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Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri
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Core Subject : Engineering,
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri merupakan publikasi ilmiah primer yang memuat hasil penelitian primer komoditas perkebunan yang belum dimuat pada media apapun, diterbitkan oleh Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan, DIPA 2011 terbit empat kali setahun.
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Articles 499 Documents
MODEL PENDUGAAN KANDUNGAN AIR, LEMAK DAN ASAM LEMAK BEBAS PADA TIGA PROVENAN BIJI JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) MENGGUNAKAN SPEKTROSKOPI INFRAMERAH DEKAT DENGAN METODE PARTIAL LEAST SQUARE (PLS) LENGKEY, LADY C. E. CH.; BUDIASTRA, I WAYAN; SEMINAR, KUDANG B.; PURWOKO, BAMBANG S.
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ABSTRAKJarak pagar berpotensi sebagai sumber biodiesel karena kandunganlemak yang tinggi (>40%) dan belum ada penggunaan lainnya.Spektroskopi (Near Infrared) NIR adalah metode yang cepat untukmengukur spektrum sampel dan tidak terdapat limbah kimia. Tujuanpenelitian adalah mengembangkan metode pendugaan komposisi kimiabeberapa  provenan  jarak  pagar  berdasarkan  spektroskopi  NIRmenggunakan kalibrasi PLS. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan tigaprovenan jarak pagar yaitu IP-3A, IP-3M, dan IP-3P masing-masing 85sampel. Spektrum reflektansi diukur menggunakan alat NIRFlex SolidsPetri pada panjang gelombang 1000–2500 nm. Sekitar ⅔ jumlah sampeldigunakan untuk mengembangkan persamaan kalibrasi dan ⅓ jumlahsampel untuk validasi. Pra perlakuan data spektrum dilakukan dengannormalisasi antara 0-1, turunan pertama Savitzky-Golay 9 titik dangabungan keduanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan spektroskopi NIRdapat menduga kadar air, lemak, dan asam lemak bebas . Koefisienkorelasi (r) antara komponen kimia metode acuan dengan dugaan NIR>0,83 menunjukkan ketepatan model cukup baik (r kadar air=0,96, r kadarlemak=0,92, dan r ALB=0,89 ). Konsistensi model kalibrasi kadarair=94,85%, lemak=82,56%, dan ALB=87,80%. Koefisien keragamandugaan (Prediction Coeficient Variability/PCV) ketiga model <10%menunjukkan model yang dibangun cukup handal. Ratio of standard errorprediction to deviation (RPD) menunjukkan metode spektroskopi NIRdapat digunakan untuk menentukan kadar air (RPD=3,30) dan lemak(RPD=2,06). Model-model yang dikembangkan secara umum layakuntuk menentukan kadar air dan lemak biji jarak pagar, tetapi belumoptimal untuk penentuan kadar ALB biji jarak pagar.Kata kunci: NIR , jarak pagar, kadar air, kadar lemak, kadar asam lemakbebasABSTRACTPhysic nut is a potential source of biodiesel. It is high in fat content,above 40% and has not been usesed for other purposes. Moisture, free fattyacid, and fat content are the chemical compounds and determinant factorfor physic nut seed quality. The objective of this study was to develop amethod to predict chemical composition of physic nut by NIRspectroscopy and PLS calibration. The study was conducted using threeprovenances of physic nut, i.e. IP-3A, IP-3M, and IP-3P, with 85 sampleseach. The wavelengths of near infrared reflectance ranged from 1000 to2500 nm, and measured by NIR Flex Solids Petri Apparatus.Approximately ⅔ of total samples were used for developing calibrationequation, while ⅓ of total samples for performing validation. Pre-treatmentof spectrum data was done by applying normalization, first derivative ofSavitzky–Golay 9 points, and as well as their combination. The resultsshowed that NIR spectroscopy performed acceptable prediction formoisture and fat content. Correlation coefficients (r) between the referencemethod and NIR prediction were 0.96 for moisture content, 0.92 for fatcontent, and 0.89 for FFA and the consistency of the model were 94.85%for moisture content, 82.56% for fat, and 87.80% for FFA. Prediction ofcoefficient of variability (PCV) of the three models ≤10 % shows that themodels are reliable. Ratio of standard error prediction to deviation (RPD)for moisture content has the potential to be used for screening (RPD=3.30)though the fat content model has rough screening (RPD=2.06).Key words: NIR, physic nut, moisture, fat, free fatty acid contents.
KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGI, POTENSI PRODUKSI DAN KOMPONEN UTAMA RIMPANG SEMBILAN NOMOR LEMPUYANG WANGI WAHYUNI, SRI; BERMAWIE, NURLIANI; KRISTINA, NATALINI NOVA
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ABSTRAKLempuyang  merupakan family  Zingiberaceae,  dan  banyakdigunakan oleh masyarakat untuk obat/jamu sebagai peningkat stamina,antikanker dan obat antiinfeksi. Balittro memiliki koleksi plasma nutfahlempuyang yang dikumpulkan dari berbagai daerah. Potensi sifat tanamanperlu dievaluasi untuk mengetahui karakter potensial dan keunggulannya.Karakterisasi sembilan aksesi lempuyang wangi dilakukan di KP. Cicurug– Sukabumi Jawa Barat tahun 2009 hingga tahun 2010. Benih ditanamdengan jarak tanam 60 x 40 cm, jumlah tanaman per plot 20 tanaman dandiulang tiga kali. Pengamatan dilakukan pada sepuluh tanaman terhadapsifat morfologi tanaman, pertumbuhan, produksi, dan mutu rimpang. Hasilpengamatan menunjukkan bahwa morfologi dan pertumbuhan tanamanlempuyang bervariasi. Pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan,jumlah daun panjang dan lebar daun, serta diameter batang antar aksesibervariasi. Produksi rimpang lempuyang wangi umumnya lebih dari 15ton/ha, rimpang mempunyai banyak akar. Mutu simplisia rimpang adalahkisaran kadar minyak atsiri 1,34–4,61%, kadar sari larut dalam air 16,22–23,5%, kadar sari larut etanol 7,9–13,8%, kadar serat 5,47– 8,87% dankadar pati 40-50%. Hasil analisis ekstrak rimpang lempuyang dengan GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 50 komponen terdeteksi. Zerumbonemerupakan komponen utama lempuyang dengan nilai sebesar 36–49%.Komponen utama zerumbone dan acetic acid terdapat di semua aksesi.Komponen utama lainnya di antaranya adalah alpha humulene, humuleneoxide, beta-eudesmol, beta-selinene, linalool, 12-oxabicyclo, caryophileneoxide, 3-octadecyne, hexadecanoic acid, dan 3-octyne 5-methyl.Komposisi komponen utama antar aksesi berbeda senada dengan aromawangi yang ditimbulkan pada lempuyang. Sebanyak tujuh nomor aksesiyang mempunyai keunggulan produksi lebih dari 15 t/ha, mutu minyakatsiri lebih dari 1% dan zerumbone 40%.Kata kunci: Zingiber aromaticum, produksi, komponen utama rimpangABSTRACTWild ginger is one of Zingiberaceae family. Plant use as a medicinefor stamina improvement, anticancer and antiinfection. Balittro hadcollected wild ginger from several area and potential characters should beevaluated. Characterization was conducted at Cicurug experimental garden– West Java on 2009-2010. Seed rhizome of nine accession was plantedwith 60 x 40 cm space, twenty numbers of plant each plot and threereplication. Observation was carried out for morphological characters,growth, yield, and rhizome quality. Result showed that there werevariations in morphology and growth of wild ginger. Plant height, numbersof tillers, numbers of leaves, leaves length, leaves width, and stemdiameter among acessions were variate. Rhizome yield was generally morethan 15 ton/ha, rhizome having plenty of roots. Rhizome quality analysisshowed that among accessions have essential oil content range from 1.34-4.61%, extract soluble water 16.22 – 23.5%, extract soluble ethanol 7.9-13.88%, fiber content 5.47 – 8.87%, and carbohydrat content 40-50%.GS-MS of wild ginger rhizome extract revealed totally around 50constituent was detected. The highest constituent detected is zerumbone(36-49%). Moreover, acetic acid also detected in all accession with valuerange from 4.64 – 14.36%. Other major constituent are alpha humulene,humulene oxide, beta-eudesmol, beta-selinene, linalool, 12-oxabicyclo,caryophilene oxide, 3-octadecyne, hexadecanoic acid, and 3-octyne 5-methyl. The composition of major constituent among collection numbers isdifferent and reflected the differences of the flavour of the flesh rhizome.Seven collection numbers are having yield potential more than 15 ton/ha,essential oil content more than 1% dan zerumbone content 40%.Key word: Zingiber aromaticum, rhizome yield, rhizome constituent
AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA EKSTRAK BUAH CABAI JAWA (Piper retrofractum) TERHADAP Helopeltis antonii (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE) INDRIATI, GUSTI; DADANG, DADANG; PRIJONO, DJOKO
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ABSTRAKHelopeltis antonii merupakan salah satu hama pada tanaman kakao,teh, dan jambu mete yang menyerang pucuk dan buah dengan menusukkanstiletnya untuk mengisap cairan sehingga menyebabkan kerusakan.Penelitian bertujuan menguji toksisitas ekstrak buah Piper retrofractum(cabai jawa) terhadap imago, pengaruh konsentrasi subletal terhadap nimfaketurunan, persistensi terhadap mortalitas dan oviposisi H. antonii.Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Fisiologi dan ToksikologiSerangga, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman,Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Sukabumi, mulai Mei2013 sampai April 2014. Buah mentimun digunakan sebagai inangpengganti untuk perbanyakan serangga uji H. antonii di laboratorium danmedia pengujian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kematian imago H.antonii, akibat perlakuan ekstrak P. retrofractum 0,05-0,3%, sudah terjadipada 24 jam setelah perlakuan (JSP). Sementara itu, pada 24 dan 48 JSPterjadi penurunan tingkat kematian H. antonii. Setelah 48 JSP, hanyaterjadi sedikit peningkatan kematian H. antonii. LC 50 dan LC 95 ekstrak P.retrofractum pada 120 JSP masing-masing 0,20 dan 0,49%. Jumlah nimfaketurunan yang dihasilkan pada perlakuan subletal ekstrak P. retrofractum0,203% (LC 50 ) lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan konsentrasi 0,141%(LC 25 ). Ekstrak P. retrofractum yang dipajankan di bawah sinar mataharihingga 5 hari masih efektif terhadap imago (mortalitas 80%), tetapi tidakefektif dalam menghambat peletakan telur H. antonii. Penghambatanpeletakan telur terhadap imago H. antonii pada perlakuan ekstrak P.retrofractum 0,98% (2 × LC 95 ) yang dipajankan di bawah sinar matahariselama 0 dan 1 hari, dengan indeks penghambatan oviposisi 22,7 dan23,8%. Keefektifan ekstrak P. retrofractum perlu diuji di lapangan untukmenilai kelayakan dalam pengendalian H. antonii.Kata kunci: insektisida botani, mortalitas, oviposisi, persistensiABSTRACTHelopeltis antonii is cocoa, tea, and cashew nuts important pest thatcauses damage by sucking plant sap from shoots and nuts. This study wasconducted to test toxicity of Piper retrofractum fruit extract on adults,sublethal effect on the production nymphal progeny, and persistenceagainst mortality and oviposition of H. antonii. This study was conductedat The Fisiology and Insect Toxicology Laboratory, Plant ProtectionDepartement, Bogor Agricultural University and The Plant ProtectionLaboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institutefrom Mey 2013 to April 2014. Cucumber was used as a host substitute forrearing the test insect and as the testing medium. The results show thatadult mortality, due to the P. retrofractum leaf extract treatment 0.05-0.3%, has occured at 24 hours after treatment (HAT). Meanwhile, H.antonii mortality has decreased on 24 and 48 HAT. After 48 HAT, only aslight increased in H. antonii mortality. LC 50 and LC 95 of P. retrofractumextract at 120 HAT were 0.20 and 0.49%, respectively. The treatment atsublethal concentrations (LC 25 and LC 50 ) markedly decreased nymphalprogeny number. P. retrofractum extract suspensions at LC 95 and 2 × LC 95exposed under sunlight for 5 days were still effective against H. antoniiadults (80% mortality), but were not effective in females inhibitingoviposition. The oviposition inhibiting activity was observed only in thetreatment with P. retrofractum extract at 2 × LC 95  exposed under sunlightfor 0 and 1 day in which the oviposition deterrency indices were 22.7 and23.8% respectively. Key words: botanical insecticides, mortality, oviposition, persistence
PEMANFAATAN KOMPOS TANAMAN AIR SEBAGAI PEMBAWA INOKULAN MIKORIZA PADA BUDIDAYA LADA PERDU DI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG TIMAH FERRY, YULIUS; TOWAHA, JUNIATI; SASMITA, RR. K. D.
