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Mutiara Medika
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Perbedaan Persepsi dan Perilaku Merokok pada Siswa, Guru dan Karyawan di Madrasah MuÂ’allimin Muhammadiyah

Titiek Hidayati dr. M.Kes

Mutiara Medika Vol 12, No 1 (2012): Volume 12 2012
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Abstract

Keyword : fatwa haram merokok muhammadiyah, persepsi merokok, perilaku merokok, MuÂ’allimin Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Perilaku merokok muncul karena faktor-faktor internal juga faktor eksternal. Faktor internal seperti persepsi, sikap fakta dan pengetahuan. Sedangkan faktor eksternal seperti pengaruh orang tua yang merokok, teman, dan fatwa haram rokok. Semua hal tersebut menimbulkan persepsi yang berbeda pada tiap orang tentang merokok. Setelah seseorang memiliki persepsi tersendiri tentang merokok kemudian muncul suatu sikap, yaitu kecenderungan seseorang untuk menerima atau menolak, setuju atau tidak setuju terhadap respon yang datang dari luar, dalam hal ini adalah merokok. Jika setuju maka seseorang akan melakukan aktivitas merokok, tapi jika tidak setuju maka seseorang tidak akan merokok. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi non eksperimental dengan pendekatan cross-sectional. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 218 orang yg terdiri dari siswa 142 orang, guru 33 orang dan karyawan 43 orang di Lembaga Pendidikan Madrasah MuÂ’allimmin Yogyakarta. Analisis statistik yang dipakai adalah analisis Chi-Square. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa terdapat perbedaan persepsi dan perilaku merokok pada siswa, guru, dan karyawan di Lembaga Pendidikan Madrasah MuÂ’allimin Yogyakarta. Persepsi positif, pengetahuan tinggi, dan sikap yang positif lebih tidak beresiko berperilaku merokok, adanya keluarga dan teman yang merokok lebih beresiko berperilaku merokok (PR>1).

Pengaruh Pelatihan Gizi dengan Metode Roleplay dan Audiovisual terhadap tingkat Pengetahuan dan sikap tentang Gizi di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kasihan I, Bantul

Titiek Hidayati dr. M.Kes

Mutiara Medika Vol 11, No 3 (2011): Volume 11 2011
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Keyword : Roleplay, Audiovisual, Pengetahuan, Gizi Gizi kurang merupakan salah satu bentuk dari malnutrisi yang didefinisikan sebagai kondisi ketidak seimbangan selular antara pemberian asupan nutrisi dan energi yang dikeluarkan. Upaya dalam rangka perbaikan keadaan gizi pun sudah banyak dilakukan di Puskesmas ini, salah satunya dalam bentuk konseling. Dalam penelitian ini , metode yang digunakan adalah metode roleplay dan metode audiovisual. Tujuan penilitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelatihan terhadap tingkat pengetahuan dan sikap tentang gizi di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Kasihan I, Bantul. Desain Penelitian yang digunakan adalah quasi eksperimental dengan pre test-post test control group design. Subyek penelitian ini adalah ibu balita dengan status gizi kurang yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yakni kelompok pelatihan dan kontrol yang berjumlah 30 orang. Waktu penelitian ini selama 2 bulan. Data penelitian ini dianalasis menggunakan uji independent dan paired sample t-test. Hasil analisis statistik menggunakan paired sample t-test terhadap nilai rerata pre test dan post test pengetahuan serta sikap menunjukkan peningkatan, kenaikan rerata pengetahuan pada kelompok kontrol -0,4 tetapi tidak bermakna 0,57, kelompok pelatihan -3,1 yang bermakna 0,00 (p<0,05). Kenaikan rerata sikap pada kelompok kontrol 0,73 tetapi tidak bermakna 0,76, kelompok pelatihan -6,2 yang bermakna 0,00 (p<0,05). Pengaruh pelatihan gizi dengan terhadap tingkat pengetahuan dan sikap dapat dianalisis dengan independet sample t-test. Dari hasil uji tersebut diperoleh p=0,013 untuk pengetahuan dan p=0,001 untuk sikap (p<0,05). Hal ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh pelatihan gizi dengan metode roleplay dan audiovisual terhadap tingkat pengetahuan tentang gizi di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Kasihan I, Bantul.

