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Karakterisasi Udang Air Tawar Anggota Genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) dari Air Terjun Tegenungan, Gianyar, Bali Berbasis Data Morfologi dan Molekular

Nabil, Wildan Ahmad, Eprilurahman, Rury

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Macrobrachium is one of prawn genera which has largest species number in family Palaemonidae, with some species of this genus being important commodity in aquaculture. Morphological characters for identification of this genus depend on environmental condition, growth phase, sex, and social dominance. This makes morphological identification on this genus quite difficult and tricky. Alternative approaches are required for better methods of Macrobrachium identification. DNA barcoding using 16S mitochondrial rRNA appears to be one promising method for Macrobrachium identification. This research aims to identify Macrobrachium from Tegenungan Waterfall using morphological and molecular analysis. Samples were taken from 4 sampling sites beneath the waterfall. All specimens were identified using several morphological identification methods. Specimen CR 07a and CR 10 were identified using molecular method. The molecular analysis utilized 16Sar (5‚??-CGCCTGTTTATCAAAAACAT-3‚??) as forward primer and 16Sbr (5‚??-CCGGTCTGAACTCAGAT-CACGT-3‚??) as reverse primer. From 11 specimens, 10 were identified as Macrobrachium. Specimen CR 07a was identified morphologically as M. horstii. According to BLAST analysis, specimen CR 10 was recognized as M. horstii with similarity up to 99% to GenBank specimens (JF310718.1 dan FM986616.1). Specimen CR 07a only reach 97% similarity to both GenBank specimens. Genetic distance analysis between specimen CR 07a and CR 10 assumed high genetic diversity, or even cryptic species indication in M. horstii population of Tegenungan Waterfall.¬†¬†

Deteksi Gen Ketahanan Terhadap Powdery Mildew Pada Melon (Cucumis melo L. ‚??Aramis‚??)

Daryono, Budi Setiadi, Yambise, Hani Christin

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) usually used as a fresh fruit, which contained high vitamin C and in Indonesia melon is one of the favorite fruit. Indonesia is a country that has a high biodiversity. One of the potential strategies in order to improve productivity and quality of crops competitiveness is through plant breeding. This study used melon Aramis from PT East West Seed Indonesia hybrid melon from crosses between 7319 (F) with 7347 (M). The research aims to determine the phenotype character of melon cultivar Aramis and to detect powdery mildew resistance gene. The research is conducted in Pusat Inovasi Agro Teknologi (PIAT UGM) Yogyakarta and at the Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Resistance genes detection is conducted by Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions method (SCARs) using PCR and showed negative result of Aramis cultivar on detection of gene resistance to powdery mildew.

Pemeliharaan Ikan Lontok (Ophiocara porocephala Valenciennes, 1837) Sebagai Upaya Konservasi Dengan Pemberian Pakan Udang Kecepe (Acetes sp.)

Khairul, Khairul, Hasan, Uswatul

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

The spangled gudgeon (Ophiocara porocephala Valenciennes, 1837) is one of the fish that live in the waters of Belawan and has important economic value to the community. However, lately the wild population continues to decline due to factors that supposedly over fishing, waters pollution and habitat degradation. Cultivation effort is one of the solutions to keep the preserved and decrease arrests in nature. The study of associated cultivation efforts need to be made through research. The purpose of this research is to know the frequency of feeding the shrimp kecepe (Acetes sp.) the right against the growth of absolute spangled gudgeon fish. The benefits of research as the basis for the management and preservation of fish decreased as well as the increasingly Spangled Gudgeon fish efforts do local fish conservation in Belawan Rivers. Results of the study showed the average length of the highest absolute growth was at the treatment D (1.10 cm), followed the treatment C (0.90 cm), treatment B (0.80 cm), and the lowest at the treatment A (0.73 cm). Analysis of variance results indicate that the Fh (8 **) > 0.05 Ft (4.07) means the treatment of natural feeding shrimp kecepe very real influence (highly significant) against the growth of the absolute length of the juvenile spangled gudgeon.

Uji Beberapa Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Terhadap Pertumbuhan Setek Lada Perdu (Piper nigrum L.)