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ABSTRAKLahan bekas tambang yang dapat dijadikan lahan alternatif untukpengembangan budidaya lada di Bangka cukup tersedia. Penggunaan lahanbekas tambang sebagai lahan budidaya memerlukan pembenahan misalnyapenambahan mikroorganisme seperti mikoriza. Selama ini bahan pembawapupuk hayati mikoriza menggunakan zeolit. Padahal tersedia bahan lainseperti bahan organik yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai alternatif bahanpembawa inokulan mikoriza. Penelitian yang bertujuan memperolehformula bahan organik sebagai bahan pembawa bahan mikoriza yangsesuai digunakan pada budidaya lada di lahan bekas tambang timah diBangka. Penelitian dilakukan pada tahun 2010-2011 (2 tahun) dilaboratorium dan rumah paranet di Balai Peneitian Tanaman Rempah danAneka Tanaman Industri serta lahan petani di Desa Kulur, KabupatenBangka Tengah. Untuk formulasi bahan pembawa mikoriza percobaanmenggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan perlakuan formulasibahan pembawa yaitu, 100% zeolit, 60% kompos enceng gondok+40%zeolit; 80% kompos enceng gondok+20% zeolit; 100% kompos encenggondok;  60%  kompos  kiambang+40%  zeolit;  80%  komposkiambang+20% zeolit dan 100% kompos kiambang. Untuk pengujiandosis dan formula bahan pembawa mikoriza terhadap pertumbuhan ladaperdu di lahan bekas tambang, percobaan disusun sesuai denganrancangan Split Plot dalam Acak Kelompok dengan petak utama adalahjenis formula yaitu (1). kontrol 100% zeolit; (2). 60% kompos encenggondok + 40% zeolit; (3). 80% kompos enceng gondok + 20% zeolit; (4).100% kompos enceng gondok; (5). 60% kompos kiambang + 40% zeolit;(6). 80% kompos kiambang + 20% zeolit, dan (7). 100% komposkiambang. Sebagai anak petak adalah dosis pemberian yaitu; (1). 20g/tanaman; (2). 40 g/tanaman, dan (3). 60 g/tanaman. Hasil penelitian inimenujukkan bahwa formula dari bahan kompos enceng gondok ataukiambang 80% dengan zeolit dapat dijadikan bahan pembawa mikorizauntuk pupuk hayati lada perdu di lahan bekas tambang, dengan dosis 60g/tanaman.Kata Kunci : lada, tanaman air, mikoriza, lahan bekas tambangABSTRACTAvailable post-tin mining soil can be used as an alternative land forpepper cultivation in Bangka. The use of mined lands as the cultivation,requiring improvements, such as the addition of mycorrhizae. During thesemycorrhizal biofertilizer carriers using zeolite. Though available materialssuch as organic materials that can be developed as an alternative carriermycorrhizal inoculant. The research aims to obtain an alternative formulaof organic materials as a suitable carrier materials used in mycorrhizalpepper plants have been implemented. This study conducted in 2010-2011(2 years) in the laboratory and home paranet of Crops Research Institutefor Industrial Crops Spices and various land and farmers in the village ofKulur, Central Bangka regency. For carrier formulations mycorrhizal,experiments using a completely randomized design (CRD) with treatmentformulations carrier ie, 100% zeolite, 60% water hyacinth compost +40%zeolite, 80% water hyacinth compost +20% zeolite; 100% water hyacinthcompost, 60% salvinia + 40% zeolite, 80% salvinia compost +20% zeoliteand 100% salvinia compost. To test the dose and formulation of the carrieron the growth of mycorrhizal pepper shrubs on mined lands, prepared inSplit Plot design, as the main plot is a type of formula that is (1). controls100% zeolite, (2). 60% water hyacinth compost + 40% zeolite, (3). 80%water hyacinth compost + 20% zeolite, (4). 100% water hyacinth compost,(5). 60% + 40% compost kiambang zeolite, (6). 80% + 20% compostkiambang zeolite, and (7). 100% compost kiambang. As a subplot wasadministered dose that is: (1). 20 g / plant, (2). 40 g / plant, and (3). 60 g /plant.The results of this study showed that the formula of water hyacinthcompost or salvinia 80% of the zeolite can be used as a carrier material formycorrhiza biofertilizer bushy pepper on the post-tin mining soil, with adose of 60 g/plant.Keywords: plant water, mycorrhiza, post-tin mining soil
KARAKTERISTIK NANOEMULSI MINYAK SAWIT MERAH YANG DIPERKAYA BETA KAROTEN YULIASARI, SHANNORA; FARDIAZ, DEDI; ANDARWULAN, NURI; YULIANI, SRI
