 expression. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of Ficus septica leaves is a potential chemo-preventive agent on breast cancer. Further study on its molecular mechanism needs to be exploredKeywords: Ficus septica, breast cancer, 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, carciogenesis, apoptosis, p53

Combination of Doxorubicin and Areca Ethanolic Extract Induces Apoptosis by Increasing Caspase-3 Level on Breast Cancer (T47D) Cells

Rahmi, Fitria ( Drug and Food Research Center, National Agency of Drug and Foods Controls, Indonesia ) , Meiyanto, Edy ( Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Susidarti, Ratna Asmah ( Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Despite causing many side effects, doxorubicin (Dox) is still one of breast cancer drug of choice. Thus, combination of chemotherapy is developed in order to decrease doxorubicin regimen dose. The aim of this research is to examine the combination effect of doxorubicin (dox) and areca extract (AE) on T47D human breast cancer cells. The cytotoxic activity was determined using MTT assay. The combination index (Cl) of the combination treatment was calculated to determine the effects (synergistic, additive or antagonistic). The combination application of dox (6-22nM) and AE (8-30μg/ml) on T47D cells showed synergistic (Cl<0.9) or addictive effect )Cl =0.9-I.I). The effective combincation of dox-AE was 6nM-8μg/ml on Cl<0.5. Apoptosis induction of AE solely and its combination with dox was the observed using double staining method. Moreover, expression of Bax and caspase-3 protein which mediated apoptosis, were observed using immunocytochemistry. Combination of AE and Dox increased expression of Caspase-3 but did not increase expression of Bax. This result showed AE increase the effectiveness of doxorubicin against T47D cells.Keyword : Breast cancer, doxorubicin, areca extract, T47D cells

The Safety of Areca Seed Ethanolic Extract as Potential Chemopreventive Agent is Proven by Acute Toxicity Test

Handayani, Sri ( Research Center of Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI) ) , Jenie, Riris Istighfari ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center (CCRC) Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta ) , Susidarti, Ratna Asmah ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center (CCRC) Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Areca (Areca catechu L.) seeds ethanolic extract (AE) exhibits antiproliferative activity and induces apoptosis on T47D and MCF-7 cells. This study aimed to verify AE safety using acute toxicity test to support its development as chemopreventive agent. Male Sprague Dawley Rat 9Rattus norvegicus) age 8 weeks divided into five groups, one group of control treated with 0.5 % CMC-Na only and four groups for treatment. Single dose in oral administration was done to test animal with various dose of AE starts from lowest dose to highest dose expected toxic to all of test animal (0.1; 0.72; 5.36 and 10 gram/kgBW). Observation was done during 24 hours and continued for 14 days. The observation criteria were toxic symptoms, appearance and mechanism of toxic effect and pathology of vital organ. Histopathology analysis of some vital organs was done with Haematoxyllin & Eosin (H&E) staining. Toxic effect did not appear either on treatment groups or control group. Treatment of single dose of areca ethanolic extract, even in highest dose, did not cause the death of the animals. Therefore, observation extended to 14 days and terminated by necroption of the animals. All of group did not show histopathological alterations in microscopic observation. Category of the potential toxicity of AE is practically non-toxic, ie 10 g/kgBW. The result show the safety of areca seed ethanolic extract which is important for its development as chemopreventive agent.Key words: Areca catechu, acute toxicity, rat

Anti-Proliferative Activity of Nigella sativa Chloroform Extract on 7,12-Dimenthylbenz[a]anthracene Induced Female Rats Splenocyte

Firdaus, Ahmad Fiki ( Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. ) , Sobri, Iskandar ( Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. ) , Ekowati, Heny ( Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Previous study reported that Nigella sativa has in vitro and in vivo cancer activity. This study was conducted to observe the effect of chloroform extract of Nigell sativa seed (NCE) on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced female rats splenocyte. The experiment consisted of five groups, corn oil solvent control group, DMBA group, DMBA+250 mg/kgBW NCE, DMBA+500 mg/kgBW NCE and DMBA+750 mg/kgBW NCE. Extract was dissolved in corn oil and oral administered daily for 2 weeks before and during the DMBA induction. Observation of cell proliferation was performed using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and AgNOR stainings. H&E staining showed decreased necrocis activity extract groups compared to DMBA group. From AgNOR staining results, mean AgNOR (mAgNOR) of extract groups was less in number compared to DMBA group. The mAgNOR in corn oil solvent control group, DMBA group, DMBA+250 mg/kgBW NCE, DMBA+500 mg/kgBW NCE and DMBA+750 mg/kgBW NCE were 1.22, 1.91, 1.29, 1.36 and 1.33, respectively. Our current results showed that NCE reduces the proliferation of DMBA-induced rat spleenocytes. Thus, NCE has potency to be developed as a chemopreventive agent.Keywords : Nigella sativa, spleen, DMBA, anti-proliferative

Antiproliferative Effect of Chloroform Extract of Cangkring Leaves (Erythrina fusca Lour.) and Its Isolates against Hela Cells

