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Biogenesis
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Core Subject : Agriculture,
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Articles 179 Documents
Fermentasi Etanol dengan Bahan Baku Produk Sakarifikasi Singkong oleh Aspergillus niger dengan Menggunakan Isolat Saccharomyces spp. (NKB dan NKC) Herawati, Titin; Tri Suharni, Theresia
Biogenesis Vol 1, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Nowdays the production of petroleum energy resource decreases in every years. Ethanol is one of renewable source of energy, it can substitution of fosil fuel. Ethanol can be produced from fermentation by Saccharomyces. The raw material of ethanol fermentation is carbohydrate rich organic. Cassava is one of efisien based material for ethanol fermentation because of its attainable price and availability. The objectives of this study were to isolation yeast from coconut neera, and use the isolate as microbial etanol fermentation from cassava. The research was started with isolating yeast from coconut neera, and then how to identified the yeast isolates by morphological and physiological characteristic. Then next process was saccharification the cassava by Aspergillus niger. Product of saccharification added by molasses to obtain 10% and 15% reducing sugar content and subjected for ethanol fermentation. The product of fermentation was analysed for the ethanol concentration by the conway microdiffuse and GCMS methode, Reducing sugar concentration was determined by DNS methode, total yeast was determined by spectroscopy methode and pH was determined by pH meter. The result showed that the isolation from coconut neera get 4 yeast isolate Saccharomyces spp. namely NKA, NKB, NKC, and NKD. The NKB and NKC isolates were choosen as candidate being used for ethanol fermentation process. The process saccharification produced 8,43% of reducing sugar. The result of ethanol fermentation process from the product saccharification of cassava and molasse mixture with content 10 % of reducing sugar were: NKB 4,19% and NKC 5,19 %. Whereas the result ethanol fermentation from the product saccharification of cassava and molasse mixture with content 15 % of reducing sugar were: NKB 6,75% and NKC 6,34 %. Based on this study, it capable concluded that mixed of the product saccharification process by cassava and molasse can be used as raw material fermentation process of ethanol by Saccharomyces spp. isolate NKB and NKC which are to isolate from coconut neera.Keywords: cassava, ethanol fermentation, molasses, saccharification, Saccharomyces spp.
Variasi Genetik Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) Berdasar Penanda Molekuler ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) Puspa Pratiwi, Auronita
Biogenesis Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Attacus atlas is one of potent silk-producing insect and possesses a significant economic value. A. atlas is part of genus Attacus which inhabits in several quite large areas. A.atlas can be found in Sumatera, Java, Borneo, Halmahera Islands, and Papua. Mostly, species which inhabits in wide spread area, has a high level of diversity. Applied studies on Antheraea dan Samia cynthia ricini showed that geographical differences led to genetic variations occurred upon those species. The aim of this research was to study and analyze the genetic variation A. Atlas, which is obtained from multiple sampling locations, ie Berbah, Dlingo, Ngawen, and Pracimantoro, based on ISSR marker. Analysis of genetic variation performed with 4 ISSR primer, ISSR1, ISSR2, ISSR6, and ISSR7 gave forth high genetic variations among individuals of A.atlas by indicating the average polymorphic percentage of all primer of 97,78%. Clustering analysis with unweighted pair group with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method resulted dendrogram that exhibiting similarity values among individuals in range between 61% - 87% and clustered into two main clusters at 61% similarity value. The first cluster consists of samples taken from from Dlingo, Ngawen and Pracimantoro which has elevation above 200 m asl, while the second cluster consists of samples originating from Berbah which has elevation below 200 m asl. Amplification used 4 ISSR primer performed 2 monomorphic loci and 82 polymorphic loci. Monomorphic at 300 bp showed by ISSR2 and at 1800 bp showed by ISSR7 may be a candidate locus identifier species of A. atlas.Keywords: Attacus atlas, genetic variation, PCR-ISSR
Profil Hematologi Tikus (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) Galur Wistar Jantan dan Betina Umur 4, 6, dan 8 Minggu Fitria, Laksmindra; Sarto, Mulyati
Biogenesis Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Animal model is very important in biomedical research. Prior to apply in human or other primates, experiments using lower animals model such as rodents must be conducted (preclicical studies). Wistar rats (Rattus norveg
Pola Hubungan Antara Jumlah Kelahiran Dengan Jumlah Betina dan Pejantan Produktif Pada Ternak Sapi Paly, Basir
Biogenesis Vol 1, No 2 (2013)
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Abstract