Analisis Kualitas Visum et Repertum Beberapa Dokter Spesialis pada Korban Kekerasan Seksual di RS PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Dirwan Suryo Soularto, Eka Siwi Dwi Cahyanti

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
Publisher : Mutiara Medika

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Abstract

Kekerasan seksual sering terjadi di masyarakat. Untuk menuntut pelaku secara hukum, diperlukanadanya visumetrepertumsebagaibuktiadanyakekerasanseksualitu.Visumetrepertum dinilai sebagai keterangan ahli kepada ahli kedokteran kehakiman atau dokter dan atau dokter lainnya. Visum et repertum yang berkualitas dapat membantu korban dalam mendapatkan keadilan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas visum et repertum kekerasan seksual.Subjek penelitian ini adalah hasil visum et repertum yang dibuat dokter spesialis kebidanan dan kandungan pada korban dengan dugaan kekerasan seksual di RSU PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta selama Maret 2003 sampai dengan November 2008 sebanyak 29 kasus. Hasil visum et repertum dinilai dengan menggunakan metode skoring atau nilai dari jurnal Herkutanto yang telah disesuaikan. Penilaian kualitas visum kekerasan seksual terdiri dari 19 variabel. Setelah didapatkan data masing-masing variabel, kemudian dianalisis. Hasilnya berbentuk persentase, kualitas rendah bila kurang dari 50%, sedang jika 50% - 75% dan bagus jika lebih dari 75%.Hasil penilaian kualitas visum yaitu 27,4 % yang berarti berkualitas buruk. Dari hasil penelitian dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa kualitas visum kekerasan seksual masih dibawah standar.Kata kunci : kekerasan seksual, kualitas, visum et repertum

Efek Pemberian Madu terhadap Kadar Leukosit Urin pada Wanita Usia Subur

Medi Apriansyah, Adang Muhammad Gugun

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
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There are predisposition factors to develop into urinary tract infection in women with sex active. The leukosuria or piuria is one of the major sign for suspecting infection in the urinary tract. Honey is a sweet liquid which distribute by bees and produce from nectar. Honey contains antibacteria substance which can cure superficial injury and infection diseases. One of the function of honey is perservatif and high osmolality so bacteria has difficulty to life. This study aims to determine the effect of honey for decreasing urine leukocyte in fertile age women.The design of this study is experimental clinical test with pretest-posttest group control. Subject of research is fertile age women with leukosuria. Material form of the morning urine with urine stick special leukocyte test and honey. Measurements conducted in place intake of urine. Research was the subject of 28 people. The provision of honey made in the test group of 3 tablespoon perday. Both group (test and control) were given equal treatment with white water to drink as much as 6 glasses a day.There are 15 person (100%) who get honey therapy which has decreasing value of leukosuria. For people who get control, there are 9 person (70%) who has decreasing of leukosuria value, 2 person (15%) with a fixed rate leukosuria same as before, and 2 person (15%) has increasing of leukosuria. The results of this research is found that honey is effective of to decrease leukosuria in fertile age women.Key words: honey, fertile age women, urine leukocyte,

Hubungan antara Riwayat Keluarga Hipertensi dengan Tekanan Darah setelah Berolahraga Isotonik pada Dewasa Muda Normotensif

