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Buletin Plasma Nutfah
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Articles 242 Documents
Phenotypic Characterization and the Resistance of Local Peanuts from West Nusa Tenggara to Bacterial Wilt Disease [Ralstonia solanacearum] Widiastuti, Eka; Rahayu, Muji; Zulhaedar, Fitria
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 25, No 1 (2019): JUNE
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (330.217 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v25n1.2019.p1-12

Abstract

West Nusa Tenggara Barat has local peanuts that can be used as a source of germplasm, i.e. Bima, Pelat, and Lombok Utara. The productivity of peanut is greatly influenced by the attack of pests/diseases, like bacterial wilt disease. Bacterial wilt is one of the major diseases that can reduce peanut production up to 60% and one of the control mechanisms that can be used is local varieties that are resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This research aimed to evaluate the resistance of local peanut from West Nusa Tenggara to bacterial wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) and to characterize the phenotype of the peanuts. The field research was conducted in the Genetic Resources Field Collection located in Narmada Experimental Field, on January until April 2016. The research method used was randomized complete block design (RCBD) single factorial with 9 replications, thus totally 27 plots were used. Three varieties of peanuts were evaluated, i.e two local varieties (Pelat Sumbawa and Lokal KLU) and Kelinci variety as control. The results showed that the pods and seeds were the main traits that distinguish Lokal KLU and Pelat varieties. The Lokal KLU had medium size pods with a weight of 100 seeds of 48.96 g, while Pelat and Kelinci had very large pod sizes with a weight of 100 seeds of 42.45  and 32.92 g, respectively, thus they were a potential high yielding plants. Lokal KLU had resistance to bacterial wilt compared to Kelinci that was medium resistant and Pelat that was susceptible to bacterial wilt disease.
Determinant Factors of Successful Ex Situ Conservation of Lesser Bird of Paradise [Paradisaea minor Shaw, 1809] Cita, Ken Dara; Hernowo, Jarwadi Budi; Masy'ud, Burhanuddin
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 25, No 1 (2019): JUNE
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (286.602 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v25n1.2019.p13-24

Abstract

Recently, the population of the lesser bird of paradise (Paradisaea minor Shaw, 1809) has been decreasing due to illegal hunting, illegal trading, and habitat destruction. Meanwhile, ex situ conservation efforts of this bird are lacked and very low in the success of breeding. The aims of this research were to identify and analyze the component that determines the successful ex situ conservation of the lesser bird of paradise. The study was conducted from March until May 2016 in the TMII Bird Park, Mega Bird and Orchid Farm (MBOF), Ragunan Zoo, Bandung Zoo, and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) in Qatar. Dataincluded an internal and external biological aspect of species, captive breeding technique, and social aspect, and were analyzed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA). The statistical analysis resulted that there were five determinant factors of successful ex situ conservation of lesser bird of paradise which the first determinant factors were maturity, diet, and ability of animal keeper.
Marka Mikrosatelit sebagai Alternatif Uji BUSS dalam Perlindungan Varietas Tanamam Padi Moeljopawiro, Sugiono
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 16, No 1 (2010): JUNE
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (168.745 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v16n1.2010.p1-7

Abstract

This study was conducted at theIndonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and GeneticResources Research and Development to seek the feasibility ofusing SSR markers for DUS testing in rice variety. Releasedvariety Fatmawati together with seven other reference varietieswere analyzed using genetic analyzer for their variability, tenSSR markers were used. Hundred and twenty five alleleslocated on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 11 were detectedin eight varieties studied, where the number of alleles rangingfrom 6 (BPC) to 33 (Fatmawati), with the predominantmarkers such as RM11 on Fatmawati, Maros, Barumun,Gilirang, and Memberamo varieties, RM237 on Cisadane andBP630 varieties, and RM133 and RM287 markers on BPCvariety. The genetic distance-based results in the unrootedneighbor-joining tree revealed that the eight varieties as well astheir populations clustered separately. Genetic variabilitywithin each variety indicated that these varieties were still inhigher degree of heterogeneity. This demonstrated the powerof SSR marker in differentiating varieties as well as populationwithin variety, which, therefore, SSR marker could berecommended in plant variety protection.
Seleksi Genotipe Jagung Hibrida Toleran N Rendah Syafrudin, nFN; Azrai, Muhammad; Suwarti, nFN
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 19, No 2 (2013): December
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (105.178 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v19n2.2013.p73-80