Puspitasari, Endah ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Jember Indonesia ) , Setyowati, Endah Dwi ( RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Yogyakarta, Indonesia ) , Dhiani, Binar Asrining ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto ) , Riyanto, Sugeng ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer possessing the 3rd highest incidence among women worldwide. Todays therapies against cancer are still ineffective, thus people are seeking for alternative method. Erythrina fusca Lour. has been used traditionally as anticancer. This experiment is conducted to study the ability of chloroform extract of E.fusca Lour. leaves and its isolates on HeLa cervical cancer cells. The cytotoxicity assay and doubling time assay were done using direct counting method, while the DNA staining assay was done using acrydine orange. The chloroform extract and isolate #30 showed cytotoxic activity with IC50 of 16 and 5 μg/ml, respectively, while isolate #2 and isolate #8 didnt. The effluent #30 could not affect HeLa cells growth at the given concentration, but it might promote DNA fragmentation indicating apoptosis induction. The molecular mechanisme underlying these effects still need to be further explored.Keywords :  Erythrina fusca Lour., isolate and effluent of chloroform extract, antiproliferative, cervical cancer

Combination of Tangeretin and 5-Fluorouracil Modulates Cell Cycle and Induce Apoptosis on Widr Cells

Indriyani, Luthfia ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta ) , Hermawan, Adam ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta ) , Jenie, Riris Istighfari ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Co-chemotherapeutics approaches are increasing in cancer treatment in order mainly to suppress the resistance phenomenon of cancer treatment and to enhance the cytotoxic effect of the main chemotherapeutics agent. Tangeretin has been known to have cytotoxic effect to some cancer cells through some pathways in the cells. To explore the potential effect of tangeretin as co-chemotherapeutics agent this research was subjected to study the cytotoxic  effect of tangeretin in combination with 5-Fluoro Uracil (5-FU) on WiDR colon cancer cells covering the modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis induction. Cytotoxic effect was examined by using MTT assay while apoptosis induction was determined by annexin-V flowcytometry. Under MTT assay, tangeretin showed weak cytotoxic activity on the cells. However, tangeretin significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU on the cells. This co-chemotherapeutics effect likely correlated with cell cycle modulation effect, especially in inducing polyploidy phenomenon as expressed in the flowcytometric graph of the DNA content. This combination also increased apoptosis induction. These result suggest that tangeretin is potential to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for 5-FU on colon cancer and further molecular mechanism need to be exploredKeywords : Tangeretin, 5-Fluorourasil, WiDr, cell cycle, apoptosis

In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum, and Their Combinations

Wasito, Hendri ( Pharmacy Departement, Medicine and Health Sciences Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University Jln. Dr. Soeparno, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto ) , Ekowati, Heny ( Pharmacy Departement, Medicine and Health Sciences Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University Jln. Dr. Soeparno, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto ) , Hayati, Fitri Fauziah ( Pharmacy Departement, Medicine and Health Sciences Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University Jln. Dr. Soeparno, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Many  plants  are  used  empirically  as  antioxidant.  Plants  that  are  frequently  used  in Indonesian  communities  are  Zingiber  officinale  and  Piper  retrofractum.  The  aim  of  this  research was  to  investigate  the  in  vitro  antioxidant  activity  of  single  ethanolic  extract  and  the combinations ofZ. officinale and P. retrofratum using free radical scavenging DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)  method.  Z.  officinale  and  P.  retrofratum  were  extracted  by  maceration  using 95%  ethanol  for  3  x  24  hours. Antioxidant  activity  was  evaluated  using  1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The concentration of the extract (μg/mL) that was required to scavenge 50% of free radicals (IC50)was calculatedusing the percent scavenging activities of six different  extract  concentrations.  The  results  showed  that  the  single  ethanolic  extract  of  Z. Officinalle produced the highest antioxidant activity with IC50of 56 μg/mL, while the antioxidant  activity of the single ethanolic extract of  P. retrofractum produced an IC50 of 3.445 μg/mL. The IC50 of combination of Z. officinale and P. retrofratum ethanolic extracts at concentration ratios of 1: 2, 1 : 1, and 2 : 1 were 148 μg/mL, 85 μg/mL, and 73 μg/mL.Key words: Zingiber  officinale, Piper retrfratum, Antioxidant, DPPH

Antiproliferative Effect and Apoptosis Induced in Human Cell Lines by Bruguiera gymnorhiza Barks Methanol Extract

Warsinah, . ( Department Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Jendral Soedirman, Purwokerto ) , Sismindari, . ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada Univesity, Yogyakarta ) , Susidarti, Ratna Asmah ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada Univesity, Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

The Antiproliferative effects of methanol extract from Bruguiera gymnorhiza (B. gymnorhiza) barks were tested in vitro against three human cell lines: Hela, Raji and Myeloma cells. The extract was found to have antiproliferative effects against Hela, Raji and Myeloma cells with an IC50 value of 133, 504 and 384 µg/mL, respectively. The antiproliferative test was then performed on Hela, Raji,  and  Myeloma  cells.  Cytotoxicity  assay  of  the  extract  was  then  determined  using  MTT method.  There  were  some  indications  of  apoptosis,  such  DNA  fragmentation,  as  assessed  by acrydine orange- ethidium bromide staining. These results indicate that extract from B. gymnorhiza barks can induce apoptosis in human cell lines.Key words: Antiproliferative, Apoptosis, B. gymnorhiza