Ikhlas M. Jennie, Sisti Meiryisha

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
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Hypertension is divided into primary and secondary hypertension according to the causes. A secondary hypertension is caused by another disease, while a primary hypertension has an unknown cause but other factors such as genes and environmental issues can cause primary hypertension. The aim of this articles is to give a feature about blood pressure respons after exercise on young mature normotensive that have a family history of hypertension.The research design is a mixed semi-experimental method. The numbers of subjects are 45 people, divided in two groups. The first group consists of 23 people who have a family history of hypertension, and the second group consists of 22 people don’t have a family history of hypertension. Every subject does an isotonic exercise using an ergometer cycle for 6 minutes. Before, during and after the exercise, the subject’s systole, diastole, and heart rates are measured.The comparison heart rate between the two groups was significant before (p=0,004), during (p=0,005), and after (p=0,002) isotonic exercise, and so did the increasing diastole pressure (p=0,030), no significant systole and diastole pressure results between the two groups in before, during, and after the exercise. The increasing of heart rate and diastole pressure, and also the recovery of heart rate, systole and diastole pressures did not differ between the two groups. It can concluded that familial history of hypertension influence the heart rate before, during, and after isotonic exercise, and also influence the increasing of systole pressure in normotensive young adults.Key words: blood pressure, family with a history of hypertension, isotonic, isometric

Hubungan antara Penggunaan Kontrasepsi dengan Gambaran Hasil Papsmear pada PSK dan Ibu Rumah Tangga di Yogyakarta

Lincah Angger Wismo Asih, Agus Suharto

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
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Pap smear is one of method for screening abnormality in cervix cell. Abnormality in cervix can change into malignancy that influenced by some factor, for example contraception and lifestyle factor that include first sexual intercourse in young age, multiple sexual partners, high parity, smoking, history for prostitute woman, vaginal hygiene, and history for abortions. Researchers sure that some of cancer depend on naturally by hormone to its growth and development. This research is trying to find the correlation between contraceptive use with Pap smear result in prostitute woman and housewife.This is an observational research with cross-sectional design. The research subjects are prostitute woman and housewife in Yogyakarta. Respondent fill the questioners and then take a pap smear sample, the result of pap smear sample compare with the risk factor that had by subject. Statistic analytic in this research is chi square.The significant result in this research is influence of contraception in prostitute woman (p <0.001), and for influence of contraception in housewife does not give a significant result (p 0,809)Key words: Contraception, Housewife, Pap smear, Prostitute Woman

Kejadian Luar Biasa Skabies Di Dusun Gunung Pentul

Devi Artami Susetiati

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
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Scabies remains a major public health problem in many developing countries according to data from primary health care. Community knowledge and practices about scabies influenced scabies outbreak.To determine community knowledge and practices of scabies in Gunung Pentul village, Kecamatan Pengasih, Kabupaten Kulonprogo.A cross-sectional study with descriptif analysis was performed in Gunung Pentul village on April 15th,2007. Data was collected by questioners. Questioner comprises of identity, house’s conditions and environments, 12 questions of knowledge and 20 questions of attitude and practices. Sixty percent of total score considered to be good knowledge and practice.Subjects of this study were 37 persons whereas 14 were being males (n=37,8%). High score of knowledge is 56,8%, low score of knowledge is 43,2%. Whereas high score of practice is 54,1%, low score of practice is 45,9%. The environment of Gunung Pentul village actually was in good condition, but unfortunately the personal higiene was poor according to the lower score of knowledge and practice. Beside that they had no transportation, health service, and lower income.Key words : knowledge, practice, scabies

Kejadian Luar Biasa Campak Di SD Pugeran dan SMPN II Kecamatan Mantrijeron Kota Yogyakarta Pasca Gempa September 2006