Abstract

Maize Hybrid Genotypes Selection for Low N Tolerance. Syafruddin, Muhammad Azrai, and Suwarti. Most of the maize crop land development in Indonesia are defficient of N, to overcome these obstacles is generally done with N fertilizer. N fertilization beside increasing the cost of production is also causing environmental pollution. Therefore, fertilizer efficiency is required. One effort to reduce N fertilizer usage is the use of low N-tolerant genotypes. Selection of low Ntolerant maize hybrids are expected to found a low N genotypes with high productivity. The experiment was conducted in low land in May-August 2012 in the Bontobili Research Station, Gowa, South Sulawesi. A total of 32 genotypes including check entries were 4 known hybrid Bima- 2, Bima-3, Bima-4, and Bisi-2 were screened in normal rate of N application (200 kg N/ha) and low N (100 kg N/ha). The treatment used experimental randomized complete block design at each fertilization with three replications. To Determine of genotype x N interaction was used combine analysis. The result showed that in selection of tolerance genotypes for low N, beside yield as selection parameter we can also consider leaf chlorophyll, harvest index, number of kernel in ear and seed weight. Genotypes 1044-0 x 1027-11 and AMB07 x CML 161 were tolerance to low N and B11 x 11 is moderat to low N. Three of genotypes have yield equal to 4 check varieties (Bima-2, Bima-3, Bima-4, and Bisi-2). AbstrakSebagian besar lahan pengembangan tanaman jagung di Indonesia defisien N. Untuk mengatasi kendala tersebut umumnya dilakukan dengan pemupukan N. Pemupukan N di samping meningkatkan biaya produksi juga menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan. Salah satu upaya untuk menekan penggunaan pupuk N adalah penggunaan genotipe yang toleran N rendah. Seleksi genotipe jagung hibrida diharapkan memperoleh genotipe toleran N rendah dengan produktivitas tetap tinggi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan sawah pada Mei- Agustus 2012 di KP Bontobili, Gowa, Sulawesi Selatan. Sebanyak 32 genotipe termasuk empat pembanding Bima-2, Bima-3, Bima-4, dan Bisi-2 diuji pada takaran pupuk N normal (200 kg N/ha) dan N rendah (100 kg N/ha). Penelitian menggunakan rancangan kelompok pada masing-masing pemupukan dengan tiga ulangan. Untuk mengetahui interaksi antara genotipe dengan N dilakukan analisis gabungan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa untuk mendapatkan genotipe jagung toleran N rendah yang akurat di samping mempertimbangkan hasil biji, juga mempertimbangkan komponen lainnya, seperti klorofil daun, indeks panen, jumlah biji per tongkol, dan bobot biji. Genotipe 1044-9 x 1027-11 dan AMB07 x CML161 toleran N rendah dan B11 x 11 moderat terhadap N rendah, ketiga genotipe tersebut mempunyai hasil biji setara dengan varietas pembanding Bima-2, Bima-3, Bima- 4, dan Bisi-2.
Multiplikasi Tunas Belimbing Dewi (Averrhoa carambola) melalui Kultur In Vitro Supriyati, Yati; Mariska, Ika; Mujiman, nFN
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 12, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (44.185 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v12n2.2006.p50-55