This research aims to know the pattern of the relationship between the number of births and the number of males and females productive. Implemented in the Gowa in June-October 2014. Using method of survey through observation and interview. The population of the research was a wholegroup of cattle there. As many as 5 group of cattle has been observed and interviewed. Variables are observed and analyzed are: (1) the number of cattle owned by males and females, (2) the number of births, (3) the number of males and females productive, (4) sales, cut withholding, and cases of death,and (5) number of females productive female rescue. Data analysis was carried out in two categories, descriptive and inferensial. Descriptive analysis using a matrix, tabulate and a chart, while inferential analysis using SPSS and Amos 16 software, then validated with data and information from othersources. The results showed that there are four variables that are directly related to the number of births. Namely: (1) the number of female productive, (2) number of females sold, cut withholding, and death, (3) number of productive female rescue, and (4) the number of male productive. To four variables are also interrelated with one another, but not directly related to the number of births. This powerful relationship patterns indicate that the number of births is very closely related to the number of productive female rescue, and the number of males. While the weak relationship patterns indicate that the number of females sold, cut withholding, and the dead, is not related to the number of births.Keywords: birth, females, males, relationships
Analisis Variasi Genetik Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Kultivar Gama Melon Basket Dengan Metode Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Nur Huda, Ikhsan; Setiadi Daryono, Budi
Biogenesis Vol 1, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars Gama Melon Basket (GMB) is the result of plant breeding that has the potential to be a product of local melon seed in Indonesia. This cultivar phenotype characters was known, but its genetic variation is not further studied. This study aimed to analyze the genetic variation of melon cultivars GMB and compared with 13 commercial melons and four members of the family Cucurbitaceae such as; cucumber, cucumber queen, barteh, and cantaloupe (blewah). RAPD-PCR method with 11 random primer was used to evaluate genetic variation in melon. Level of genetic similarity was determined by the formula simple matching coefficient (SSM) and the dendogram constructed by clustering analysis unweighted pair-group using arithmeticaverages (UPGMA). Results of RAPD-PCR with 11 primer produced 165 loci and it contains 84.85 % polymorphic DNA and 15.15 % monomorphic DNA. Results of genetic variation analysis suggests that 15 commercial melons differ from groups of cucumber, cucumber queen, barteh and cantaloupe(blewah). Cultivars GMB has genetic marker that can be distinguished from other commercial melons. GMB cultivar have specific polymorphic DNA on the size of 285 bp generated by PMAR primer.Keywords: Cucumis melo L., Gama Melon Basket, genetic variation, RAPD
Struktur Histologis Hepar, Intestinum, dan Ren Burung Cerek Jawa (Charadrius javanicus Chasen 1938) Dengan Kontaminasi DDT di Delta Sungai Progo Yogyakarta Puspita Sari, Dewi; Hadisusanto, Suwarno; I, Istriyati
Biogenesis Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
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Abstract

Residues of DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane) in the river environment can get into the Birds body through an intermediary Javan Plover natural feed. Residues of DDT will experience biomagnification and biotransformation in the body organism. The purpose of this research was to determine residue of DDT in the Progo’s mudflat region, several organs of birds, and their impact on liver, intestine, and kidney Javan Plover. This research was located in Progo’s downstream. The method of environment and feed sampling done directly on site. The bird sampling using mist nets. Detection of residues DDT in environment samples by gas chromatography. Measurement of DDT residues in feed and organs of birds with spectrophotometer. Preparation of histological slide from liver, intestine, and kidney using paraffin method (with Hematoxilin & Eosin and Mallory Acid Fuchsin staining). Quantitative Data obtained from the measurement results of environment, feed,and organs of Javan Plover samples. Qualitative data analize by descriptively. The analysis showed DDT residues detected in area’s Progo downstream, natural feed and Javan plover’s organ. Analysis shows chronic effects posed by DDT residue on the histological structure of liver, intestine, and kidney of Javan Plover.Keywords: DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl trichloroethane), histological structure, Javan Plover(Charadrius Javanicus Chasen 1938), Progo’s River
Identifikasi Mutasi Gen β Globin Ekson 1 Pada Pembawa Thalassemia Satuti Nur Handayani, Niken; Tripramudya Onggo, Andika
Biogenesis Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
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Abstract

Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive genetic mutation disorder with symptoms similliar to anemia that causes deficiency synthesis of the globin chains (hemoglobin component inside erythrocytes). Thalassemia is classified based on secondary protein structure abnormalities in α globin protein or β globin protein. Based on data from Indonesian Thalassemia Foundation (YTI) in Indonesia, people with thalassemia, especialy β thalassemia is constantly increasing 8 to 10% per year, so it is very impotant to have a strategy that reduce the increasing number in the population. Genetic examination on the individual is very effective to detect quickly the person with thalassemia trait carrier, to reduce the number of thalassemia carrier population. Identification of 1st exon β globin gene mutations with sequencing method is one of the way to know the specific mutation in thalassemia carriers. Identification results can be used as a reference for the rapid detection of thalassemia trait carrier. This study aims to determine the type of mutation and location of nucleotide mutations in 1st exon β globin gene on carrier of thalassemia and the changes of amino acid translated by the mutant gene. The study was conducted by isolating the genome from the β thalassemia carrier blood, amplifying and sequencing the 1st exon β globin gene. The location of point mutation analysis and the changes of amino acid, was analyzed using computational method by comparative alignment using normal β globin gene as a comparison. The results of the research showed there is a point mutation in the 59th nucleotide caused by transition (T to C) and 147th nucleotide caused by transversion (G to C). The mutation type found on this study was a silent mutation because there is no change in the translated amino acid.Keywords: β globin, exon 1, mutation, thalassemia
Karakterisasi Bakteri Genus Vibrio Dari Ikan Kerapu (Plectropomus sp.) Syarif Hidayat, Ar
Biogenesis Vol 1, No 2 (2013)
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Abstract

This research is about the isolation and characterization Vibrio sp. from grouper fish (Plectropomus sp.). This research aimed to observe the amount of vibrio bacteria species based on colony morphology and characterization morphological colony of vibrio isolated from grouper fish(Plectropomus sp.). Bacteria isolation was conducted by isolate some external organs (lesion on its body) and internal organ (jejenum) from grouper fish (Plectropomus sp.). Bacteria was grown on selective medium for vibrio, TCBS (Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose) agar. The incubation time was 24 hours at 370C. The result showed there are 3 isolate vibrio bacteria that was coded by V1, V2, and V3. V1 morphological characteristis was rounded, edge is entire, convex elevation, green colony colour with blue in the center of colony and smooth tekstur. V2 morphological characteristic was rounded, edge is entire, tortous elevation, colony colour yellow, and smooth tekstur. Morphologicalcharacteristic of V3 was Irregular, egde is Undulate, elevation hill, colony colour yellow and own the smooth tekstur.Keywords: characterization, grouper fish (Plectropomus sp.), isolation, Vibrio
Analisis Kualitas Limbah Cair Pada Kolam Anaerob IV di Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL) PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VII (Persero) Unit Usaha Bekri K, Mahfut
Biogenesis Vol 1, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi UIN Alauddin Makassar

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Abstract

Among the industries in Lampung, PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VII (Persero) Bekri Business Unit is one of the Palm Oil Processing Plant (POPP) industry who spend a lot of waste water in the form of residual organic liquid materials. The rest of the liquid material can cause problems such as pollution so it needed special treatment before the waste water is discharged into the environment. This study was conducted to determine the quality of liquid waste in an anaerobic pool IV on Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) PT. Plantation Nusantara VII (Persero) Business Unit Bekri so it can be determined whether the waste water treatment process can improve the quality of waste water for the better. Waste water quality measurement is done using the parameters of physics,chemistry, and heavy metals, namely pH, COD, BOD5, TSS, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The results showed that the quality of the wastewater in an anaerobic pool IV was good and meets the quality standards of palm oil mill effluent by the State Minister of Environment Resolution No. 03 / MENKLH /11/1991 and the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 20 of 1990 on Water Pollution Control. It also indicates that the effluent treatment system at the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VII (Persero) Bekri Business Unit is very effective.Keywords: anaerobic pool, liquid waste, PTPN VII
Uji Ketahanan Salinitas Beberapa Varietas Jagung (Zea mays L.) Dengan Menggunakan Agen Seleksi NaCl Dachlan, Amirullah; Kasim, Nurlina; Kurnia Sari, A
Biogenesis Vol 1, No 1 (2013)
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Abstract

This study aims to determine the concentration of NaCl which can be used as maize resistance limit to salinity and to obtain varieties that are tolerant to salinity. This research was conducted in the form of an experiment with randomized design factorial using two factors in the group. As the first factor is the variety of Arjuna, Sukmaraga, Bhishma, Gumarang, Heroine Yellow, Pacakka, Anoman-1, and LAMURU. The second factor is the concentration of NaCl with 0 g L-1, 3 g L-1, 4 g L-1, and 5 g L-1. The results showed that the level of resistance of some maize varieties to salinity using NaCl produce varieties that have different resistance levels to high levels of salinity, there are varieties that can withstand the high NaCl concentration and some are only able to survive on a low NaCl concentration. The test results obtained sequentially showed varieties that are resistant to salinity is Pacakka. The concentration of 5 g L-1 NaCl can not be used as a concentration limit for the grouping of maize resistance to salinity.Keywords: Maize (Zea mays L.), NaCl, Salinity

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