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ABSTRAKMinyak sawit merah (Red palm oil/RPO) dan β-karoten tidak larutdalam air sehingga sulit diaplikasikan ke dalam produk pangan. Salah satupendekatan untuk meningkatkan kelarutan RPO dan β-karoten adalah emulsifikasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan nanoemulsi RPOdiperkaya β-karoten yang stabil. Penelitian dilaksanakan di LaboratoriumSEAFAST CENTER IPB dari Januari–September 2013. Pada penelitiantahap pertama, nanoemulsi disiapkan melalui tahap-tahap: pengayaan RPOdengan β β-karotenmenggunakan HPH (High Pressure Homogenizer) pada tekanan 34,5 MPadengan 10 siklus. Rasio RPO dan air dalam emulsi adalah 5 : 95; 7,5 :92,5; dan 10 : 90 (b/b), dan persentase Tween 80 sebagai pengemulsiadalah 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; dan 10% (b/b) dari total emulsi. Pada tahap kedua,nanoemulsi disiapkan dengan persentase RPO: 2, 4, dan 6% (b/b) danpengemulsi 1,5; 3,0; dan 4,5% (b/b) dari total emulsi. Hasil penelitiantahap pertama menunjukkan nanoemulsi yang dibuat dengan rasio RPO :air = 5 : 95 dan 7,5 : 92,5 serta pengemulsi 5% (b/b) menghasilkan emulsidengan ukuran droplet 115,1 sampai 145,2 nm dan stabil. Nanoemulsiyang dihasilkan dari penelitian tahap kedua memiliki ukuran droplet 94,9sampai 125,5 nm, dan kadar β-karoten antara 47,6 sampai 130,9 mg/l.Ukuran droplet nanoemulsi yang kurang dari 125 nm dapat dihasilkandengan formula rasio RPO dan pengemulsi kurang dari 2,0.Kata kunci: minyak sawit merah, β-karoten, nanoemulsi, homogenizerABSTRACTRed palm oil (RPO) and β-carotene are insoluble in water. It makescan be used to improve RPO and βThis research is aimed to produce stable RPO nanoemulsion enriched withβ-carotene. The research was conducted in the SEAFAST CENTERLaboratory, Bogor Agriculture University from January to Septemberfollowing steps, i.e. enrichment of RPO with βusing a high pressure homogenizer at a pressure of 34.5 MPa in 10 cycles.The ratio of RPO and water in the mixture were 5 : 95; 7.5 : 92.5; and 10 :10% (w/w) of the total emulsions. In the second stage, nanoemulsionswere prepared on various RPO percentage of 2, 4, and 6% (w/w) andhad a droplet size from 115.1 to 145.2 nm and stable. Nanoemulsions wereresulting from the second stage had droplet size from 94.9 to 125.5 nm,and β-carotene content were 47.6 to 130.9 mg/l. Droplet size ofnanoemulsions is less than 125 nm. It can be produced with RPO andKey words: red palm oil, β-carotene, nanoemulsion, homogenizer
PENGARUH DOSIS MIKORIZA DAN PEMUPUKAN NPK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI KOPI ROBUSTA DI BAWAH TEGAKAN KELAPA PRODUKTIF FERRY, YULIUS; RUSLI, RUSLI
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ABSTRAK
ANALISIS DIVERSITAS GENETIK AKSESI KELAPA SAWIT KAMERUN BERDASARKAN MARKA SSR TASMA, I MADE; ARUMSARI, SEKAR
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ABSTRAKDiversitas genetik aksesi kelapa sawit Indonesia saat ini sangatrendah. Dalam usaha meningkatkan keragaman genetik telah dilakukaneksplorasi plasma nutfah di pusat keragaman genetik kelapa sawit diKamerun. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui diversitas genetikdan tingkat polimorfisme berdasarkan marka SSR aksesi-aksesi kelapasawit Kamerun. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan 49 aksesi kelapa sawitKamerun, Afrika yang ditanam di Kebun Sumber Daya Genetik (SDG)Sawit Sijunjung, Sumatera Barat. DNA genomik diisolasi dari tiapindividu aksesi menggunakan protokol isolasi DNA untuk tanamanbergetah. DNA dianalisis menggunakan 20 marka SSR. Dendrogramkekerabatan dikonstruksi menggunakan metode Unweighted Pair GroupMethod Arithmetic (UPGMA) melalui software NTSYS-pc (NumericalTaxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System) versi 2.1-pc. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan nilai polimorfisme information content (PIC) marka SSRtinggi sebesar 0,80 (berkisar 0,63-0,91). Jumlah alel yang terdeteksi permarka SSR berkisar antara 4-15 alel per lokus SSR (rata-rata 8,75).Analisis filogenetik 49 aksesi menghasilkan diversitas genetik 12,5-54,72% (kemiripan genetik 55,28-87,50%). Pada diversitas genetik54,72%, aksesi Kamerun terbagi menjadi tujuh kelompok masing-masingterdiri dari 9, 28, 4, 2, 1, 2, dan 3 aksesi. Aksesi dengan diversitas genetiktinggi dan berada pada klaster berbeda, potensial digunakan sebagai calontetua dalam program pemuliaan kelapa sawit.Kata kunci: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., diversitas genetik, plasma nutfah,marka SSRABSTRACTGenetic diversity of the Indonesian oil palm collection is very low.To improve their genetic variability, exploration from the oil palm centerof origins has been done in Kamerun. The objectives of this study were todetermine genetic and polymorphism level of the SSR markers Cameroon-originated oil palm accessions. Genetic materials used were 49 Cameroon-originated oil palm accessions collected at Sijunjung Oil Palm GermplamCollection Station, West Sumatera. Genomic DNA was isolated using aprotocol for isolating DNA