Abstract

Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is one of tropical fruits which had a high content of vitamin C, which was higher than that in apple and grape. As fresh consumption, star fruit had a good role in decreasing human blood pressure. Main constraints of star fruit development weather for conservation purpose and or for cultivation were still limited due to lack of seedlings availability. In vitro culture technique was one of the altrnative technologies capable of producing seedlings in a large quantity, uniform growth and relatively in a short period. One of the important keys in micropropagation work was the step of shoot initiation and multiplication. In this study we used two kind of explant, namely shoot with single node and shoot from germinated embrio. Experiment I, shoot with single node and shoot from germinated embrio were planted at WPM media + citric acid 100 mg/l. The next activities was focused on single node shoots which was subcultured at WPM + BAP 0.5 mg/l. In experiment II in vitro shoots from previous experiment was subcultured at WPM + BA (1 and 2 mg/l) + thidiazuron (0.1 and 0.2 mg/l). To stimulate shoot multiplication rate, shoot was subcultured at WPM or MS media in combination with IAA 0.5 mg/l and zeatin 2 mg/l. To improve vigourity of the plant, in vitro shoots resulted from multiplication media was planted at WPM or MS media containing paclobutrazol (0.4 and 0.8 mg/l) + BA 2 mg/l + thidiazuron 0.2 mg/l. Result showed that the use of single node shoot as an explant better than shoot comes from germinated embrio. Sub culture of star fruit shoot on WPM basal media containing BAP of 0.5 mg/l produce the shoot number about 4, and the shoot number could be increased until 18 by using IAA 0.5 mg and zeatin 2 mg/l. The treatment of schock temperature at 4-5oC during 4 days before planting could fasten shoot initiation time from 3 months to 1 months. An addition of 0.4 mg/l paclobutrazol on MS or WPM media containing 2 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l thidiazuron could improve vigourity of plantlet. AbstrakBelimbing (Averrhoa carambola) merupakan tanaman buah tropik yang mengandung vitamin C lebih tinggi daripada apel dan anggur. Buah belimbing segar sangat berguna untuk menurunkan tekanan darah. Pengembangan tanaman ini untuk keperluan budi daya ataupun untuk tujuan konservasi masih belum optimal karena terbatasnya bibit. Teknik kultur jaringan merupakan alternatif teknologi yang mampu menyediakan bibit secara massal, seragam, dan relatif cepat. Salah satu tahap yang harus ditempuh dalam perbanyakan bibit melalui kultur jaringan adalah multiplikasi tunas yang menjadi kunci dalam keberhasilan teknik perbanyakan ini. Percobaan terdiri atas beberapa kegiatan menggunakan dua jenis eksplan, yaitu tunas dengan nodus tunggal dan tunas dari perkecambahan embrio. Pada percobaan I eksplan tunas dengan nodus tunggal ditanam pada media WPM + asam sitrat 100 mg/l kemudian disubkultur pada media WPM + BAP 0,5 mg/l. Pada percobaan II, tunas in vitro disubkultur kembali pada media WPM + BA (1 dan 2 mg/l) + thidiazuron 0,1 dan 0,2 mg/l). Untuk lebih memacu tingkat pertunasan dilakukan subkultur kembali pada media WPM atau MS yang ditambah dengan IAA 0,5 mg/l dan zeatin 2 mg/l. Untuk meningkatkan ketegaran, tunas hasil multiplikasi ditanam pada media WPM atau MS + BA 2 mg/l + thidiazuron 0,2 mg/l dan paclobutrazol (0; 0,4; dan 0,8 mg/l). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan eksplan tunas dengan nodus tunggal lebih baik dibandingkan dengan tunas yang berasal dari perkecambahan embrio. Subkultur yang dilakukan pada media WPM yang mengandung 0,5 mg/l BAP dapat menginisiasi dan menghasilkan rata-rata empat tunas. Subkultur tunas belimbing pada media MS + IAA 0,5 mg/l + zeatin 2 mg/l dapat memacu pembentukan tunas yang banyak, mencapai 18 buah. Penambahan paclobutrazol 0,4 mg/l ke dalam media MS atau WPM yang telah mengandung BA 2 mg/l dan thidiazuron 0,2 mg/l dapat memperbaiki ketegaran biakan.
Evaluasi Ketahanan Populasi Haploid Ganda Silangan IR64 dan Oryza rufipogon terhadap Hawar Daun Bakteri pada Stadia Bibit Kadir, Triny S.; Hanarida, Ida; Utami, Dwinita W.; Koerniati, S.; Ambarwati, A. D.; Apriana, A.; Sisharmini, A.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 15, No 1 (2009): JUNE
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (56.024 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v15n1.2009.p13-19