Wahyudi, Wahyudi, Deviani Duaja, Made, Kartika, Elis

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a commodity of high economic value, but the production is still low. The main reason is the lack of availability for good pepper seedling. Pepper has been commercially propagated by cuttings. To optimize pepper cutting growth could be done through the application of plant growth regulator (PGR). PGR can also be obtained from plant extracts. Some parts of the plant can be used as an exogenous growth regulator hence it contains many hormones that plants need. This experiment was conducted at Teaching and Research Farm, Universitas Jambi to select the best plant extract as an exogenous growth regulator that could induce root and growth of pepper cutting. Five plant extracts, animal urine, and synthetic growth regulator were used as treatment namely: Rootone-F as control, coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.), cow urine, extract of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata) + moringa leaf extract (Moringa sp.), young corn (Zea mays) seed extract + moringa leaf extract, young corn seed extract + moringa leaf extract, bamboo shoot extract + banana hump (Musa paradisiaca) extract. The experiment was set in the form of randomized complete design with three replications. Result revealed that synthetic plant growth regulators and plant extracts as exogenous growth regulator have a significant effect on the growth of pepper cuttings. Coconut water gave the best of pepper seedling growth based on the percentage of live seedling, percentage of cutting sprouts, shoot length, root length and shoot dry weight.

Extract of Dragon Fruit Pulp (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Potentially Stain Chromosomes of Red Onion (Allium ascalonicum)

Genesiska, Genesiska, Pratiwi, Herda

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Side effect of aceto-orcein as a dye of chromosome structures remains some risks. This dye may remain tissue damage on eyes mucous membrane, burnt by skin contact, severe irritation of respiratory by spray mist. Exploration of natural dye is an alternative solution. Betacyanine of red dragon fruits Hylocereus polyrhizus pulp might have a potential role to stain chromosome. Aim of this study is to extract dragon fruit pulp to stain chromosomes of mitotic cells of red onion Allium ascalonicum. The method used in this research is qualitative description of application squash method with aceto-orcein as synthetic dye and two ratio of extract ratio of red dragon fruits pulps as natural dye to mitotic cells of red onion roots. The result revealed that 2:1 ratio of red dragon fruits and distilled water could stain chromosomes of red onion somatic cells. Further specific solvent is required to further investigation to get best betacyanine extract of red dragon fruits pulps. 

Vegetasi Tumbuhan pada Kawasan Tepi Hutan Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango yang Berbatasan dengan Kebun Raya Cibodas

Zuhri, Musyarofah, Mutaqien, Zaenal, Nurdiana, Dian R, Destri, Destri, Nudin, Nudin, Djuanda, Djuanda

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Cibodas Botanic Garden area is adjacent with natural forest of Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park which consequences both vegetation in the border area are influence each other. The aims of this research were to study plant vegetation of forest area adjacent to Cibodas Botanical Garden and compare it with forest interior using transect method. The results showed that species richness in forest interior were higher than adjacent forest area. Furthermore, number of tree species, basal area and Shannon-Wienner diversity index in forest boundaries were higher rather than forest interior. Habitats along the forest edge were inhabited by trees with large dbh and low tree density. While trees inhibited forest interior areas with high density but small in size. The trees in forest interior were dominated by Schima wallichii, Lithocarpus pallidus and Turpinia sphaerocarpa. While trees in the forest boundary vegetation were dominated by Engelhardtia spicata, Litsea firma and Lithocarpus indutus. The tree age structure of forest interior and forest edge showed an inverted J-pattern and flat pattern respectively. Meanwhile, tree communities on edge forest vegetation showed similar age structure, especially in middle diameter class. 