from leaves rich with latex. DNA was analyzedusing 20 SSR markers. A dendogram was constructed using theUnweighted Pair Group Method Arithmetic (UPGMA) method through theNumerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System software(NTSYS-pc) version 2.1-pc. Results showed that the polimorfismeinformation content (PIC) values of the SSR markers used was high, 0.80(range from 0.63-0.91). The average number of the SSR alleles detectedwas also high, 8.75 alleles (range from 4-15 alleles per SSR locus).Phylogenetic analysis of the 49 oil palm accessions resulted geneticdiversity of 12.5-54.72% (genetic similarity of 55.28-87.50%). At geneticdiversity 54.72%, the 49 accessions were divided into seven clusters, eachconsisted of 9, 28, 4, 2, 1, 2, and 3 accesions, respectively. Accessionswith high genetic diversity and located at different clusters may be usefulas parent candidates in the future oil palm breeding programs.Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., genetic diversity, germplasm, SSRmarkers
PENINGKATAN KERAGAMAN GENETIK PURWOCENG MELALUI IRADIASI SINAR GAMMA DAN SELEKSI IN VITRO ROOSTIKA, IKA; DARWATI, IRENG; YUDIWANTI, YUDIWANTI
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ABSTRAKPeningkatkan keragaman genetik purwoceng memerlukan aplikasiteknologi alternatif yang mampu membentuk keragaman baru. Tujuanpenelitian adalah untuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik dan toleransipurwoceng terhadap cekaman suhu tinggi melalui iradiasi dan seleksi invitro. Tahapan penelitian meliputi induksi mutasi kalus embriogenikdengan sinar gamma, seleksi in vitro dengan cekaman suhu tinggi, induksiperakaran  somaklon  putatif,  analisis  keragaman  genetik  secaraflowcytometry, dan aklimatisasi somaklon putatif. Iradiasi dilakukan padadosis 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 Krad sedangkan seleksi in vitro dilakukan padatiga level suhu (20, 25, dan 30 0 C). Induksi perakaran dilakukan dalam duatahap, dengan menggunakan media DKW atau MS yang mengandungsukrosa 3-6% dengan penambahan IBA atau NAA taraf 0,5-1,5 ppm. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa kalus purwoceng mampu bertahan hiduppada dosis iradiasi tertinggi (5 Krad). Meningkatnya dosis iradiasicenderung meningkatkan pendewasaan embrio somatik. Pada tahap seleksiin vitro, kalus purwoceng mampu tumbuh pada kondisi suhu tertinggi(30 0 C). Tingkat proliferasi kalus yang tinggi dan jumlah embrio somatikterbanyak diperoleh dari perlakuan suhu 25 0 C. Embrio somatik yangterbentuk dari perlakuan suhu tinggi tersebut merupakan kandidatsomaklon yang toleran suhu tinggi pada lingkungan dataran rendah.Diantara embrio somatik yang terbentuk, hanya embrio yang berasal dariperlakuan suhu 20 0 C saja yang berhasil membentuk planlet. Media yangterbaik untuk induksi perakaran adalah media MS yang mengandungsukrosa 4% dengan penambahan NAA 1,5 ppm. Analisis ploidi pada daunembrio somatik menunjukkan terbentuknya varian yang bersifat tetraploid(4x).Kata kunci: Pimpinella pruatjan, iradiasi sinar gamma, seleksi in vitro,keragaman genetik, suhu tinggiABSTRACTTo improve new pruatjan genetic variations, the alternativetechnology should be applied. The objective of the research was to increasepruatjan genetic variation and tolerance to the high temperature throughinduced mutation and in vitro selection. The steps of this study were inducedmutation of embryogenic callus by gamma irradiation, in vitro selection, rootinduction of putative somaclones, genetic variation analysis by flowcytometer,and putative somaclones acclimatization. The dosages of gamma irradiationwere 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Krad. In vitro selection was conducted at threetemperatures (20, 25, and 30 0 C). The root induction was conducted in twosteps by using DKW or MS media containing of 3-6% sucrose withaddition of 0.5-1.5 ppm IBA or NAA. The result showed that embryogeniccalli could survive after treatment of the highest gamma irradiation dose. Ittends to increase the maturation of somatic embryos. During in vitroselection, embryogenic calli could grow at the highest temperature but thehighest callus proliferation and the number of somatic embryos wereobtained from 25 0 C. The somatic embryos survived and grew at the hightemperature are assumed as somaclones which considered as thecandidates of tolerant plants to high temperature that can be developed inthe of low altitude area. Among the regenerated somatic embryos, only the20 0 C-derived embryos were successfully form plantlets. The best mediumfor root induction was MS basal medium containing of 4% sucrosesupplemented with 1.5 ppm NAA. The ploidy analysis of somatic embryosleaf showed a tetraploid (4x) variant.Key words: Pimpinella pruatjan, gamma irradiation, in vitro selection,genetic variation, high temperature