Abstract

Evaluation of resistance of double haploid population of crosses between IR64 and Oryza rufipogon against Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) at seedling stage was conducted during dry season 2005/2006 in the screen house, at Rice Centre Research at Sukamandi. Inoculum was prepared by isolating BLB infected leaf in laboratory using Wakimoto’s media. Seeds were germinated in petri dish for 48 hours, and then were sown in the plastic boxes size of 40 cm x 30 cm, each family was planted in 10 cm long row. TN1, IRBB, Code, Angke, dan O. rufipogon were used as control. Leaf inoculation of isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (XOO) ras III, IV, and VIII with concentration of 108 cell/ml, were applied to the plants at 18-21 day old plants by cutting method. Fertilizer application as recommended. Pest and weed control were based on necessity. Observation of disease severity was carried out after a sensitive control, TN1, was a severely affected. Observation method based on SES IRRI (1996) which are 1 for plant showed 0-3% of leaf damage, 2(4-6%), 3(7-12%), 4(13-25%), 5(26-50%), 6(51-75%), 7(7-87%), 8(88-94%), and 9 for plant with 95-100% of leaf damage. Result showed that Bio50-ACBlas/ BLB03, Bio59-AC-BLB05 and Bio67-AC-BLB05 lines were resistant to phato-type III, 11 lines showed moderate resistant to phato-type IV, and Bio46-AC-Blas/BLB03, Bio47- AC-BLB05, and Bio48-AC-BLB05 lines were resistant to phato-type VIII. Apart of those, there were 2 lines, Bio38-ACBLB05, and Bio63-AC-Blas/BLB03 showed moderately resistance to three phatotypes tested. AbstrakEvaluasi ketahanan populasi haploid ganda silangan IR64 dan Oryza rufipogon terhadap hawar daun bakteri (HDB) pada stadia bibit telah dilakukan pada MK 2005/2006 di rumah kaca Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi, Sukamandi. Penyiapan inokulum dilaksanakan dengan mengisolasi daun yang terinfeksi HDB di laboratorium dengan menggunakan media Wakimoto. Tanaman dikecambahkan dalam petri selama 48 jam, kemudian ditanam dalam kotak plastik berukuran 40 cm x 30 cm. Tiap tanaman ditanam sepanjang 10 cm. Tanaman TN1, IRBB, Code, Angke, dan O. rufipogon, dipakai sebagai pembanding. Inokulasi dilakukan dengan konsentrasi 108 cell/ ml, dengan isolat Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) ras III, IV, dan VIII, pada umur 18-21 hari setelah sebar dengan cara digunting. Pemupukan dilakukan sesuai rekomendasi. Pengelolaan hama dan gulma dilaksanakan berdasarkan keadaan. Metode pengamatan menggunakan SES IRRI (1996). Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan, galur yang tahan terhadap HDB ras III ialah Bio50-AC-Blas/BLB03, Bio59-AC-BLB05, dan Bio67-AC-BLB05. Untuk ras IV, terdapat 11 galur yang menunjukkan ketahanan moderat (agak tahan). Untuk ras VIII galur Bio46-AC-Blas/BLB03, Bio47-AC-BLB05, dan Bio48- AC-BLB05 bereaksi tahan. Galur Bio38-AC-BLB05 dan Bio63-AC-Blas/BLB03 agak tahan terhadap ketiga ras HDB.
Keragaman Karakter Morfologis Garut (Marantha arundinaceae L.) Suhartini, Tintin; Hadiatmi, nFN
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 17, No 1 (2011): June
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (97.881 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v17n1.2011.p12-18

Abstract

Morphological Characteristics Variability of Arrowroot (Marantha arundinaceae L.). The arrowroot has been recognized by most society member of Indonesia as a source of potential foodstuf. The arrowroot has low glicemic index, and high carbohydrate content, high quality of flour and can replace position of wheat flour as food material and industry. Evaluation and characterization are needed to get informations of superior characteristic of arrowroot as source of genetic variability to develop promising new arrowroot varieties. The result showed that the morphological characteristic of 20 arrowroot accecions were not different on the qualitative characteristics. The characteristics of leaf colour, stem and stalk leaf colour, and white colour of tuber were not different among arrowroot accecions. The quantitative characteristics of tuber or rhizomes type (tuber length and tuber circle), plant height, number of tiller/hill, total leaf/main stem, leaf length and leaf width among accecions had low variability. The tuber weight per hill had positive correlation with plant height, number of leaf, tuber length and tuber circle and negative correlation with leaf length, leaf width and stalk length leaf. AbstrakGarut (Marantha arundinaceae L.) merupakan sumber pangan yang potensial bagi sebagian masyarakat di Indonesia. Garut memiliki indeks glikemik rendah dan kandungan karbohidrat tinggi. Tepung garut dapat menggantikan terigu sebagai bahan makanan dan industri. Evaluasi dan karakterisasi garut perlu dilakukan untuk memperoleh informasi sifat-sifat unggul untuk dapat digunakan dalam perakitan varietas unggul. Hasil evaluasi 20 aksesi garut yang dikarakterisasi menunjukan tidak ada perbedaan morfologis sifat kualitatif. Warna daun, pelepah dan tangkai daun, bentuk daun, bentuk dan warna umbi memiliki kesamaan antaraksesi. Karakter kuantitatif pada bentuk umbi (panjang dan lingkar umbi), tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan/rumpun, jumlah daun pada batang utama, panjang dan lebar daun antar aksesi plasma nutfah garut memiliki keragaman yang sempit. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa bobot umbi per rumpun berkorelasi positif dengan tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang, lingkar umbi, dan berkorelasi negatif dengan panjang daun, lebar daun, dan panjang tangkai daun.
Keragaman Plankton dan Kualitas Perairan di Hutan Mangrove Heriyanto, N. M.
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 18, No 1 (2012): June
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (113.579 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v18n1.2012.p38-44