Kestabilan Fenotip Tanaman Labu Susu (Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Poir ‚??Butternut‚?Ě) Hasil Budidaya di Sleman D.I Yogyakarta

Nopianasanti, Hetty, Setiadi Daryono, Budi

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Butternut pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Butternut) is a horticultural commodity with great potential to be developed as food and medicine. Nutrients and unique shape cause butternut pumpkin to be popular. To supply of butternut pumpkin, required an increase in production which has superior and stable characters. This research aims to determine the stability phenotypic characters of butternut pumpkin in Sleman, Yogyakarta using quantitative data analysis of variance (One Way ANOVA) and qualitative analysis through descriptive phenotype. Based on the results, butternut pumpkin have a uniform phenotype characters but unstable in fruit‚??s shape and size of plant. Butternut pumpkin plants have 3 different shapes of pear or paprika form including dumbbell shape and gooseneck (pyriform), crispy texture, pale yellow (RHS greyed grange group 65) peel of fruit, strong orange (RHS orange group 24) flesh of fruit, 3-5¬įbrix level of sweetness, long shelf life, and short harvest age (70-90 HST). The cultivated butternut pumpkin in PIAT UGM farmland has greater productivity of 3.1¬Ī0.99 kg/plant.¬†

Komposisi Nekleotida Sekuen Gen Mitokondria 16S rRNA Ikan Bilih (Mystacoleucus padangensis Bleeker, 1852) Danau Singkarak, Solok, Sumatera Barat

Oktavia, Liza, Arisuryanti, Tuty

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Bilih fish (Mystacoleucus padangensis) is one of the endemic fish inhabited at West Sumatra and is exploited extensively to meet market demands due to high nutritional value. The fish is also commonly exported to Malaysia and Singapore in dried processed form. However, research on composition of mtDNA 16S nucleotide as a part of genetic characterization of bilih fish has not been examined. Genetic characterization of the fish is useful for its conservation and breeding program. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine composition of mtDNA 16S nucleotide of bilih fish (Mystacoleucus padangensis Bleeker, 1852) collected from Singkarak Lake, Solok, West Sumatra. This research used a PCR method with 16S universal primers: 16Sar and16Sbr. The results showed that the average of mtDNA 16S nucleotide composition was T=22.63%, C=24.38%, A=31.24% and G=21.76% whereas the average of A+T and C+G were 53.86% and 46.14% respectively. The difference in the mtDNA 16S nucleotide between the two bilih fish samples was similar between T, C, and A composition (0,04%) whereas the G composition was high (0,13%). In addition,  the average rate of nucleotide composition A+ T and G+ C between the two bilih fish samples was similar  (0,08%). This result revealed that there was genetic variation between the two bilih fish samples examined in this study based on composition of mtDNA 16S nucleotide which is the first published data we reported.  

Kapang Kontaminan Pada Ikan Toreh (Hyporhamphus affinis) yang dijual di Pasar Tradisional Kota Ternate Maluku Utara

Nurhasanah, Nurhasanah, Sundari, Sundari

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Dried fish from fish Julung (Hyporhamphus affinis) is one type of fish food products that are found in the traditional market of Ternate city. This product is commonly known as fish toreh. The main problem of this product is storage packaging by using an open bamboo set that can be contaminated by various microbes. The purpose of this study was to inventory and identification of contaminant molds isolated from dried fish of H. affinis on a 17-day storage period. The research was conducted in Mathematic and Natural Science laboratory by using dried fish smoke (toreh) from H. affinis obtained from traditional market in Ternate city. Isolation and identification of molds using standard microbiological procedures. Media growth of mold using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Several genus and species of mold found as contaminant mold are Aspergillus spp., Eurotium spp., Torula spp., Cladosporium spp., Polypaecilum pisce and Catenaria fuliginea.

Pemberian Fusarium Non-Patogen dan Tricoderma Untuk Menghambat Penyakit Busuk Pangkal Pada Bawang Putih

Septhiani, Silvia, Oga Nusantari, Diah, Nasir, Deni

Biogenesis: Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Vol 6, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

The need for garlic is quite high in Indonesia, but it is not offset by the amount of production. The decrease in production is caused by one of them by a base rot. This study was aim to determine the effect of the use of antagonistic fungi in overcoming base rot in garlic. The antagonistic fungi used are Trichoderma and non-pathogenic Fusarium. This research was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 factors each with 2 treatment levels, resulting in 8 treatment combinations. The results showed that non-pathogenic Fusarium without integrated with other fungi reduced the symptoms of rotten tubers and increased the weight of fresh and weighted tubers. The integration of pathogen and non-pathogen Fusarium, also Trichoderma can reduce the symptoms of base rot.