KERAGAMAN FENOTIPE DAN GENETIK TIGA VARIETAS KELAPA GENJAH KOPYOR ASAL PATI JAWA TENGAH MASKROMO, ISMAIL; TENDA, ELSJE T.; TULALO, MEITY A.; NOVARIANTO, HENGKY; SUKMA, DEWI; SUKENDAH, SUKENDAH; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO
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Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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ABSTRAKKelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati, Jawa Tengah merupakankekayaaan hayati asli Indonesia dengan nilai ekonomi tinggi. Informasikeragaman genetik kelapa kopyor masih terbatas. Data keragamanmorfologi dan genetik diperlukan dalam program pemuliaan kelapakopyor. Penelitian ini mempelajari keragaman tiga varietas kelapa genjahkopyor asal Pati yang telah dilepas berdasarkan karakter morfologi,kuantitas endosperma, dan keragaman alel marka SSR. Penelitiandilakukan di Pati dan di Laboratorium Plant Molecular Biology,Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, IPB. Evaluasi dilakukan terhadaptiga populasi kelapa Genjah kopyor (hijau, coklat, dan kuning) dengan 30tanaman sampel untuk setiap populasi. Rataan data morfologi digunakanuntuk menyusun dendogram. Kuantitas endosperma diamati pada satubuah kelapa kopyor per tanaman yang dievaluasi. Karakteristikendosperma dikelompokkan sesuai kategori yang telah ditetapkan. Untuksetiap populasi, analisis marka dengan lima pasang primer SSR dilakukanpada 10 tanaman sampel. Data yang didapat digunakan untuk menentukankeragaman genetik kelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati. Hasil pengamatanmenunjukkan keragaman morfologis dan alel SSR antar tanaman dalamvarietasnya (keragaman intra-varietas) rendah. Sebaliknya, keragamanmorfologis dan alel SSR antar varietasnya tinggi. Kuantitas endospermakelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati bervariasi antara skor 1–6. Keragamangenetik yang rendah dalam varietas dan tinggi antar ketiga varietas (coklat,hijau, dan kuning) memperkuat pelepasan ketiganya sebagai varietas lokal.Selain itu, keragaman genetik antar tanaman dalam varietas yang rendahmendukung penggunaan ketiga varietas lokal sebagai tetua dalam programperakitan varietas kelapa kopyor unggul baru. Tetua yang dipilih dapatdiseleksi intra-varietas berdasarkan persentase buah kopyor per tandandan skor kuantitas endosperma yang tinggi.Kata kunci: Keragaman morfologis, keragaman intra dan antar varietas,kuantitas endospermaABSTRACTKopyor dwarf coconuts are mutants from Pati, Central Java havinghigh economic values. However, morphological and genetic diversities ofthis coconut were still limited. Morphological and genetic diversity dataare needed for breeding program. The research objectives were to evaluateintra and inter-specific diversity based on morphology, endospermquantity, and SSR alleles. Field evaluations were conducted in Pati whilelaboratory activities were at Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory,Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB. Three populations ofkopyor dwarf varieties (brown, green, and yellow) were evaluated. Thirtytrees were sampled for each population. The average of morphologicaldata were used to construct cluster analysis. Endosperm quantity wasscored (0 – 9) based on a single nut sample. Ten palms were analyzedusing five SSR loci for each population and used to determine geneticdiversity of populations. Results of observations indicated intra-varietymorphological and SSR allele variations among kopyor dwarf was low.However, inter-variety variations were high. The endosperm quantityscores among kopyor dwarf coconut ranged from 1–6. The low intra-variety and high inter-variety variations among the three kopyor dwarfcoconut supported their release as different local varieties. Moreover, thelow intra-variety phenotypic and genotypic diversities among kopyorbrown, green, and yellow dwarf coconut support their use as parents fornew and superior kopyor coconut variety development in the future. Forsuch purpose, however, it is necessary to conduct intra-variety selection toidentify desirable parents based on high kopyor fruit percentage per bunchand for high kopyor endosperm quantity.Key words: Morphological diversity, intra and inter variety diversities,quantity, endosperm
PATOGENISITAS BEBERAPA ISOLAT CENDAWAN TERBAWA BENIH KAKAO HIBRIDA BAHARUDIN, BAHARUDIN; PURWANTARA, A.; ILYAS, S.; SUHARTANTO, M.R.