Titiek Hidayati

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
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The measles outbreak epidemiology research conducted in Pugeran elementary school and state junior high school II Mantrijeron subdistric of Yogyakarta after the earthquake in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY). The aims of this study is to assess the picture of measles outbreaks in Pugeran elementary school and state junior high school II after the earthquake in Yogyakarta.The research method used cross sectional design with analitic type. The collected data survey used questionnaire that filled by researcher and direct observation. Determination of the status measles outbreak used clinical diagnostic guidelines of Indonesia ministry health. Elisa laboratory tests conducted to confirm the cause of seroimunologis outbreak. Data obtained were analyzed to reveal the picture outbreaks, causes and distribution of outbreaks by time, place and person.There were 19 students of 600 students, with measles outbreaks composed 15 students in elementary school and 4 students yunior high school subdistrict Mantrijeron in September 2006 (attack rate 3%). There was not found the patient dying or case fatality rate is zero. Clinical manifestations of measles outbreaks were fever (100%), rash (100%), cough (60%) and colds (60%). There weren’t found any clinical manifestations of red eyes conjunctivitis or shortness of breath. 19 measles patients consists of 13 men and 6 women. The patient residence covered 13 patients of the Mantrijeron district, 4 patients of Sewon district, and 2 patients of Wirobrajan district. Patient’s blood serology tests showed that rubella immunoglobulin (Ig) G positive, whereas for measles Ig G negative. It can concluded that there has been an outbreak of measles in the post-earthquake Yogyakarta in Yogyakarta.Key words: measles, outbreaks, post-earthquake, Yogyakarta

Pengaruh Pemberian Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness) terhadap Kadar Gula Darah pada Tikus Putih Diabetik Terinduksi Alloxan

Dedy Haryono, Salmah Orbayinah

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
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DM type II is a metabolic disorder caused by the damage of â cells in pancreas. This condition causes the lack of insulin hormone secretion. Diabetes mellitus is characterized with high blood glucose level. The purpose of this study is to find out the effect administration of sambiloto to blood glucose level on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.The method of this study is pre-test, post-test controlled group design. Fifteen Wistar mice, 2 months age, ± 200 grams weight, divided into 3 groups. Negative control (without treatment), positive control (given glibenclamide; 0.1 mg/200grBW), and experiment group (oral administration of sambiloto 135 mg/200grBW), for 10 days. Blood glucose level measured with glucose reagent KIT. One way ANOVA and t-Test were used to analyzed this study.The average blood glucose level before and after given treatment in negative control were 207,47 ± 2,68 mg/dL and 208,59 ± 2,48 mg/dL (P<0,05), in positive control 211,72 ± 2,05 mg/dL and dan 89,39 ± 1,08 mg/dL (P<0,05), and in experiment group 212,37 ± 4,67 mg/dL and 117,62 ± 1,62 mg/dL (P<0,05). This study showed that administration of sambiloto a significantly could be used to decrease blood glucose level on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Key words : blood glucose, diabetes, sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees).

Pengaruh Terapi Alquran terhadap Skor Kecemasan dan Respon Fisiologis Sistem Neuromuskular pada Wanita Hamil

Fitra Sari, dr Sagiran

Mutiara Medika Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Edisi Khusus April
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The pregnant woman often feels anxious (anxiety). One of physiologies response as consequences from this anxiety such as headache, increasing of blood pressure, and uncomfortable with stomach. One of relaxation method to minimize the anxiety is using Alquran therapy which can give calmness of soul. The purpose of this research is to decide about the effectiveness of Alquran therapy to minimize the score of anxiety at pregnant woman.The research design is experimental design with pre-post control group randomized control trial. Subject is pregnant woman who get treading of ante natal care (ANC) in the hospital, medical center, and BPS (Bidan Praktek Swasta) in Yogyakarta and Salatiga. Subject is divided into two groups, experiment group who get Alquran therapy (n=33) and second group is control group who get therapy with lyrics (n=30). Time of this research is two weeks.The result showed that there is significant decreasing of anxiety score in those groups (experiment group and control group). Neuromuscular score isn’t get significant degradation in those groups. But, if we see it from mean difference of Alquran is bigger than neuromuscular score. Value assess of anxiety score before and after to experiment group p=0,000 and control group p=0,006. Difference of mean value between control and experiment group p=0,111. Mean values of differences of neuromuscular score before and after therapy, for experiment group p=0,215 and control p=0,942. Difference mean value of neuromuscular score between control and experiment p=0,186. The conclusion of this research is the guidance during pregnancy can decrease anxiety score (with Alquran therapy or with positive sentences which can give calmness to pregnant women), but at light level, Alquran therapy can’t show significant result to decrease neuromuscular score.Key words: Alquran, anxiety, neuromuscular, pregnancy