Abstract

Plankton Diversity and Water Quality in Mangrove Forest. N.M. Heriyanto. Study the diversity of plankton and water quality in mangrove forests Blanakan was done in Subang, West Java and Cilacap, Central Java, in September 2010. Study used purposive random sampling method and the data were analyzed in the laboratory. The results showed five that different types of phytoplankton were found and a type of zooplankton that were Fragillaria sp., Navicula sp., Nitzschia sp., Surirella sp., Tabellaria sp., and one type of zooplankton Nauplius sp. Abundance of species (Di) Nitzschia sp. were found most dominant in the amount of 33.33% at the location of Cilacap and 25% in Blanakan, abundance of Fragillaria sp. 31.25% was in Blanakan and 11.11% in Cilacap. Plankton species diversity (H’) was generally low, the index of similarity (E) in the waters of relatively the same in both places. Mangrove forest at study site was dominated by Avicenia marina L. (Blanakan) and Rhizophora mucronata Blume (Cilacap). Heavy metal content of Hg in Cilacap was 7 times greater than Blanakan waters, the concentration of Zn in the same place two times larger, and cyanide (Cn) 4 times larger. Cilacap detergent in the water waw 12 times greater than these Blanakan waters. Water quality in industrial areas are generally worse than those in mangrove degraded areas. AbstrakPenelitian keragaman plankton dan kualitas perairan di hutan mangrove dilakukan di Blanakan Subang, Jawa Barat dan Cilacap, Jawa Tengah, pada September 2010. Penelitian menggunakan metode purposif random sampling dan data yang diperoleh dianalisis di laboratorium. Pada penelitian ditemukan lima jenis fitoplankton (Fragillaria sp., Navicula sp., Nitzschia sp., Surirella sp., Tabellaria sp.) dan satu jenis zooplankton (Nauplius sp). Kelimpahan jenis (Di) Nitzschia sp. paling dominan, yaitu 33% di Cilacap dan 25% di Blanakan, kelimpahan Fragillaria sp. 31% di Blanakan dan 11% di Cilacap. Keragaman jenis plankton (H’) umumnya rendah, indeks kesamaan (E) di perairan di kedua tempat relatif sama. Hutan mangrove di lokasi penelitian didominasi oleh jenis Avicenia marina L. (Blanakan) dan Rhizophora mucronata Blume (Cilacap). Kandungan logam berat Hg di Cilacap tujuh kali lebih besar dari perairan Blanakan. Konsentrasi Zn di tempat yang sama dua kali lebih besar, dan sianida (Cn) empat kali lebih besar. Deterjen di perairan Cilacap lebih besar 12 kali dibandingkan dengan perairan Blanakan. Kualitas perairan di kawasan industri umumnya lebih buruk dibandingkan dengan kawasan bermangrove terdegradasi.
Karakterisasi 88 Aksesi Pepaya Koleksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Budiyanti, Tri; Purnomo, Sudarmadi; Karsinah, nFN; Wahyudi, Anang
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 11, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (110.404 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v11n1.2005.p21-27