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Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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ABSTRAKBenih kakao hibrida diketahui dapat membawa beberapa mikrobayang bersifat patogenik dan menurunkan mutu benih. Penelitian bertujuanuntuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa isolat cendawan terbawa benihterhadap penurunan viabilitas benih dan vigor bibit kakao hibrida.Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Benih Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan KakaoIndonesia, Jember, Laboratorium Mikrobiologi dan rumah kaca BalaiPenelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia, Bogor, pada bulan Julisampai November 2008. Penelitian menggunakan 13 cendawan terbawabenih kakao hibrida. Benih diperoleh dari persilangan buatan antara kakaoTSH 858 dengan Sca 6. Penelitian menggunakan model Rancangan AcakLengkap dengan 4 ulangan. Inokulasi patogen pada benih kakao dilakukandengan cara merendam benih di dalam suspensi patogen dengan kerapatan10 6 spora/ml selama 30 menit. Selanjutnya benih ditanam pada media pasirsteril dalam boks plastik ukuran 30 x 30 cm, menurut rancangannya.Setiap perlakuan diulang 4 kali. Parameter yang diamati adalah dayaberkecambah, indeks vigor, kecepatan tumbuh relatif, kecepatanberkecambah T 50 , laju pertumbuhan kecambah, jumlah daun, tinggi bibit,panjang akar, jumlah akar dan kematian benih. Data dianalisis denganANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Jarak Berganda Duncan. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa ke-13 spesies cendawan bersifat patogenikpada benih kakao hibrida. Cendawan patogen terbawa benih yang bersifatpatogenik adalah Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, Cladosporiumherbanum,  Curvularia  geniculata,  Fusarium  oxysporum,  Phomaglomerata dan Macrophoma sp. Cendawan patogen tersebut dapatmenurunkan daya berkecambah 20-40%, indeks vigor 30-47%, kecepatantumbuh relatif 13-45%, dan meningkatkan kecepatan perkecambahan(T 50 menurun) dari 0,62-7,36 hari. Ke-13 isolat patogen dapatmenyebabkan kematian benih 29-52% dibanding kontrol. Ke-13 isolatpatogen juga menginfeksi bagian tanaman seperti kotiledon, daun, batangdan akar bibit kakao, namun hanya Phoma glomerata dan Macrophomasp. yang menurunkan tinggi bibit, jumlah daun, jumlah dan panjang akarsecara nyata. Tujuh dari 13 isolat cendawan patogen terbawa benih tidakhanya menurunkan viabilitas dan vigor benih kakao hibrida tetapi jugadapat berkembang pada bibit sehingga perlu penanganan benih secara dini.Kata kunci: benih hibrida, patogen terbawa benih, viabilitas, vigor benih,Theobroma cacaoABSTRACTIn 2009 revitalization of cacao plantations in Indonesia required 168million seeds. Distribution of low quality and infected seeds leads to hugelosses and in a long term will destruct cultivation of cacao. Seed-bornepathogens of infected cacao hybrid seeds are dangerous because they mayreduce physiological qualities of the seeds. The study aimed atdetermining the effect of several isolates of seed borne fungi on theviability and vigor of hybrid cacao seeds as well as growth of theseedlings. The study was conducted at the Seed Garden Indonesian Coffeeand Cacao Research Center in Jember, Microbiology Laboratory and glasshouse of Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops of Indonesia,Bogor, from July to November 2008. The study used 13 seed-borne fungiin hybrid cacao. The cacao seeds were obtained from hand pollinatedcrossing between TSH 858 with Sca 6. The experiment was arranged usingCompletely Randomized Design with four replicates. Cacao seeds wereinoculated by immersing them for 30 minutes in the spore suspension of13 isolates of seed-borne fungi CTB at a density of 10 6 spores/ml. Afterinoculation, the seeds were planted on sterile sand in a plastic box (30 x 30cm). Parameters observed were germination rate, vigor index, KCT-R T 50rate of seedling growth, leaf number, seedling height, root length, rootnumber, and level of pathogenicity. Data were analyzed by ANOVAfollowed with Duncans Multiple Test. The results showed that the 13species of seed-borne pathogens were in hybrid cacao seeds with varyingpathogenicity. The most pathogenic fungi were Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus ochraceus, Cladosporium herbanum, Curvularia geniculata,Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma glomerata, and Macrophoma sp. Seed bornepathogenic fungi had the ability to reduce seed germination of 20-40%,vigor index of 30-47%, relative growth rate of 13-45%, and delayedgermination speed (T 50 decreases) from 0.62 to 7.36 days. Seed bornepathogens caused (29-52%) death seed compared to control. All that 13isolates of seed-borne pathogens infected plant tissues such as cotyledons,leaves, stems, and roots of cacao seedlings, but only isolates of Phomaglomerata and Macrophoma sp. which lowered the height of seedlings,leaf number, root number and length. The study indicated that infection ofseed-borne pathogens on cacao seed hybrid can cause seed death.Therefore, seeds should be handled properly.Key words: hybrid seeds, seed borne pathogens, viability, seed vigor,Theobroma cacao

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