Abstract

Research Institute of Fruit Crop had conducted observation and collection of 88 accession number of papaya in KP Sumani in 2001-2002. Result of characterization of 88 accession number of papaya have wide variability in stalk length fruit weight, fruit circumference, fruit diameter, flesh thicness, and TSS of flesh. This wide variability is needed in supplying source of gene in plant breeding. Database of fruit characters was kept in the form of electronic file. Number of accessions that are promising to be developed with pre-eminent character that is sweet flesh with orange-red colour and medium size are shown by number 90, 25, 32, 41, 54, 140, 141, and 146. Accession with large size reaching 2400 kg/fruit are: 5, 261, 79, 250, 25, 108, and 115. Those accession pocessing eminent characters should be further developed as parent materials in conventional as well as in molecular breeding. AbstrakBalai Penelitian Tanaman Buah telah melakukan koleksi dan observasi terhadap 88 aksesi pepaya di Kebun Percobaan Sumani pada tahun 2001-2002. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan variabilitas yang luas untuk panjang tangkai, berat buah, lingkar buah, diameter buah, tebal daging, dan TSS buah. Variabilitas yang luas ini sangat dibutuhkan dalam penyediaan sumber gen dalam pemuliaan tanaman. Data karakter buah pepaya disimpan dalam bentuk file elektronik. Nomor aksesi yang memiliki harapan untuk dikembangkan adalah yang mempunyai karakter unggul yang dibawanya, yaitu rasa daging buah yang manis, ukuran buah sedang, warna daging buah oranye-merah. Ciri-ciri itu ditunjukkan oleh nomor 90, 25, 32, 41, 54, 140, 141, dan 146. Aksesi yang memiliki ukuran buah yang mencapai 2400 kg/buah adalah nomor 5, 261, 79, 250, 25, 108, dan 115. Aksesi yang memiliki sifat-sifat unggul disarankan segera dikembangkan sebagai sumber tetua untuk pembentukan varietas unggul, baik melalui teknik pemuliaan molekuler maupun konvensional.
Ekologi Pohon Kluwak/Pakem (Pangium edule Reinw.) di Taman Nasional Meru Betiri, Jawa Timur Heriyanto, N. M.; Subiandono, Endro
Buletin Plasma Nutfah Vol 14, No 1 (2008): June
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (314.81 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/blpn.v14n1.2008.p33-42

Abstract

The ecological aspects of kluwak/pakem tree (Pangium edule Reinw) were observed at three location namely Pakeman, Sumber Salak and Sumber Gadung, Sub section II of Conservation Regional Office, Ambulu-Meru Betiri National Park, East Java in October-December 2006. Three transect line measuring 20 m x 1000 m were established accrossed the slope in which observation plots were set up by employing purposive random sampling procedure. The result showed that most of Pangium habitat was found in steep area along the river. Association around the kluwak/pakem trees includes besule trees/Chydenanthus excelsus Miers. Important Value Index (IVI) 28.5%, and wining trees/Pterocybium javanicum R. Br. (IVI 20%). However, wining trees was the most closest association with Pangium vegetation. Biophyisical information of the Pangium vegetation were as follows: 24-30oC daily temperature, 50-80% humidity, 10-65% slope, and 15-306 m altitude. The soil is Latosol with pH 5.5-6.5. Harvesting of fruit of Pangium trees by community surrounding the forest had no negative impact to the trees but this activity should be managed accordingly to avoid disturbing tree generation. AbstrakPenelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober-Desember 2006 di blok Pakeman, blok Sumber Salak, dan blok Sumber Gadung Subseksi II Ambulu, Taman Nasional Meru Betiri, Jawa Timur, untuk mengetahui beberapa aspek ekologi pohon kluwak/pakem (Pangium edule Reinw.). Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode pengukuran pada jalur berpetak dengan lebar jalur 20 m dan panjang 1.000 m, jalur memotong lereng dan jumlah jalur pengamatan 3 jalur. Petak-petak penelitian ditetapkan secara sengaja dengan metode purposive sampling, di mana pengukuran dilakukan pada tempat-tempat yang terdapat pohon kluwak/pakem. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa habitat kluwak/pakem di Taman Nasional Meru Betiri banyak dijumpai di sepanjang pinggiran aliran air dan topografi agak curam. Komposisi vegetasi di sekitar pohon kluwak/pakem banyak dijumpai jenis besule (Chydenanthus excelsus Miers) dengan Indeks Nilai Penting (INP) 28,5% dan wining (Pterocybium javanicum R. Br.) dengan INP 20%. Lingkungan fisik yang berkaitan erat dengan kluwak/pakem adalah suhu antara 24-30oC, kelembaban udara 50-80%, kemiringan lahan 10-65%, dan ketinggian tempat di atas permukaan laut 15-306 m. Jenis tanah Latosol dengan tekstur geluh lempungan dengan pH 5,5-6,5. Wining merupakan jenis tumbuhan yang mempunyai asosiasi kuat dengan kluwak/pakem, yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai Indeks Ochiai mendekati nilai satu dan di lapang ditemukan secara bersama-sama dengan pohon kluwak/pakem. Pemanenan buah kluwak/pakem oleh masyarakat tidak berpengaruh buruk pada pohonnya, namun perlu dikelola dengan baik agar tidak mengganggu regenerasi.

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